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  • Every day we engage in a behavior that is completely contrary

    我們每天都在做一件

  • to how we would optimally function.

    與人類理想生活方式悖離的事

  • And I'm not talking about a modern technological practice

    我不是指現代科技影響下的行為

  • such as posting embarrassing snapshots of one's unsuspecting partner on Facebook.

    像是偷拍朋友的丟臉照放上臉書

  • I'm talking about an integral human behavior.

    我指的是人類不可或缺的行為

  • I'm talking about a deeply intimate behavior.

    很私密的個人行為

  • Every day we engage in a behavior that requires us

    這件我們每天都在做的事

  • to distort our thoughts, numb our feelings

    扭曲我們的思想、麻木我們的情感

  • and act against our core values,

    使我們悖離核心價值

  • and which enables a global atrocity

    並掀起全球暴行

  • that can make even the most stoic of us weep in sorrow.

    令情感淡薄之人為此悲傷哭泣

  • And every day we could choose not to engage in this behavior,

    而我們能停止做這件事

  • except we don't realize that it's irrational.

    除非我們不了解其不合理

  • We don't see that it's destructive and we don't even know we have a choice.

    我們不明白其破壞性 甚至不知道能有所選擇

  • How can some of the most frequent and important choices we make,

    這是人類所面臨 最頻繁也最重要的決定之一

  • appear not to be choices at all?

    我們怎麼會毫無選擇?

  • How can the irrationality and destruction of a widespread behavior

    這麼普遍的行為 當中的不合理及破壞性

  • be virtually invisible?

    我們怎麼會覺察不到?

  • These are the questions I asked when I began my nearly two decades of research

    我研究食肉心理學近20年

  • on the psychology of eating animals.

    這些是我當初的疑問

  • And what I discovered was not at all what I had expected.

    然而事實跟我想像的全然不同

  • As it turns out, there's a distinct underlying factor

    事實上,有個明顯的潛在因素

  • that both drives our behavior and prevents us

    催化我們行為的同時

  • from recognizing its irrationality and the destruction it causes.

    也阻礙我們認清 這項行為的不合理和破壞性

  • I identified and codified this factor

    我在研究中歸納出原因

  • and I'm here to share my findings with you.

    今天在這裡與大家分享

  • And the good news is that simply becoming aware of this factor

    好消息是只要意識到這項因素

  • enables us to reclaim our rationality and freedom of choice

    就能使我們回歸理性與選擇自由

  • and become more active participants in creating a humane and just world.

    主動創造人道與正義的世界

  • My journey of discovery began in 1968,

    我的啟蒙之旅始於1968年

  • 25 years before I set foot in my first Harvard lecture.

    早在我在哈佛教第一堂課的25年前

  • And nearly fifty years before

    和致力於全球非暴力運動

  • I received the Ahimsa Award at the British House of Commons

    而獲得英國下議院和平獎的50年前

  • for my work on global non-violence.

    就已經開始

  • I'm 48. Thank you.

    如今我48歲 謝謝!

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • My family adopted a puppy we named Fritz.

    我家以前領養了一隻狗,叫弗里茨

  • Now, Fritz was my first dog and he was also my first friend.

    牠是我養的第一隻狗 也是我第一個朋友

  • We did everything together.

    我們做什麼事都在一起

  • We played together. We napped together.

    一起玩、一起睡覺

  • And we even vomited together once during a sickening road trip.

    我們甚至曾在長途旅程中 一起嘔吐

  • And Fritz was also my first heartbreak

    牠也讓我體會到第一次心碎

  • when he died at the age of 13 of liver cancer.

    在我13歲時牠死於肝癌

  • What I didn't realize back then was that my connection with Fritz

    當時我不知道 我與弗里茲的感情

  • would lead to a discovery that would transform my worldview.

    會促使我從事研究 並改變我對世界的看法

  • So I cared about Fritz and I'm not unique.

    我在乎弗里茨,但我不是特例

  • Most of us care about animals.

    大多數人都關心動物

  • We teach our children to be kind to animals.

    我們教導孩子要愛護動物

  • Our hearts leap when we witness them at play.

