Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • This is CNN STUDENT NEWS. I`m Carl Azuz.

    這裡是 CNN 學生新聞。我是 Carl Azuz。

  • The law, the blob and fruits and vegetables

    在今天的新聞報導中,我們會談到

  • are all part of today`s commercial-free coverage.

    法律、海洋中的高溫地帶、水果以及蔬菜。

  • We`re starting with a look at the impact

    首先我們來看看照相機

  • that cameras are having in U.S. law enforcement.

    對於美國執法的影響

  • Civilians have them on their phones.

    現在民眾手機就可以照相。

  • Police are increasingly using body cameras.

    警察開始使用穿戴式攝影機。

  • The footage that these cameras capture

    這些攝影機所捕捉到的畫面

  • and the public`s access to it,

    以及大眾取得影像的權利

  • is having a tremendous influence in the court of public opinion.

    給公眾輿論法庭帶來了巨大的影響。

  • For example, some of the massive protests in different U.S. cities

    舉例來說,在美國不同城市中,

  • that have followed the controversial deaths of suspects

    在一些爭議死刑案發生後,透過大型示威遊行

  • at the hands of police.

    抗議警察執法不當。

  • And some other investigations that have cleared officers of wrongdoing

    而有一些偵查案則透過警察的穿戴式攝影機

  • when body cameras confirmed they followed the law

    證實警察與嫌疑犯交鋒時

  • in confrontations with suspects.

    執法的正當性。

  • With multiple protests and investigations

    由於不同的示威抗議和偵查案

  • going on in different cities around the country,

    正發生在我們各個城市中,

  • we`re taking a look today at how the use of police force

    現在就來看看美國最高法院是如何定義

  • is defined by the U.S. Supreme Court.

    警察執法權力的。

  • When can police shoot someone?

    警察何時可以開槍?

  • The legal standard for deadly force has been in place since the 1980s,

    1980年代開始,便出現合法使用致命武力的準則

  • when the Supreme Court in two cases,

    而最高法院提出兩個案例

  • one was "Tennessee v. Garner," the other "Graham v. Connor,"

    一為 Tennessee 對 Garner訴訟案,另一為 Graham對Connor訴訟案。

  • explained when cops can use deadly force.

    用以解釋警察何時可以使用致命武力。

  • In the "Garner" case, Memphis police shot 15-year-old Edward Garner

    在 Garner 的案例中,孟菲斯警察局員警射殺15歲的Edward Garner

  • when he was trying to climb a fence after escaping from a home burglary.

    Garner犯下住宅竊盜案之後,企圖爬過圍欄逃離現場。

  • He was unarmed.

    當時他並沒有攜帶武器

  • In finding that it was wrong to kill the teen,

    事後證實射殺此名青少年是錯誤之舉,

  • the Supreme Court said,

    最高法院便提出說明,

  • "Where the suspect poses no immediate threat

    「當嫌疑犯沒有對警察或他人

  • to the officer and no threat to others,

    造成立即性的威脅時,

  • the harm resulting from failing to apprehend him

    若嫌犯逃脫後,有可能對社會帶來危害,

  • does not justify the use of deadly force to do so."

    並不能構成使用致命武力的正當理由」

  • So bottom line, as an officer, you don`t shoot,

    所以重點是,警察不能射殺嫌疑犯,

  • you apprehend, unless you believe the suspect

    只能逮捕,除非你相信這個嫌疑犯

  • is a danger to you or to others in the community.

    威脅到你或周圍其他人。

  • In 1989, the Supreme Court further clarified the law in "Graham v. Connor."

    在1989年,最高法院更進一步解釋了「Graham對Connor訴訟案」中的法律。

  • In that case, Dethorne Graham, a diabetic,

    在這個案例中,Dethorne Graham 患有糖尿病,

  • went into a convenience store to get orange juice

    因剛施打胰島素,副作用發生需要中和,

  • because he felt the onset of an insulin attack.

    便開車到超市要買橘子汁。

  • But when he got into that convenience store,

    但當他進入便利商店後,

  • he saw the long lines. He then quickly exited.

