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  • Has anyone among you ever been exposed to tear gas?

    在座有人曾經接觸過催淚瓦斯嗎?

  • Tear gas? Anyone?

    催淚瓦斯?有人接觸過嗎?

  • I'm sorry to hear that, so you might know that it's a very toxic substance,

    我很抱歉聽到有人接觸過,如你所知那是種毒性很強的物質,

  • but you might not know that it's a very simple molecule

    但你可能不知道它是一個非常簡單的分子,

  • with an unpronouncable name:

    名字很難唸,

  • it's called chlorobenzalmalononitrile.

    叫做「chlorobenzalmalononitrile 」。

  • I made it.

    我成功了。

  • It's decades old, but it's becoming very trendy among police forces

    它有幾十年歷史,但最近

  • around the planet lately, it seems,

    似乎開始流行於全球的警察機關。

  • and according to my experience as a non-voluntary breather of it,

    以我本人經驗,作為一個非自願的吸入者,

  • tear gas has two main but quite opposite effects.

    催淚瓦斯有兩個非常不同的效果。

  • One, it can really burn your eyes,

    一,它能嚴重灼傷你的眼睛,

  • and two, it can also help you to open them.

    二,它也能讓你睜大眼睛、開拓眼界。

  • Tear gas definitely helped to open mine to something

    催淚瓦斯確實讓我看到一些事情,

  • that I want to share with you this afternoon:

    今天下午我想和你們分享:

  • that livestreaming the power of independent broadcasts through the web

    就是「直播串流」在網路獨立廣播的力量。

  • can be a game-changer in journalism,

    它可以成為改變新聞報導的利器,

  • in activism, and as I see it, in the political discourse as well.

    實踐主義,以我之見,也可用於政治論述。

  • That idea started to dawn on me in early 2011

    這個想法於2011年初開始萌芽,

  • when I was covering a protest in São Paulo.

    那時我在報導聖保羅的抗議活動。

  • It was the marijuana march,

    那是一次關於大麻的遊行,

  • a gathering of people asking for the legalization of cannabis.

    人群聚集起來,要求將大麻合法化。

  • When that group started to move,

    當示威隊伍開始移動時,

  • the riot police came from the back with rubber bullets, bombs,

    鎮暴警察帶著橡膠子彈、炸彈和催淚彈,

  • and then the gas.

    從隊伍後面出現。

  • But to make a long story short,

    長話短說,

  • I had entered that protest as the editor-in-chief

    我參加了那次示威遊行,作為一本

  • of a well-established printed magazine where I'd worked for 11 years,

    知名印刷雜誌的總編,而我已為雜誌社工作了11年。

  • and thanks to this unsolicited effects of tear gas,

    多虧催淚瓦斯帶來的霸道效果,

  • I left it as a journalist that was now committed to new ways

    我離開了那家雜誌社,並以一名記者的身分,

  • of sharing the raw experience of what it's like to be there, actually.

    致力於以新的方式分享我在其中的粗淺經驗。

  • So in the following week, I was back in the streets,

    在後來的一個星期,我回到街頭,

  • but that time, I wasn't a member of any media outlet anymore.

    但這次,我不再是任何傳媒機構的一員。

  • I was there as an independent livestreamer, and all I had with me

    而是一個獨立的現場流式傳播者,

  • was basically borrowed equipment.

    身上帶的設備全是借來的。

  • I had a very simple camera and a backpack with 3G modems.

    我有一個簡單的攝像機,一個裝著3G數據機的背包,

  • And I had this weblink that could be shared through social media,

    還有一個可以分享到社群網站的網路連結,

  • could be put in any website,

    這個網路連結可以放入任何網站。

  • and that time, the protest went along fine.

    那時,示威進行得相當不錯,

  • There was no violence.

    沒有暴力、

  • There was no action scenes.