    看到動物玩耍我們感到雀躍

  • We recognize the injustice and feel outraged when they are abused.

    看到動物受虐待 我們感到不平並為之憤怒

  • We empathize with animals.

    我們同情動物

  • We share their fear, their joy, their sorrow.

    對牠們的害怕、喜悅和傷悲感同身受

  • And how many of you have cared about a certain animal in your life?

    有多少人在生命中 曾經在乎過某隻動物?

  • Just raise your hand.

    請舉手

  • Now look around the room.

    現在環顧四周

  • That's a whole lot of caring.

    這可是滿滿的關愛

  • So to explain how my connection with my dog

    為了說明弗里茨跟我的感情

  • led me to this stage, I'd like to do a thought experiment.

    如何帶領我站上這講台 我想做一個思想實驗

  • Imagine that you're a guest at a dinner party

    想像你參加一場晚宴

  • and your host serves you a dish that looks like this.

    主人提供你這樣的菜色

  • Consider whether you find this delicious or disgusting.

    想想你會覺得美味還是噁心

  • For those who would find it delicious,

    那些覺得美味的人

  • imagine you find it so delicious that you ask your host for the recipe.

    想像一下你覺得太好吃 所以跟聚會主人要了食譜

  • And she replies the secret is in the meat.

    她說美味的秘訣在於肉本身

  • You use three pounds of well-seasoned -

    你得使用1.3公斤黃金獵犬的肉

  • Golden Retriever.

    加以適當調味

  • Now take a moment to reflect on your thoughts and feelings.

    現在花點時間注意你的想法與感受

  • Chances are, what you had just thought of as food,

    可能你剛剛認為的食物

  • you now think of as a dead animal.

    現在變成死去的動物

  • What you just felt was delicious, you now feel is disgusting.

    剛剛感受到的美味 現在只剩下噁心

  • Chances are, your experience of the meat dramatically changed.

    你對這塊肉的觀感很可能徹底改變

  • Even though nothing about the meat itself actually changed.

    即使它實質上沒有變化

  • So what changed?

    那是什麼改變了?

  • Well, what changed is your perception of the meat.

    改變的是你對肉的認知

  • When it comes to eating animals our perception is shaped

    說到肉食性

  • largely, if not entirely, by our culture.

    我們的認知往往由文化形塑

  • In meat-eating cultures around the world,

    全球肉食性文化中的

  • out of over seven million animal species,

    七百多萬種動物裡

  • people tend to classify only a handful as edible.

    人類只食用其中少部分

  • All the rest are inedible and disgusting.

    其他的都不可食用且令人噁心

  • So the question is, why are we not disgusted

    問題是那些歸類為可食的動物

  • by the select species we have learned to think of as edible?

    為什麼我們不覺得噁心?

  • And why don't we ever ask why?

    為什麼我們甚至不問為什麼?

  • Have you ever wondered why you might eat certain animals but not others?

    你可曾想過為何你只吃特定某些動物?

  • Have you ever wondered why you haven't wondered?

    你可曾想過為何自己不覺得奇怪?

  • For much of my life I never wondered about my choice to eat certain animals

    在我大半生中,我都沒想過這些

  • because I never even knew I had a choice.

    因為我不知道我有選擇

  • No one had ever asked me if I believed in eating animals.

    也沒人問過我是否信服於吃肉

  • Eating animals was just a given.

    吃肉與生俱來

  • So, I never thought about how strange it was

    所以我從來沒去想

  • that I could pet my dog with one hand, while I ate a pork chop with the other.

    我一邊逗弄小狗一邊吃豬排 是多麼奇怪的事

  • A pork chop that had once been an animal

    一塊豬排也曾經是動物

  • who was at least as sentient and intelligent as my dog.

    牠們的情感跟智力 至少跟我的狗一樣

  • And frankly I didn't want to think about this contradiction;

    坦白說我不想去思考這樣的矛盾

  • it was just easier not to.

    不去想比較容易

  • It wasn't until 1989 that I started asking why.

