Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I was in New York during Hurricane Sandy,

    颶風桑迪來的時候我正在紐約,

  • and this little white dog called Maui

    和這個叫毛伊的小白狗

  • was staying with me.

    住在一起。

  • Half the city was dark because of a power cut,

    因為斷電,半個城市都是黑漆漆的。

  • and I was living on the dark side.

    我就住在黑漆漆的這一邊。

  • Now, Maui was terrified of the dark,

    當時,毛伊很怕黑,

  • so I had to carry him up the stairs,

    我只好帶著牠上樓。

  • actually down the stairs first, for his walk,

    其實是先下樓去遛狗,

  • and then bring him back up.

    然後再把牠帶回來。

  • I was also hauling gallons of bottles of water

    我每天還要拖著好幾加侖的瓶裝水

  • up to the seventh floor every day.

    爬到七樓。

  • And through all of this,

    這期間,

  • I had to hold a torch between my teeth.

    我不得不咬著火炬當照明。

  • The stores nearby were out of flashlights

    附近商店沒有手電筒、

  • and batteries and bread.

    電池和麵包。

  • For a shower, I walked 40 blocks

    為了洗個澡,我走了40個街區,

  • to a branch of my gym.

    到我健身中心的另一個分店去。

  • But these were not the major preoccupations of my day.

    但是這些都不是我那時候關心的主要問題。

  • It was just as critical for me to be the first person in

    對我來說重要的是我要最早到達

  • at a cafe nearby with extension cords and chargers

    附近的一家咖啡館,拿著我的延長線及充電器

  • to juice my multiple devices.

    給我的幾個電子設備充電。

  • I started to prospect under the benches of bakeries

    我開始尋找麵包店的長椅下

  • and the entrances of pastry shops for plug points.

    和糕餅店出入口的那些插座。

  • I wasn't the only one.

    我不是唯一這樣做的人。

  • Even in the rain, people stood between Madison and 5th Avenue

    即使是雨天,人們打著雨傘站在麥迪森大街和第五大道之間

  • under their umbrellas charging their cell phones

    好從路邊的商家那兒

  • from outlets on the street.

    給他們的手機充電。

  • Nature had just reminded us

    自然提醒了我們,

  • that it was stronger than all our technology,

    它比我們所有的技術更加強大,

  • and yet here we were, obsessed about being wired.

    但是我們仍然癡迷於這些需要電線的東西。

  • I think there's nothing like a crisis

    我覺得沒有什麼比一場危機

  • to tell you what's really important and what's not,

    更能讓你明白什麼重要而什麼不重要。

  • and Sandy made me realize that our devices

    颶風桑迪讓我意識到我們的電子設備

  • and their connectivity matter to us

    和它們的連線能力對我們來說,

  • right up there with food and shelter.

    就跟我們的食物和住所一樣重要。

  • The self as we once knew it no longer exists,

    我們瞭解的那部分自我已不存在,

  • and I think that an abstract, digital universe

    我覺得,一個抽象的、 數位的宇宙

  • has become a part of our identity,

    已經成了我們本身的一部分,

  • and I want to talk to you about what I think that means.

    今天我就是想談談我是怎麼看待這件事的。

  • I'm a novelist, and I'm interested in the self

    我是一位小說家,對認識自我(這樣的話題)很感興趣,

  • because the self and fiction have a lot in common.

    因為自我和小說有很多共同點。

  • They're both stories, interpretations.

    他們都是故事,都有解釋。

  • You and I can experience things without a story.

    沒有故事,你和我也可以體驗不同的事情。

  • We might run up the stairs too quickly

    我們可能爬樓梯爬得太快了,

  • and we might get breathless.

    可能都喘不上氣來。

  • But the larger sense that we have of our lives,

    我們對生活的感受越是強烈,

  • the slightly more abstract one, is indirect.

    它就越是抽象的,不直接的。

  • Our story of our life is based on direct experience,

    我們生活裡的故事都是建立在直接經驗上,

  • but it's embellished.

    但那都是點綴。

  • A novel needs scene after scene to build,

    小說需要一個場景接著一個場景來建構,

  • and the story of our life needs an arc as well.

    我們的人生故事同樣需要一個弧線,

  • It needs months and years.

    需要成年成月的故事積累。

  • Discrete moments from our lives are its chapters.

    我們生命中那些聚散離合都自成章節,

  • But the story is not about these chapters.

    但故事並不來自這些章節,

  • It's the whole book.

    故事就是這整本書本身。

  • It's not only about the heartbreak and the happiness,

    它不僅只關於傷心欲絕和喜氣洋洋,

  • the victories and the disappointments,

    不僅只關於勝利和失望,

  • but it's because how because of these,

    它闡述了因為這些事件,

  • and sometimes, more importantly, in spite of these,

    有時更重要的是,即便沒有這些事件,

  • we find our place in the world

    我們如何得以在這個世界上找到自己的位置,

  • and we change it and we change ourselves.