    沒有動作場面。

  • But there was something really exciting,

    但還是有些令人興奮的事情。

  • because I could see at a distance the TV channels covering it,

    我看到遠處有一些電視臺在做報導,

  • and they had these big vans and the teams and the cameras,

    他們有很大的轉播車、採訪隊和許多攝像機。

  • and I was basically doing the same thing

    我基本上和他們做的是一樣的,

  • and all I had was a backpack.

    而我有的只是一個背包。

  • And that was really exciting to a journalist,

    對新聞記者來說那是真的很令人興奮。

  • but the most interesting part was when I got back home, actually,

    實際上,但是最有趣的是當我回到家,

  • because I learned that I had been watched

    我聽說有

  • by more than 90,000 people,

    9萬多人看了我的報導。

  • and I got hundreds of emails and messages of people asking me, basically,

    我收到數百封的電郵和短訊,許多人問我,

  • how did I do it,

    我是怎麼做的,

  • how it was possible to do such a thing.

    我如何能夠做這樣一件事。

  • And I learned something else, that that was actually the first time

    我也得知,那是第一次

  • that somebody had ever done a livestreaming in a street protest

    有人為一個街頭示威做「現場流式傳播」,

  • in the country.

    在這個國家里是第一次。

  • And that really shocked me,

    那令我非常驚訝,

  • because I was no geek, I was no technology guy,

    因為我不是極客,也不是科技宅,

  • and all the equipment needed was already there,

    所有需要的設備就是那些,

  • was easily available.

    幾乎隨手可得。

  • And I realized that we had a frontier here,

    然後我意識到,這裡有一個待開發的領域。

  • a very important one,

    一個很重要的領域,

  • that it was just a matter of changing the perspective,

    而那只是改變視野而已。

  • and the web could be actually used,

    網路真正可以,

  • already used, as a colossal and uncontrollable

    也已經被用來作為一個巨大的,

  • and highly anarchical TV channel, TV network,

    且無法控制的電視頻道和電視網,

  • and anyone with very basic skills and very basic equipment,

    任何有基本技能和基本設備的人,

  • even someone like me who had this little stuttering issue,

    甚至像我有輕微口吃的人。

  • so if it happens, bear with me please,

    如果有磕巴的地方請多包涵。

  • even someone like me could become a broadcaster.

    甚至像我這樣的人都能成為一個傳播者。

  • And that sounded revolutionary in my mind.

    在我心裏那聽起來很具革命性。

  • So for the next couple of years,

    在接下來的幾年,

  • I started to experiment with livestreaming in different ways,

    我開始實驗用不同的方式做即時流式傳播,

  • not only in the streets but mostly in studios and in homes,

    不只是在街上,而是大多在工作室內和房子裏,

  • until the beginning of 2013, last year,

    直到去年,2013年初,

  • when I became the cofounder of a group calleddia NINJA.

    我成為一個叫做「媒體隱者」(Mídia NINJA) 的團體的共同創辦人。

  • NINJA is an acronym

    NINJA 是縮寫,

  • that stands for Narrativas Independentes Jornalismo e Ação,

    代表(葡萄牙文)Narrativas Independentes Jornalismo e Ação。

  • or in English, independent narratives, journalism, and action.

    英文的意思是獨立敘事、新聞報導、和行動。

  • It was a media group that had little media plan.

    那是一個沒有媒體計劃的媒體團體。

  • We didn't have any financial structure.

    我們沒有任何財政結構。

  • We were not planning to make money out of this,

    我們沒有計劃要以此賺錢,

  • which was wise, because you shouldn't try to make money out of journalism now.

    因為你不應嘗試從新聞報導獲利,所以那是明智之舉。

  • But we had a very solid and clear conviction,

    但是我們有非常堅定和清楚的信念,

  • that we knew that the hyperconnected environment of social media

    我們知道社會媒體的超級連結,

  • could maybe allow us to consolidate

    可能容許我們鞏固成一個

  • a network of experimental journalists throughout the country.

    遍及全國的一個實驗性的新聞記者的廣播網。

  • So we launched a Facebook page first, and then a manifesto,

    因此我們就先開始了一個臉書網頁,然後一個宣言,

  • and started to cover the streets in a very simple way.