    看到排隊的隊伍太長。所以他立刻跑出商店。

  • A police officer saw him,

    某個警察看到他,

  • thought that his exit from that convenience store

    認為他跑出便利商店的行進很可疑

  • was suspicious and proceeded to follow him and stop him.

    決定要跟蹤並阻止他。

  • Other backup officers arrived

    隨後支援的警察抵達現場

  • and slammed Graham`s head onto the police car hood.

    將Graham的頭壓在警車車蓋上。

  • Graham received several injuries and sued,

    Graham多處受傷並向法院提告,

  • and the case made it all the way to the Supreme Court

    此案一路上訴到了最高法院。

  • There, the Supreme Court found that the officer`s actions were justified.

    最終最高法院判定警察執法正當。

  • Why? Because the officers reasonably believed

    為什麼?因為警察有足夠理由相信

  • that the force that they used was necessary

    他們執法的方式是防止犯罪發生

  • to prevent or detect a crime in progress.

    的必要手段。

  • The law entrusted decision as to when to use deadly force

    法律授與警察決定何時該使用致命武力

  • on the officer and then courts determine

    而後再由法庭來判斷

  • whether or not the officer`s actions were reasonable,

    警察執法是否具有充分理由,

  • right then and there at the scene, not in hindsight.

    正當,並且是以事發當下為準,而不是事後之見。

  • The law recognizes that cops

    法律顧及到警察

  • have to make split second decisions right at the scene,

    需要在案發當下,依現有資訊

  • with the information they have.

    做出立即反應。

  • Starting our Roll Call out West today, way out West,

    現在是西部點名時間,最西邊,

  • like the last frontier, in Venetie, Alaska,

    像在邊境的幾個城市,阿拉斯加州的Venetie

  • we`re happy to have The Wolf Pack watching at John Fredson School.

    我們很開心請到狼群隊來認識 John Fredson School。

  • I hear we have some Cougars online today.

    我聽說現在也有一些美洲獅隊在線上。

  • These are in The Buckeye State of Ohio.

    他們都在 Buckeye State of Ohio。

  • Hello to Crestview High School in Ashland.

    愛許蘭的Crestiview High School你們好。

  • And one state east of The Keystone State,

    還有位於東邊的賓夕法尼亞州,

  • great to see the Orioles, Rocky Grove High School in Franklin,

    很開心認識在富蘭克林的 Orioles, Rocky Grove High School,

  • Pennsylvania is on the Roll.

    賓夕法尼亞州好運當頭。

  • An increasing number of Americans are trading in their hybrid

    近期有越來越多的美國人換掉油電混和動力車

  • or electric cars for purely gas-powered vehicles, including SUVs.

    或是電動車,改買燃油車輛,包含小型休旅車。

  • According to Edmunds.com,

    Edmunds.com 指出,

  • new hybrid sales are down from last year and a minority,

    新形油電混和動力車的銷售量自去年開始下滑,

  • 45 percent of hybrid owners,

    而在油電混和動力車使用者中,

  • are trading in for another hybrid,

    有45%的使用者將其賣掉,

  • many opting instead for gasoline-powered cars.

    許多人則改買燃油汽車。

  • Why? Well, carmakers have improved the gas mileage of their vehicles

    為什麼呢?因為汽車製造商改善了里程耗油量

  • and gas-powered cars generally cost less than hybrids.

    燃油車大致上會比油電混和驅動車便宜

  • Probably the biggest reason, though, gas prices.

    不過最大的原因應該還是在於油價。

  • AAA says the national average for a gallon is $2.47.

    美國汽車協會指出,國內平均油價為每加侖2.47美元

  • A year ago, it was $3.66.

    一年前,油價是3.66塊美元。

  • So people are less worried about the cost of filling up.

    所以現在人們比較不擔心油價。

  • The biggest influence on gas prices is the cost of crude oil

    原油價格是影響油價的重要因素

  • and OPEC historically has been a major factor in determining that.

    而歷史上,OPEC一向是決定油價的重要角色。

  • Whenever you hear about oil, the word OPEC isn`t far behind.

    只要你聽到石油,通常也會聽到OPEC這個字。

  • OPEC stands for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

    OPEC就是石油輸出國家組織。

  • It`s a group of 12 nations that have a lot of clout

    這是由12個國家組成,這些國家

  • in the energy market because they produce about one third

    在能源市場上有著舉足輕重的地位,因為全世界有三分之一

  • of the world`s total oil and export it around the globe.