    我們如何改變世界、改變我們自己。

  • Our story, therefore, needs two dimensions of time:

    因此我們的故事需要有兩個時間軸:

  • a long arc of time that is our lifespan,

    時間的長軸是我們的壽命,

  • and the timeframe of direct experience

    而每個直接體驗的當下

  • that is the moment.

    就是某個時刻。

  • Now the self that experiences directly

    能直接體驗的那個自我,

  • can only exist in the moment,

    只存在於某個特定的時刻,

  • but the one that narrates needs several moments,

    但是人都需要一連串的片段

  • a whole sequence of them,

    才能組合成一個故事。

  • and that's why our full sense of self

    所以我們對自我的認識

  • needs both immersive experience

    不僅需要大量的經歷,

  • and the flow of time.

    還需要流動的時間軸。

  • Now, the flow of time is embedded in everything,

    時光流逝的痕跡都鑲嵌在每一個事件裡,

  • in the erosion of a grain of sand,

    鑲嵌在被侵蝕的沙粒裡,

  • in the budding of a little bud into a rose.

    鑲嵌在萌萌欲綻的玫瑰花苞裡。

  • Without it, we would have no music.

    沒有時光的流逝,我們就沒有音樂可聽。

  • Our own emotions and state of mind

    我們的自我情感和意識狀態,

  • often encode time,

    經常編寫在時光裡,

  • regret or nostalgia about the past,

    無論是對過去的遺憾和留戀,

  • hope or dread about the future.

    還是對未來的展望和恐懼。

  • I think that technology has altered that flow of time.

    我想科技改變了通常意義上的時間流逝。

  • The overall time that we have for our narrative,

    我們的故事及生命的長度

  • our lifespan, has been increasing,

    不停在增加,

  • but the smallest measure, the moment, has shrunk.

    但是可紀錄的最小片斷、最短時刻卻在減小。

  • It has shrunk because our instruments enable us

    歸功於我們的電子設備,我們可以紀錄的

  • in part to measure smaller and smaller units of time,

    時間單位越來越小,

  • and this in turn has given us a more granular understanding

    因此,我們可以更加詳細地認識

  • of the material world,

    這個物質世界,

  • and this granular understanding

    如此詳細地認識

  • has generated reams of data

    產生了大量的數據,

  • that our brains can no longer comprehend

    以致於我們的大腦不再能夠全部理解,

  • and for which we need more and more complicated computers.

    為此我們需要更多複雜的電腦。

  • All of this to say that the gap

    這說明我們可以感知的事物

  • between what we can perceive and what we can measure

    和我們可以紀錄的事物之間

  • is only going to widen.

    的差距只會逐漸擴大。

  • Science can do things with and in a picosecond,

    科學可以紀錄皮妙以內的事件,

  • but you and I are never going to have the inner experience

    但你和我卻永遠不可能有

  • of a millionth of a millionth of a second.

    一兆分之一秒的體驗。

  • You and I answer only to nature's rhythm and flow,

    我和你只能對自然的節律和流動,

  • to the sun, the moon and the seasons,

    對太陽、 月亮和季節變化做出回應。

  • and this is why we need that long arc of time

    這就是為甚麼我們需要一個長的足以涵蓋

  • with the past, the present and the future

    過去、 現在和未來的時間弧

  • to see things for what they are,

    來理解事情的原由,

  • to separate signal from noise

    來分辨噪音中的信號

  • and the self from sensations.

    和感知中的自我。

  • We need time's arrow to understand cause and effect,

    我們需要時間弧來理解因果關係,

  • not just in the material world,

    不只是在物質的世界裡,

  • but in our own intentions and our motivations.

    也在我們自己的意圖和動機裡。

  • What happens when that arrow goes awry?

    當時間弧線的指針出現偏差時,會發生什麼呢?

  • What happens when time warps?

    當時間扭曲時,會發生什麼呢?

  • So many of us today have the sensation

    我們很多人現在都有這種的感覺,

  • that time's arrow is pointing everywhere

    那就是時間軸在四處亂指,

  • and nowhere at once.

    沒有哪次是一致的。

  • This is because time doesn't flow in the digital world

    這是因為時間在數位世界裡的流動方式

  • in the same way that it does in the natural one.

    和在自然界裡不一樣。

  • We all know that the Internet has shrunk space

    我們都知道網路縮小了空間

  • as well as time.

    與時間。

  • Far away over there is now here.