    然後以一個非常簡單的方式,從街道開始報導。

  • But then something happened, something that wasn't predicted,

    然而,我們沒預料的事情發生了,

  • that no one could have anticipated.

    沒人曾預想到的。

  • Street protests started to erupt in São Paulo.

    聖保羅的街道上的示威者開始爆發。

  • They began as very local and specific.

    開始時是小小的和一些特定的範圍的。

  • They were against the bus fare hike that had just happened in the city.

    他們反對那時剛開始實施的市區公車票漲價。

  • This is a bus.

    那是一輛公車。

  • It's written there, "Theft."

    上面寫著「偷盜」。

  • But those kind of manifestations started to grow,

    但是那類的示威開始擴大,

  • and they kept happening.

    且不斷在發生。

  • So the police violence against them started to grow as well.

    警察對他們的暴力鎮壓也開始增強。

  • But there was another conflict,

    但是又有另一個衝突,

  • the one I believe that's more important here

    這個我相信對於強調我的觀點,

  • to make my point that it was a narrative conflict.

    是更重要的。那是一個敘事觀點的衝突。

  • There was this mainstream media version of the facts

    那時主流媒體對這些事件的版本是,

  • that anyone who was on the streets could easily challenge

    任何一個街上的人可以挑戰的。

  • if they presented their own vision of what was actually happening there.

    他們代表他們自己對於那裏正在發生的事情的版本。

  • And it was this clash of visions, this clash of narratives,

    而正是這些互相抵觸的版本,和互相抵觸的敘事觀點,

  • that I think turned those protests

    將那些示威轉化成,

  • into a long period in the country of political reckoning

    這個國家的長期的政治醞釀。

  • where hundreds of thousands of people,

    那時數十萬人,

  • probably more than a million people

    甚至可能一百多萬人,

  • took to the streets in the whole country.

    在全國各地走上街頭。

  • But it wasn't about the bus fare hike anymore.

    那時已經不只是關於公車票的漲價。

  • It was about everything.

    而是對所有事情的示威。

  • The people's demands, their expectations,

    大家的要求,大家的期待,

  • the reasons why they were on the streets

    他們走上街頭的理由,

  • could be as diverse as they could be contradictory in many cases.

    各自不同,甚至互相矛盾。

  • If you could read it, you would understand me.

    你們若是讀的懂,你們就會了解我。

  • But it was in this environment of political catharsis

    但就在這個警察清除示威者的環境裏,

  • that the country was going through

    在這個國家正在發生的,

  • that it had to do with politics, indeed,

    肯定與政治有關。

  • but it had to do also with a new way of organizing,

    但也因為新的組織的方式,

  • through a new way of communicating.

    一種溝通的新方式。

  • It was in that environment thatdia NINJA emerged

    「媒體隱者」就在那個環境裏出現了。

  • from almost anonymity to become a national phenomenon,

    從幾乎沒沒無名,成為一個國家現象,

  • because we did have the right equipment.

    主要是因為我們有對的設備。

  • We are not using big cameras.

    我們沒有大照相機。

  • We are using basically this.

    我們基本上只用這個。

  • We are using smartphones.

    我們使用智慧手機。

  • And that, actually, allowed us to become invisible in the middle of the protests,

    那些實際上讓我們在示威者中成為隱形,

  • but it allowed us to do something else:

    它使我們做不同的事:

  • to show what it was like to be in the protests,

    透過展現在示威者中的樣子,

  • to present to people at home a subjective perspective.

    向在家觀看的人們呈現一個主觀的觀點。

  • But there was something that is more important,

    但更重要的是,

  • I think, than the equipment.

    我想,比設備更重要的,

  • It was our mindset,

    是我們的心態,

  • because we are not behaving as a media outlet.

    因為我們不代表媒體機構。

  • We are not competing for news.