    的石油是由他們生產並輸出的。

  • That`s about 30 million barrels of oil every single day.

    相當於每天產出三百萬桶(一桶石油相當於159升)的石油

  • It was formed in 1960.

    該組織於1960年成立。

  • The goal -- to coordinate oil production to ensure

    成立目的就是要合作出產石油,以確保

  • that members are pumping enough supply to meet demand.

    所有會員國的石油供給滿足市場需求。

  • If all 12 countries play by the rules,

    如果12個會員國都遵守規則,

  • it can help to regulate and stabilize global oil prices.

    就可以控管並穩定全球油價。

  • But there are also plenty of major oil producing nations

    不過也有許多石油生產大國

  • that are not part of the OPEC club,

    並沒有加入石油輸出國家組織。

  • including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Russia.

    包含美國、加拿大、墨西哥以及俄國。

  • And they don`t attend OPEC meetings and as such,

    他們並不會參加OPEC的會議,

  • they`re not bound by the cartel`s decisions.

    他們並不參與同業聯盟決策

  • And as these nations have increased their production

    而近兩來,這些國家擴大

  • over the past two years, OPEC`s influence in the market has plunged.

    石油產出,使得OPEC對市場的影響大幅下跌。

  • There`s now an excess of oil supply,

    現在石油供給過多,

  • which has pushed down prices significantly.

    因此油價大幅調降。

  • The price drop has caused political problems in some OPEC countries

    價格的下滑,在一些仰賴石油維生

  • that rely on oil sales heavily to fund their governments.

    的OPEC會員國國內,引發政治議題。

  • Well, OPEC`s grip on oil may be getting weaker,

    而OPEC對石油的影響力可能會日漸趨緩,

  • but it also means lower prices at pumps around the world.

    但這也意謂著更便宜的世界油價。

  • There are state trees, state flowers, state birds.

    美國各州有州樹、州花、州鳥

  • Not a lot of states have official state vegetables. Oklahoma does, though.

    但沒有很多州有官方的洲蔬菜。不過俄克拉河馬州有。

  • Its official state vegetable is the watermelon.

    這個官方的州蔬菜是西瓜。

  • That`s right, a fruit.

    沒錯,是一種水果。

  • So why don`t they just make that the official state fruit?

    所以為什麼不稱它為州水果呢?

  • Well, because they already have one of those.

    因為他們已經有一個州水果了。

  • It`s the strawberry. This is ripe for debate and it`s random.

    就是草莓。而這個決議很隨意,很可能引起辯論。

  • There`s an area of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean.

    在太平洋上有一個區域,那裡的海水異常的高溫。

  • The scientist who named it the blob says it was 1,000 miles long,

    科學家將其命名為 the blob (高溫區),並指出去年測量,它有一千公里長,

  • 1,000 miles wide and 100 yards deep last year,

    一千公里寬,並且有100碼深。

  • but that it`s grown this year.

    而今年範圍有所擴大。

  • Scientists say its warmer temperatures aren`t the result of heating,

    科學家指出,海雪溫度升高不是因為加溫,

  • they`re the result of less cooling.

    而是因為降溫功能減弱。

  • They think a high pressure ridge over the West Coast

    他們認為高壓聚集在西岸

  • has kept ocean waters calmer than usual

    讓海水比以往平靜

  • and that with fewer storms cooling the surface,

    因此越來越少有暴風雨出現,以降低水面溫度。

  • they believe more heat has stayed in the water.

    他們認為越來越多的熱量存留在海水中。

  • There isn`t only one blob in the Pacific.

    太平洋不是只有這一個高溫區。

  • There are certain areas in the Pacific Ocean

    還有其他的高溫區。

  • that scientists are calling "the blob."

    而科學家稱之為「the blob」。

  • And it may be a little bit more serious than its name implies.

    而它比起它的名字聽起來更要嚴重一些。

  • It`s actually three different areas. One is in the Gulf of Alaska.

    它事實上是由三個不同的區域組成。一個是阿拉斯加灣。

  • Another one in the Bering Sea.