    一直到1989年我開始尋求答案

  • I had been hospitalized after eating what would be my very last hamburger.

    就在我吃了人生中最後一個漢堡 而住進醫院之後

  • A burger that was contaminated with the dangerous bacteria Campylobacter.

    這塊漢堡肉嚴重受到曲狀桿菌感染

  • After being so sick I swore off meat.

    大病一場後我發誓再也不吃肉

  • And then something interesting happened.

    接著有趣的事發生了

  • When I stopped eating animals I had a paradigm shift.

    當我停止吃肉,我產生了思想變遷

  • In other words, I didn't see different things,

    也就是說,我看到的東西沒變

  • I saw the same things differently.

    但我看待他們的方式改變了

  • Beef stew seemed no different than golden retriever stew.

    燉牛肉跟燉黃金獵犬沒有兩樣

  • And everywhere I turned I saw people putting the bodies of dead animals

    我到處看見人們若無其事地

  • into their mouth as though nothing at all were wrong.

    將動物屍體放入口中

  • So I became very curious as to how rational caring people, like myself,

    我難以理解
像我一樣 有理智、有愛心的人

  • could just stop thinking and feeling.

    怎麼會這樣停止思考和感受

  • Well, two advanced degrees later, I had my answer.

    在我取得另外兩個學位後,我有了答案

  • And this is what I discovered:

    我發現

  • There is an invisible belief system or ideology

    有股無形的信念或意識形態

  • that conditions us to eat certain animals.

    制約我們吃某些動物

  • And I named the system: Carnism.

    我稱之為「肉食主義」

  • We tend to assume that only vegans and vegetarians follow a belief system.

    我們以為只有素食者才有這樣的信念

  • But when eating animals is not a necessity

    然而當吃肉不是必須

  • - which is the case in much of the world today -

    這在現今多數國家是成立的

  • then it is a choice.

    那麼我們就有選擇

  • And choices always stem from beliefs.

    選擇往往來自於信念

  • Now carnism is a dominant ideology.

    如今肉食主義成為主流意識

  • Meaning that it's so widespread,

    意味著它太過普遍

  • its doctrine is seen as a given rather than a choice.

    以致於其學說被奉為圭臬,而非選擇

  • Eating animals is just the way things are.

    所以我們自然而然地吃肉

  • And it is a violent ideology.

    但這是暴力意識

  • Meat cannot be procured without violence.

    暴行是取得肉品必經之路

  • And egg and dairy production cause extensive harm to animals.

    生產蛋奶製品對動物造成巨大傷害

  • Ideologies such as carnism run counter to core human values.

    肉食主義從邊緣走向人類的核心價值

  • Values such as compassion, justice and authenticity.

    如同憐憫、正義與真誠

  • And so they need to use defense mechanisms

    因此人類啟動防禦機制

  • that distort our thoughts and numb our feelings

    來扭曲我們的思想、麻木我們的情感

  • so that we act against our values without fully realizing what we are doing.

    如此我們才能昧著良心背道而馳

  • Now, the main defense of carnism is denial,

    肉食主義的主要防禦機制是否認

  • which is expressed largely through invisibility.

    而否認大多源於視而不見

  • The ideology itself is invisible

    意識形態生而無形

  • and so are its victims.

    其受害者也被視而不見

  • For instance, 1.2 billion farmed animals are slaughtered globally every week.

    舉例來說
 全世界每週有12億隻農場動物被屠宰

  • So in one week more farmed animals are killed

    動物一週被殺害的數量

  • than the total number of people killed in all wars throughout history.

    遠多於人類戰爭史上的總死亡人數

  • But how many of these animals have you seen?

    但是你們可曾見過這些動物?

  • Where are they?

    牠們在哪裡?

  • Approximately 98 percent of the meat, eggs and dairy we eat

    大約有98%的肉品、蛋奶製品

  • comes from animals who were raised in factory farms.

    來自於豢養在農場中的動物

  • Windowless sheds in remote locations

    處在偏遠地區不見天日的柵欄裡

  • that are virtually impossible to obtain access to.