    我們不是在為新聞競爭。

  • We are trying to encourage people,

    我們嘗試鼓勵大家,

  • to invite people, and to actually teach people

    邀請大家,事實上,也教導大家。

  • how to do this, how they also could become broadcasters.

    教他們如何做同樣的事,也可以成為傳播者。

  • And that was crucial to turndia NINJA from a small group of people,

    關鍵的是對於將「媒體隱者」從少數人的團體,

  • and in a matter of weeks,

    在數週內,

  • we multiplied and we grew exponentially throughout the country.

    我們倍增,我們在國內以指數的倍數成長。

  • So in a matter of a week or two, as the protests kept happening,

    在以兩週內,當示威不斷的在發生。

  • we were hundreds of young people

    我們數百個年輕人,

  • connected in this network throughout the country.

    在全國各地以這個網路連接在一起。

  • We were covering more than 50 cities at the same time.

    我們同時報導五十多個城市。

  • That's something that no TV channel could ever do.

    那時沒有任何電視頻道可能做到的。

  • That was responsible for turning us suddenly, actually,

    實際上,那是我們突然

  • into kind of the mainstream media of social media.

    成為類似主流的主因。

  • So we had a couple of thousands of followers on our Facebook page,

    在我們的臉書從約有兩千多的追隨者,

  • and soon we had a quarter of a million followers.

    很快地成長到二十五萬追隨者。

  • Our posts and our videos

    我們的帖子和我們的影片,

  • were being seen by more than 11 million timelines a week.

    一週被一千一百萬人所觀看。

  • It was way more than any newspaper or any magazine could ever do.

    那是比觀看任何報章雜誌的人超出太多。

  • And that turneddia NINJA into something else,

    那使「媒體隱者」

  • more than a media outlet, than a media project.

    超越媒體機構或任何媒體專案。

  • It became almost like a public service

    它幾乎成為像一個

  • to the citizen, to the protester,

    為市民、為示威者、

  • to the activist,

    為行動主義者的公共服務。

  • because they had a very simple and efficient and peaceful tool

    因為他們有一個簡單、有效率且和平的工具,

  • to confront both police and media authority.

    來對抗警察和媒體權威。

  • Many of our images started to be used in regular TV channels.

    許多我們的影像開始被一般電視頻道所採用。

  • Our livestreams started to be broadcast even in regular televisions

    當整個事件開始變得非常暴力,

  • when things got really rough.

    我們的現場流式傳播甚至開始被一般電視廣播。

  • Some our images were responsible to take some people out of jail,

    因為一些我們的影像讓一些人得以從監牢釋放出來,

  • people who were being arrested unfairly

    許多人以無理的舉控,

  • under false accusations, and we could prove them innocent.

    被不公平的逮捕,我們證明他們的清白。

  • And that also turneddia NINJA very soon

    很不幸的,那使「媒體隱者」很快的

  • in kind of to be seen as almost an enemy of cops, unfortunately,

    幾乎被視為警察的敵人。

  • and we started to be severely beaten, and eventually arrested on the streets.

    我們開始嚴重的被打,最後在街上被逮捕。

  • It happened in many cases.

    有許多那樣的案例發生。

  • But that was also useful, because we were still at the web,

    但那也很有用,因為我們仍然在網路上,

  • so that helped to trigger an important debate in the country

    以至於有助於導致在國內

  • on the role of the media itself

    關於媒體的角色,

  • and the state of the freedom of the press in the country.

    以及媒體自由的現狀一個重要的辯論。

  • Sodia NINJA now evolved

    那時「媒體隱者」又更發展了,

  • and finally consolidated itself in what we hoped it would become:

    最後自己鞏固成我們原來所希望成為的,

  • a national network of hundreds of young people,

    一個全國性的數百個年輕人的網絡。

  • self-organizing themselves locally

    他們在各地自行組織,

  • to cover social, human rights issues,

    報導社會的、人權的話題。

  • and expressing themselves not only politically

    以及表達他們自己對政治、

  • but journalistically.