    另一是白令海。

  • And then another one off the coast of Southern California.

    而另一個是南加利福尼亞海海岸。

  • What scientists are finding is over the last year and a half,

    科學家發現,自一年半前開始

  • the ocean waters have been warmer by about 5.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

    海水溫度上升華氏5.5度。

  • When you`re talking about sea surface temperatures,

    當你談論到海水面溫度時,

  • that`s a big deal. Some scientists are saying

    就是一件大事。有些科學家認為

  • that "the blob" may be having an impact on thunderstorms in California,

    the blog (海洋高溫區)可能會影響加州的雷雨狀況,

  • and when you get lightning, we`ve seen an increase in forest fires,

    若經常有閃電,就會增加森林大火發生的頻率。

  • and we`re also seeing a huge impact on marine life.

    我們也看到這對於海洋生物巨大的影響。

  • "the blob" could have the biggest impact on our salmon industry,

    The blob (海洋高溫區) 對於鮭魚產業的影響最劇。

  • believe it or not. Salmon live in cooler waters

    無論你信不信。鮭魚生活在低溫水域

  • and their food source is leaving.

    而他們的食物來源正在減少。

  • They`re going in search of cooler waters

    因為他們必須離開以找尋低更低溫的水域

  • and so the salmon have nothing to eat.

    所以鮭魚沒有了食物可以吃。

  • Scientists have also found tropical sharks in northern latitudes.

    科學家在高緯度地區找到熱帶鯊魚。

  • They`ve swam anywhere from a couple hundred miles

    他們游了幾百公里甚至到一千公里的路程,

  • to up to 1,000 miles or so off of their normal migratory patterns

    離開其各個原始的棲息區域來到這裡。

  • and have scientists scratching their heads.

    這讓科學家想不透原因。

  • Some scientists are saying could this be the Pacific Decadal Oscillation,

    有些科學家說這可能是太平洋十年期振盪,

  • which is basically a long-lived el nino?

    基本上就是長期的聖嬰現象?

  • We`ve had cooler waters since the `90s,

    自90年代開始,海洋的溫度就是比較低的。

  • and now they`re wondering if the waters are shifting to more of a warmer pattern.

    而如今他們在想,也許海水正要轉變成高溫狀態。

  • But other scientists are saying it`s more than that.

    但有些科學家認為這不是這麼單純。

  • Robots -- they`re great at clean floors

    機器人,他們很會清掃地板

  • or helping build vehicles or moving stuff around.

    或是幫忙組裝汽車或是搬運東西。

  • They`re terrible at dodge ball.

    但他們完全不會閃躲球的撞擊。

  • Just look at this thing.

    來看一眼這個東西。

  • No catching, no throwing back, just getting out over and over again.

    不會接球,也不會丟回來,就只是再被撞擊後不斷地彈出來而已。

  • Don`t overlook its strength, though.

    不過,別輕忽這一項長才。

  • This bipedal robot at Oregon State University isn`t stopping

    這個俄勒岡大學研發的兩腳機器人

  • or falling over like a human would.

    是不會像人類一樣停下來或摔倒的。

  • Its suspension system,

    它的避震系統,

  • a unique way to store mechanical energy, keeps it on all twos.

    是一個很特別的機械能源儲存方式,讓它可以保持站立。

  • So don`t let it robot-her you that it doesn`t look like it`s having a ball.

    所以你別擔心這個機器人好像很可憐。

  • That`s no knock on it.

    這不是在打它。

  • It`s got a leg up on lesser machines that

    這個機器人比其他次等的機器來的有優勢多了

  • would shut down on the dodge ball circuit.

    其他機器人為閃躲球攻擊則會關機。

  • We always aim for balanced coverage on CNN STUDENT NEWS.

    我們的目標就是讓CNN學生新聞有各種類型的報導。

  • Come on back Friday.

    我們星期五見。

This is CNN STUDENT NEWS. I`m Carl Azuz.

這裡是 CNN 學生新聞。我是 Carl Azuz。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔

April 23, 2015 - CNN Student News with subtitles

  • 5556 172
    VoiceTube 發佈於 2015 年 04 月 23 日
影片單字