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  • Have you ever been in an argument about nuclear power?

    你是否曾經與他人議論與核能有關的話題呢?

  • We have, and we found it frustrating and confusing,

    我們有,而我們發現這令人挫折且困惑

  • so let’s try and get to grips with this topic.

    所以讓我們嘗試並理解這個主題

  • It all started in the 1940s.

    所有的一切起源於1940年代

  • After the shock and horror of the war and the use of the atomic bomb,

    在戰爭的恐怖及原子彈的衝擊之後

  • nuclear energy promised to be a peaceful spin-off of the new technology,

    核能被承諾將會成為和平的新科技

  • helping the world get back on its feet.

    用以幫助世界步回正途

  • Everyone’s imagination was running wild.

    每個人都讓他們的想像利自由馳騁

  • Would electricity become free?

    將能免費產生電力嗎?

  • Could nuclear power help settle the Antarctic?

    核能能使南極適於人居嗎?

  • Would there be nuclear-powered cars, planes, or houses?

    將會出現以核能作為動力的汽車、飛機或是房子嗎?

  • It seemed that this was just a few years of hard work away.

    這些看似只再差幾年的努力而已了

  • One thing was certain: the future was atomic.

    其中一件事是無庸置疑的:未來將是原子的時代

  • Just a few years later, there was a sort of atomic age hangover;

    短短幾年後,原子世代的問題浮現

  • as it turned out, nuclear power was very complicated and very expensive.

    事實證明,核能過於繁複且昂貴

  • Turning physics into engineering was easy on paper,

    在紙上討論如何把物理應用在工程學上很容易

  • but hard in real life.

    但是在現實中則不然

  • Also, private companies thought that nuclear power was much too risky

    除此之外,私有公司皆認為核能具有高風險

  • as an investment; most of them would much rather stick with gas, coal, and oil.

    以投資的層面來講,他們大多數更加願意使用天然氣、煤炭和石油

  • But there were many people who didn’t just want to abandon

    但是仍然有許多人不願意就這麼放棄

  • the promise of the atomic age; an exciting new technology,

    放棄原子世代的承諾,放棄令人興奮的新科技

  • the prospect of enormously cheap electricity,

    大量廉價電力的大好美景

  • the prospect of being independent of oil and gas imports,

    不再依賴石油及天然氣進口的前景

  • and, in some cases, a secret desire to possess atomic weapons

    以及,因某些原因而對原子武器產生的渴望

  • provided a strong motivation to keep going.

    提供了繼續前進的強大動力

  • Nuclear power’s finest hour finally came in the early 1970s, when

    因為中東戰爭而導致全球油價飛漲

  • war in the Middle East caused oil prices to skyrocket worldwide.

    核能的巔峰終於在1970年代時到來了

  • Now, commercial interest and investment picked up at a dazzling pace.

    而現在,商業興趣與投資以令人眩目的步調

  • More than half of all the nuclear reactors in the world were built

    在1970年與1985年間興建了目前世界上大多的核子反應爐

  • between 1970 and 1985.

    在1970年與1985年間興建了目前世界上大多的核子反應爐

  • But which type of reactor to build, given how many different types

    但是該選擇何種建造,又有多少種類可供選擇?

  • there were to choose from?

    但是該選擇何種建造,又有多少種類可供選擇?

  • A surprising underdog candidate won the day:

    一個不被看好的候選人令人驚訝地勝出了

  • the light water reactor.

    輕水反應爐

  • It wasn’t very innovative, and it wasn’t too popular with scientists,

    它既不創新也不受科學家所推崇

  • but it had some decisive advantages:

    但是它有些決定性的優點

  • it was there, it worked, and it wasn’t terribly expensive.

    它早已存在、它能運作,而且它並不會貴得驚人

  • So, what does a light water reactor do?

    那麼,一座輕水反應爐是在做些什麼呢?

  • Well, the basic principle is shockingly simple:

    嗯...它的基本運作原理驚人的簡單

  • it heats up water using an artificial chain reaction.

    它利用人工連鎖反應加熱水

  • Nuclear fission releases several million times more energy

    核分裂釋放出多過數百萬倍的能量

  • than any chemical reaction could.

    超過任何化學反應所能做到的

  • Really heavy elements on the brink of stability, like uranium-235,

    非常不穩定的超重金屬,如鈾-235

  • get bombarded with neutrons.

    被中子撞擊

  • The neutron is absorbed, but the result is unstable.

    中子被吸收的結果,導致了不穩定

  • Most of the time, it immediately splits into fast-moving lighter elements,

    大多數的時間,它會快速分裂成較輕的元素

  • some additional free neutrons, and energy in the form of radiation.

