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  • If you've ever had a "gut reaction" to something, gone with a "gut feeling" or had a "gut-wrenching" experience, you may not realise we use these terms for a reason.

    如果你曾經對事物有過「直覺反應」,以及有過「直覺」或「撕心裂肺」的經驗,你可能不知道這些術語背後隱含的道理。

  • In our gut lies our enteric nervous system and it’s often called our second brain.

    腸道位於腸神經系統,它通常被稱為我們的第二個大腦。

  • We have the same number of neurons lining our long tube of gut as we do in our spinal cord.

    腸道擁有的神經元數量和脊髓相同。

  • And our gut is capable of reacting, like causing cravings for a taco, without even communicating with our first brain.

    而且腸道可以讓我們不需要和大腦溝通就能立即反應,就像對墨西哥夾餅產生渴望一樣。

  • We have a community of bacteria living in our gut called our microbiome.

    有一群細菌住在我們的腸道裡,它們叫做微生物基因組群。

  • It’s influenced by what you eat, your genes, age, stress levels and even where you live.

    它們會被你吃的食物、你的基因、年齡、壓力層級,甚至是住在哪裡影響。

  • Certain bacteria thrive depending on what you eat, and were just starting to realise what it can do.

    有些細菌會因為你吃的東西而成長得更繁盛,而現在我們正要開始了解這會有什麼影響。

  • Our microbiome can communicate with our Central Nervous System and influence our behaviour.

    微生物會和中央神經系統溝通、傳遞,進而影響我們的行為。

  • In one study, germ-free mice, who aren't exposed to any bacteria since birth and don’t develop a microbiome, were compared to their germ-carrying counterparts in a maze test.

    在一項研究中,自出生以來就沒有暴露在任何細菌環境裡,也沒有產生微生物的無菌老鼠,和其他有攜帶細菌的對照組進行迷宮測驗,並加以比較。

  • The germ-free mice showed a reduction in anxiety-like behaviors in response to the maze.

    對於迷宮,無菌老鼠表現出較少的焦慮行為。

  • They were then housed with the other mice, and exposed to their germs.

    接下來,無菌老鼠和其他老鼠安置在一起,並暴露於牠們的細菌之中。

  • But when they did the maze test again, they still showed a reduction in anxious behaviour.

    但當無菌老鼠再次參與迷宮測驗時,牠們仍然表現出較少焦慮行為。

  • The researchers suggested gut-brain interactions are important to the development of stress systems, and the germ-free mice missed their window to develop one.

    學者推測腸道和腦的相互作用是發展應力系統很重要的一環,而無菌老鼠錯失了發展系統的管道。

  • A recent study found that prebiotics, little fibre compounds that stimulate the growth of gut bacteria, have an anti-anxiety effect in people.

    近期研究指出,益生元 (一種會刺激腸道細菌生長的膳食纖維化合物) 會對人體產生抗焦慮效果。

  • Participants were split into two groups, one that took prebiotics every day, and one that took a placebo.

    參與實驗者被分成兩組,其中一組天天都吃益生元,另一組則是吃安慰劑。

  • After three weeks, those who took prebiotics had lower levels of the stress hormone cortisol,

    三週過後,吃益生元的組別有較低的應激激素皮質醇,

  • and in tests they paid less attention to negative information and more attention to positive information.

    而且在實驗中,他們較不關注負面訊息,比較關心正面資訊。

  • And other studies have shown that giving people fermented milk products containing probiotics, or healthy bacteria, twice a day for four weeks, altered brain activity in regions linked to emotion.

    另外一項研究顯示,給人喝含有益生菌或是益菌的發酵乳製品,一天喝兩次並持續四週,會改變大腦中情感區域的活動表現。

  • The function of our gastro-intestinal tract goes far beyond just processing what we eat.

    胃腸道的功能不只有消化食物。

  • Of course our second brain, our enteric nervous system, isn’t capable of conscious thought.

    我們的第二大腦,也就是腸神經系統,當然不能夠有意識的思考。

  • But our microbiome can influence our behavior, our stress levels and even our mood.

    但是微生物可以影響人類的行為、壓力水平,甚至我們的心情。

  • So the next time you have that feeling of butterflies in your stomach, remember there’s a whole lot more happening down there than you may realise.

    所以下次當你忐忑不安時,記得其背後的作用遠遠比你想像到的還多。

  • For more awesome facts about yourself, head over to my friends Alltime Numbers, where theyll take you through the human body in numbers.

    若是想知道更多關於自己的超酷事實,請去 Alltime Numbers 的專頁看看,他們會用數字帶領你穿梭於人體的奧妙世界。

  • And if you don’t already, subscribe to BrainCraft for a new, brainy video every Thursday.

    如果你還沒有訂閱 BrainCraft,我們每個星期四都會有新的知識影片,快訂閱吧!

If you've ever had a "gut reaction" to something, gone with a "gut feeling" or had a "gut-wrenching" experience, you may not realise we use these terms for a reason.

如果你曾經對事物有過「直覺反應」,以及有過「直覺」或「撕心裂肺」的經驗,你可能不知道這些術語背後隱含的道理。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 腸道 細菌 老鼠 微生物 大腦 焦慮

人類的第二個大腦:「腸道」的奧妙 The Strange Location of Your Second Brain

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    王妍心 發佈於 2020 年 12 月 20 日
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