    和新聞報導的立場。

  • What I started to do in the beginning of this year,

    因為「媒體隱者」已是一個自我組織的網路,

  • asdia NINJA is already a self-organizing network,

    我在今年初開始,

  • I'm dedicating myself to another project.

    致力於另一個專案。

  • It's called Fluxo, which is Portuguese for "stream."

    名為「富拉索」(Fluxo),那是「流」的葡萄牙文。

  • It's a journalism studio in São Paulo downtown,

    那是位於聖保羅市中心的一個新聞報導的工作室。

  • where I used livestream to experiment

    我以現場流式傳播實驗,

  • with what I call post-television formats.

    我名之為「電視後格式」。

  • But I'm also trying to come up with ways to finance independent journalism

    我也要嘗試要籌錢來資助獨立新聞報導,

  • through a direct relationship with an audience,

    透過一種與聽眾的直接關係,

  • with an active audience,

    與那些主動的聽眾。

  • because now I really want to try to make a living

    因為現在我真的想要,

  • out of my tear gas resolution back then.

    藉著我以前因催淚瓦斯下的決心賺錢生活。

  • But there's something more significant here,

    但還有更重要的事情,

  • something that I believe is more important and more crucial than my personal example.

    我相信是比我個人的例子更重要和更決定性的。

  • I said that livestream could turn the web into a colossal TV network,

    我說過,現場流式傳播可能將網路變成巨大的電視網絡。

  • but I believe it does something else,

    但我相信它也有其他作用。

  • because after watching people using it,

    因為看了其他人使用它以後,

  • not only to cover things but to express, to organize themselves politically,

    他們不只是報導,也表達和政治性地將自己組織起來。

  • I believe livestream can turn cyberspace into a global political arena

    我相信「現場流式傳播」可以將電子世界轉化成一個世界政治場所。

  • where everyone might have a voice,

    藉著它,每一個人可以表達自己,

  • a proper voice,

    以適當的聲音表達。

  • because livestream takes the monopoly of the broadcast political discourse,

    因為「現場流式傳播」將廣播政治演講、

  • of the verbal aspect of the political dialogue

    語言方面、和政治對話的壟斷,

  • out of the mouths of just politicians and political pundits alone,

    從政客與政治權威的嘴裡拿出來。

  • and it empowers the citizen through this direct and non-mediated power

    它透過這種直接、沒有中間者的力量,

  • of exchanging experiences and dialogue,

    經由相互交換經驗和對話,

  • empowers them to question and to influence authorities

    以我們將要看到的方法,

  • in ways in which we are about to see.

    讓他們可以對權威質疑和影響權威。

  • And I believe it does something else that might be even more important,

    我相信它有其他可能更重要的作用,

  • that the simplicity of the technology can merge objectivity and subjectivity

    科技的簡單,以我所見,可以融合政治的

  • in a very political way, as I see it,

    主觀和客觀,

  • because it really helps the audience,

    因為它真正幫助聽眾,

  • the citizen, to see the world through somebody else's eye,

    公民們,透過別人的眼睛看到世界,

  • so it helps the citizen to put him- or herself

    它也幫助公民們對他人

  • in other people's place.

    產生同理心。

  • And that idea, I think, should be the intention,

    我認為那個想法應該是目的,

  • should be the goal of any good journalism, any good activism,

    應該是任何好的的新聞報導和好的實踐主義的目標,

  • but most of all, any good politics.

    但最重要的,任何好的政治。

  • Thank you very much. It was an honor.

    非常感謝。 這是我的榮幸。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Has anyone among you ever been exposed to tear gas?

在座有人曾經接觸過催淚瓦斯嗎?

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B1 中級 中文 TED 媒體 報導 催淚瓦斯 傳播 新聞

【TED】布魯諾·托圖拉: 有智慧型手機嗎?那開始直播吧 (Bruno Torturra: Got a smartphone? Start broadcasting)

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    CUChou 發佈於 2015 年 06 月 16 日
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