    根本不可能逃出去

  • Yet, although these animals are treated as commodities,

    這些動物雖被視為商品

  • they are in fact sentient, intelligent individuals

    但牠們實際上是有知覺 有智力的個體

  • with lives that matter to them.

    擁有求生意志

  • In a moment I'm going to show a two-minute video

    現在我要播放一段

  • of animal factories which can be difficult to watch.

    兩分鐘的動物工廠影片 看了可能會不太舒服

  • So I want to remind you that my intention is simply to raise awareness.

    我想提醒大家 我的目的是喚醒意識

  • So I have to make the invisible visible.

    我要讓檯面下的事浮上檯面

  • I've selected material that I think is sufficient to inform you,

    我選擇我認為足以喚醒各位

  • without traumatizing you.

    但不至於太震驚的片段

  • But if it's too difficult to watch, just close your eyes and plug your ears.

    如果實在看不下去 請閉上雙眼摀住耳朵

  • (Video)

    (影片播放)

  • Piglets are castrated by workers who cut into their skin

    小豬被工人剝皮、割除生殖器官

  • and rip out their testicles.

    然後被扯下睪丸

  • (Piglet squeal)

    (小豬尖叫聲)

  • Next the workers chop off their tail.

    接著工人切掉牠們的尾巴

  • Once pigs have reached market weight, they are sent to slaughter.

    當豬隻重量達到標準,便被送至屠宰場

  • At the slaughterhouse pigs are knocked in the head with a steal rod,

    牠們在屠宰場被鋼條敲擊頭部

  • hung upside down and have their throats slit.

    被倒吊和割喉

  • (Pig squeal)

    (豬尖叫聲)

  • Improper stunning condemns many pigs

    因為極不恰當的處理

  • to having their throats slit while they are fully conscious and suffering.

    使豬隻被割喉時意識清醒,倍受折磨

  • Because male chicks don't lay eggs,

    因為公雞不生蛋

  • and do not grow quickly enough to be raised profitably for meat,

    生長速度也不足以量產圖利

  • they are killed within hours after hatching.

    牠們孵化後幾小時內便被撲殺

  • The females have it even worse.

    母雞的狀況更慘

  • Workers use a hot blade or laser to remove part of the chicks' beaks.

    工人用熱鋸刀或雷射切除小雞的嘴巴

  • At the slaughter plant, the birds are dumped from their crates,

    在屠宰場,工人將禽類從箱子裡丟出

  • then roughly snapped upside down

    粗魯地將牠們脆弱的雙腳

  • into moving shackles by their fragile legs.

    倒吊在移動鐐銬上

  • They are then pulled across a blade which slices their throats

    接著牠們被利刃割喉

  • causing blood to pour from their necks.

    大量血液從頸部濺出

  • Calves on dairy farms are dragged away from their mothers and violently killed.

    農場中的小牛硬生生地與母親分離 並被殘忍的殺害

  • The majority of today's dairy cows are confined on factory farms.

    現今多數乳牛被困在工廠化農場

  • Workers subject young cows to painful mutilations and amputations.

    小牛遭受痛苦的截肢斷臂

  • Unreliable stunning practices at the slaughterhouse

    屠宰場中不恰當的可怕程序

  • condemn many cattle to having their throats cut,

    迫使小牛活生生地

  • their limps hacked off while still alive and conscious.

    被割喉和肢解

  • Massive trawling nets indiscriminately drag hundreds of tons

    巨大的捕魚網任意打撈

  • of fish and other animals along the ocean floor.

    上百噸的海底魚群和其它動物

  • They are then tossed on board,

    捕捉上岸之後

  • where the surviving fish either suffocate or are crushed to death.

    奄奄一息的牠們不是窒息就是被輾死

  • Melanie Joy: Thank you.

    瑪蘭妮.喬伊:謝謝各位

  • I know it can be painful to see that.

    我知道這段影片令人難受

  • Fortunately for us the hard part is over.

    還好最難熬的部分已經結束了

  • But before we move on I want to just point out

    繼續下去之前我想說明

  • that this footage focuses on standard industry practices

    這段影片著重於標準作業程序

  • including in so-called humane or bio facilities.