    一些額外的自由中子,且以輻射的形式釋放出能量

  • The radiation heats the surrounding water, while the neutrons repeat the process

    輻射會加熱周遭的水,而中子則不斷和其它原子重複這個反應

  • with other atoms, releasing more neutrons and radiation

    放出更多的輻射和中子

  • in a closely controlled chain reaction, very different from the fast, destructive

    在一個受嚴密監控的反應下,這和原子彈快速且破壞力大的失控反應截然不同

  • runaway reaction in an atomic bomb.

    在一個受嚴密監控的反應下,這和原子彈快速且破壞力大的失控反應截然不同

  • In our light water reactor, a moderator is needed to control the neutronsenergy.

    在我們的輕水反應爐中,需要一個調節器控制中子的能量

  • Simple, ordinary water does the job, which is very practical, since water’s used

    平凡又簡單的水非常的實用,因為水也能被用來推動渦輪

  • to drive the turbines anyway.

    平凡又簡單的水非常的實用,因為水也能被用來推動渦輪

  • The light water reactor became prevalent because it’s simple and cheap.

    輕水反應爐變得十分廣泛,因為它既簡單又便宜

  • However, it’s neither the safest, most efficient, nor technically elegant

    然而,它並非最安全、最有效率、最有技術品質的核能反應爐

  • nuclear reactor.

    然而,它並非最安全、最有效率、最有技術品質的核能反應爐

  • The renewed nuclear hype lasted barely a decade, though;

    而對核能復興的炒作僅持續了20年

  • in 1979, the Three Mile Island nuclear plant in Pennsylvania

    1979年,賓州三哩島核電廠

  • barely escaped a catastrophe when its core melted.

    勉強從一場爐心溶解的災難中逃脫

  • In 1986, the Chernobyl catastrophe directly threatened Central Europe

    1986年,車諾比的災難用蕈狀雲直接震撼了中歐

  • with a radioactive cloud, and in 2011 the drawn-out Fukushima disaster

    而2011年的福島核災引起了新一波的關注討論

  • sparked new discussions and concerns.

    而2011年的福島核災引起了新一波的關注討論

  • While in the 1980s 218 new nuclear power reactors went live,

    當1980年代218個新核能發電廠啟用時

  • their number and nuclear’s global share of electricity production has stagnated

    它們的數量和產電量就一直停滯不前,直到80年代末

  • since the end of the ’80s.

    它們的數量和產電量就一直停滯不前,直到80年代末

  • So what’s the situation today?

    那麼,現在的處境如何呢?

  • Today, nuclear energy meets around 10% of the world’s energy demand.

    今天,核能佔了世界能源中的10%

  • There are about 439 nuclear reactors in 31 countries.

    有439座核電廠分布在31個國家

  • About 70 new reactors are under construction in 2015,

    2015年大約有70座新核電廠施工中

  • most of them in countries which are growing quickly.

    它們所處的國家,大多發展迅速

  • All in all, 116 new reactors are planned worldwide.

    總而言之,世界上有116座新核電廠在計畫中

  • Most nuclear reactors were built more than 25 years ago with pretty old technology.

    大多數的核電廠使用25年前的老技術

  • More than 80% are various types of light water reactor.

    有80%以上的各式輕水反應爐

  • Today, many countries are faced with a choice: the expensive replacement of

    今天,許多國家面臨著一個選擇,更換老舊的反應爐

  • the aging reactors, possibly with more efficient, but less tested models,

    換成可能較有效率,但未曾受試的新反應爐

  • or a move away from nuclear power towards newer or older technology

    或是擺脫核能,轉而尋求更新貨更舊的技術

  • with different cost and environmental impacts.

    其中對花費及環境的衝擊也不同

  • So, should we use nuclear energy?

    那麼,我們應該繼續使用核能嗎?

  • The pro and contra arguments will be presented here next week.

    下周我們將展示知恥與反對方的意見

  • Subscribe, and then you won’t miss it!

    訂閱吧!那你就不會錯過了!!

  • Our channel has a new sponsor: Audible.com.

    00:04:47,475 --> 00:04:50,563

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    00:04:50,563 --> 00:04:53,916

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    00:04:54,106 --> 00:04:58,927

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    00:04:58,927 --> 00:05:00,216

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    00:05:00,216 --> 00:05:02,234

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    00:05:02,234 --> 00:05:04,321

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    00:05:04,321 --> 00:05:07,924

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    00:05:08,224 --> 00:05:11,690

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    00:05:12,002 --> 00:05:15,799

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    00:05:15,817 --> 00:05:18,000

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

Have you ever been in an argument about nuclear power?

你是否曾經與他人議論與核能有關的話題呢?

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 核能 反應爐 中子 核電廠 原子 原子彈

核能源是如何運作的? Nuclear Energy Explained:How does it work? 1/3

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    Derek 發佈於 2015 年 05 月 24 日
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