    遠方發生的事情就像在這裡發生的。

  • News from India is a stream on my smartphone app

    來自印度的新聞成了我智慧型手機app裡的一則消息,

  • whether I'm in New York or New Delhi.

    無論我是身在紐約或新德里。

  • And that's not all.

    不只這樣,

  • Your last job, your dinner reservations from last year,

    你上一份工作、去年的晚餐訂位、

  • your former friends, lie on a flat plain with today's friends,

    你以前的朋友,和你的新朋友一起躺在平原上,

  • because the Internet also archives,

    這都是由於網路具存檔功能,

  • and it warps the past.

    能扭曲過去。

  • With no distinction left between the past,

    由於過去、現在和未來,

  • the present and the future, and the here or there,

    這裡或那裡,已經沒有分別,

  • we are left with this moment everywhere,

    而我們無時無刻都身處在這樣的時刻裡,

  • this moment that I'll call the digital now.

    這樣的時刻我稱之為數位現在式。

  • Just how can we prioritize

    問題是我們如何

  • in the landscape of the digital now?

    對數位世界裡的事件進行先後排序呢?

  • This digital now is not the present,

    數位世界裡的現在並不代表此時此刻,

  • because it's always a few seconds ahead,

    而通常是發生在幾秒前,

  • with Twitter streams that are already trending

    透過推特傳播的消息,

  • and news from other time zones.

    和來自其他地區的新聞。

  • This isn't the now of a shooting pain in your foot

    這已經不是你腳上中了槍傷的現在,

  • or the second that you bite into a pastry

    也不是你在糕點上咬上一口的那一刻,

  • or the three hours that you lose yourself in a great book.

    或者你在一本很棒的書裡沉浸的那三個小時。

  • This now bears very little physical

    這個"現在"已經不足以為我們的自我狀態

  • or psychological reference to our own state.

    提供任何身體性或心理性的佐證。

  • Its focus, instead, is to distract us

    相反的,它在路上每一個轉彎處

  • at every turn on the road.

    試圖分散我們的注意力。

  • Every digital landmark is an invitation

    數位世界的每個路標都在

  • to leave what you are doing now to go somewhere else

    邀請你離開正在專注的事情,去其他的地方

  • and do something else.

    做其他的事情。

  • Are you reading an interview by an author?

    你正在閱讀一個作家的專訪嘛?

  • Why not buy his book? Tweet it. Share it.

    為什麼不買他的書?推它?分享它?

  • Like it. Find other books exactly like his.

    喜歡它?搜尋同類型的其他書籍。

  • Find other people reading those books.

    搜尋同在閱讀這本書的讀者。

  • Travel can be liberating,

    旅行可以是非常自由的,

  • but when it is incessant, we become

    但當它變得無休止時,我們也就成了

  • permanent exiles without repose.

    沒有休息日的流亡者。

  • Choice is freedom, but not when it's constantly

    選擇是自由的,但如果不斷地為了

  • for its own sake.

    選擇而選擇,那就不是自由了。

  • Not just is the digital now far from the present,

    數位現在式已不僅不是現在,

  • but it's in direct competition with it,

    它還直接和真正的現在在競爭。

  • and this is because not just am I absent from it,

    這是因為不僅我在真正的現在缺席,

  • but so are you.

    你也是如此。

  • Not just are we absent from it, but so is everyone else.

    不僅僅是我們缺席,其他人也是如此。

  • And therein lies its greatest convenience and horror.

    所以,這裡存在著巨大的便利和隱憂。

  • I can order foreign language books in the middle of the night,

    我可以在大半夜從網路上訂購外文書籍、

  • shop for Parisian macarons,

    購買巴黎的馬卡龍、

  • and leave video messages that get picked up later.

    給才剛接到的訊息做影音回覆。

  • At all times, I can operate

    我總是可以

  • at a different rhythm and pace from you,

    在踩著和你不同的節奏與步調時,

  • while I sustain the illusion

    同時擁有著與你的時空

  • that I'm tapped into you in real time.

    緊密相扣的幻覺。

  • Sandy was a reminder

    桑迪颶風是一個提醒,

  • of how such an illusion can shatter.

    提醒我們可以去粉碎這樣的幻覺。

  • There were those with power and water,

    有些人有電有水,

  • and those without.

    有些人卻沒有。

  • There are those who went back to their lives,

    有些人的日常生活已經恢復,

  • and those who are still displaced

    有些人即使已經過了好幾個月,

  • after so many months.

    卻仍然流離失所。

  • For some reason, technology seems to perpetuate

    出於某些原因,科技產品對於

  • the illusion for those who have it that everyone does,

    那些一直擁有它的人來說幾乎成了一個永恆的幻覺,

  • and then, like an ironic slap in the face,

    然後,就像一記打在臉上的諷刺耳光,

  • it makes it true.