    包括所謂的人道及生物處理

  • And I also want to point out that there is a gift in our pain.

    我也想說人類的痛苦有其獨特性

  • Our pain is the mirror in which we can see the reflection of our humanity.

    痛苦就像一面鏡子反映出人性

  • So, clearly the animals pay for our carnism.

    很明顯,動物為肉食主義付出代價

  • But we are also victims of the system.

    但人類也是體制下的犧牲者

  • We pay for our carnism with our health,

    我們為了吃肉犧牲健康

  • as eating an animal-based diet can lead to serious disease,

    因為肉食性飲食會導致嚴重疾病

  • while eating a plant-based or vegan diet can optimize health.

    而吃素則有益健康

  • And we pay for our carnism with our hearts and with our minds,

    為了吃肉我們付出心靈上的代價

  • with our dampened empathy and diminished objectivity.

    削弱了我們的同理心和客觀性

  • But, of course, invisibility alone cannot maintain the system.

    當然,視而不見不足以維持肉食主義

  • Hints of the truth surround us.

    因為我們被真相圍繞

  • So another defense is necessary:

    所以另一個防禦機制是必要的:

  • Justification.

    合理化

  • And the way that we learn to justify eating animals is by learning to believe

    我們藉由相信肉類與蛋奶類的謬誤資訊

  • that the myths of meat, eggs and dairy are the facts of meat, eggs and dairy.

    來合理化吃肉

  • These myths are expressed largely through what I refer to as:

    這些謬誤大部分訴諸於──我稱之為

  • The 3 N's of Justification.

    「3N合理化」

  • Eating animals is - What do you think?

    你認為吃肉是?

  • You're good. That. Great. Okay.

    你厲害 很好,沒錯

  • Normal,

    正常 (Normal)

  • Natural - and -

    自然 (Natural)

  • Necessary.

    必要 (Necessary)

  • And haven't we heard this somewhere before?

    我們是不是曾經在哪聽過?

  • Slavery is normal, natural and necessary.

    奴役制度是正常、自然、必要

  • Male dominance is normal, natural and necessary.

    父權統治是正常、自然、必要

  • Heterosexual supremacy is normal, natural and necessary.

    異性戀優越是正常、自然、必要

  • And as with other dominant violent ideologies,

    如同其它主流暴力意識

  • the myths of carnism are institutionalized.

    肉食主義迷思相當普遍

  • So carnistic bias is embedded within the very foundations of the system.

    以致肉食偏好已貫徹體制根基

  • And when we are born into an institutionalized system, such as carnism,

    當我們處於已確立的體制中 像是肉食主義

  • we inevitably internalize it;

    我們不可避免地將之內化

  • we learn to look at the world through the lens of carnism.

    我們習慣以肉食主義的角度看世界

  • And carnism uses a set of defenses

    並啟動一系列防禦機制

  • that distort our perceptions of farmed animals.

    扭曲我們對農場動物的認知

  • For instance, carnism teaches us to see farmed animals as abstractions,

    譬如將農場動物視為抽象概念

  • as lacking any individuality or personality of their own.

    缺乏個性及獨立性

  • A pig is a pig and all pigs are the same.

    豬就是豬,所有豬都一樣

  • And carnism blinds us to the absurdities of the system.

    肉食主義使我們迷失於其中謬誤

  • Voltaire was right.

    伏爾泰說得對

  • If we believe absurdities, we shall commit atrocities.

    「信仰謬誤必犯下暴行」

  • And carnism is but one of the many atrocities,

    而肉食主義僅是眾多暴行

  • one of the many violent ideologies,

    及暴力意識的其中之一

  • that are an unfortunate part of the human legacy.

    是人類遺產中令人遺憾的部分

  • And although the experience of each set of victims

    雖然受害者的經歷不同

  • will always be somewhat unique, the ideologies themselves are similar,

    但暴行的意識形態相似

  • the mentality that enables such violence is the same.

    驅使暴行的心態則相同

  • It's the mentality of domination and subjugation.

    即主宰與征服