    這幻覺成真了。

  • For example, it's said that there are more people

    舉例來說,有人說在印度,人們持有手機的比率

  • in India with access to cell phones than toilets.

    比有廁所可上的比率還要來得高。

  • Now if this rift, which is already so great

    若缺乏基礎建設與科技普及間

  • in many parts of the world,

    存在著無法跨越的鴻溝,

  • between the lack of infrastructure and the spread of technology,

    而這巨大鴻溝在世上許多地區

  • isn't somehow bridged,

    都已普遍存在著,

  • there will be ruptures between the digital

    那麼數位世界和真實世界

  • and the real.

    將會有更多的裂隙。

  • For us as individuals who live in the digital now

    生活在數位現在式裡的我們,

  • and spend most of our waking moments in it,

    把大部分清醒的時間花在數位產品上,

  • the challenge is to live in two streams of time

    我們面臨的挑戰是得在兩個平行

  • that are parallel and almost simultaneous.

    且幾乎同步進行著的時間軸裡生活著。

  • How does one live inside distraction?

    我們如何在這樣的煩亂中生活?

  • We might think that those younger than us,

    我們也許會覺得,那些比我們年輕,

  • those who are born into this, will adapt more naturally.

    生來就接觸這些電子產品的孩子,會更快地適應這樣的生活。

  • Possibly, but I remember my childhood.

    也許吧。 但我記得我的童年,

  • I remember my grandfather revising

    我記得我的祖父

  • the capitals of the world with me.

    和我一起研究世界各地的首都。

  • Buda and Pest were separated by the Danube,

    布達和佩斯被多瑙河分開,

  • and Vienna had a Spanish riding school.

    維也納有西班牙騎術學校。

  • If I were a child today, I could easily learn this information

    如果我是現在的孩子,我可以輕鬆地

  • with apps and hyperlinks,

    通過app和超連結來學到這些資訊,

  • but it really wouldn't be the same,

    但一定和我所學的不同,

  • because much later, I went to Vienna,

    因為我長大後去過維也納,

  • and I went to the Spanish riding school,

    我去看了西班牙騎術學校,

  • and I could feel my grandfather right beside me.

    我能感覺到我的祖父就在我身邊。

  • Night after night, he took me up on the terrace,

    夜復一夜,他把我帶到露臺上

  • on his shoulders, and pointed out Jupiter

    我坐在他的肩上,他為我指出哪個是木星、

  • and Saturn and the Great Bear to me.

    土星,還有大熊星座。

  • And even here, when I look at the Great Bear,

    甚至在這裡,當我看著大熊星座,

  • I get back that feeling of being a child,

    我能感覺自己回到了童年時,

  • hanging onto his head and trying to balance myself

    騎在他的肩上盡量保持平衡

  • on his shoulder,

    的樣子,

  • and I can get back that feeling of being a child again.

    我仍能找回童年時的感受。

  • What I had with my grandfather was wrapped

    和祖父待在一起時的種種感覺,

  • so often in information and knowledge and fact,

    與那時學到的信息、知識和事實緊密連結,

  • but it was about so much more

    但那些記憶包含的,

  • than information or knowledge or fact.

    要比單純的信息、知識和事實要多得多。

  • Time-warping technology challenges

    科技扭曲了時間的意涵,也挑戰著

  • our deepest core,

    我們內心最深處的自我,

  • because we are able to archive the past

    因為我們能夠將過去存檔,

  • and some of it becomes hard to forget,

    使得有些事件變得難以忘懷,

  • even as the current moment

    這甚至讓當下這個片刻,

  • is increasingly unmemorable.

    逐漸變得毫不起眼。

  • We want to clutch, and we are left instead

    我們想要留住每個時刻,

  • clutching at a series of static moments.

    卻反而只抓住一系列靜止的時刻。

  • They're like soap bubbles that disappear when we touch them.

    他們就像肥皂泡沫,一碰到就消失。

  • By archiving everything, we think that we can store it,

    通過存檔,我們認為一切都可保存下來,

  • but time is not data.

    但時間不是資料,

  • It cannot be stored.

    它不能被存儲。

  • You and I know exactly what it means like

    你和我都很清楚的了解

  • to be truly present in a moment.

    如何真實的去感受當下。

  • It might have happened while we were

    這可能發生在我們

  • playing an instrument,

    演奏樂器時、

  • or looking into the eyes of someone we've known

    或者一眼望進一個認識多年的人

  • for a very long time.

    的眼眸裡時。

  • At such moments, our selves are complete.

    在這些時刻裡,我們擁有了完整的自我。

  • The self that lives in the long narrative arc

    在生命敘事長軸上的我

  • and the self that experiences the moment

    與正在體驗當下的自我

  • become one.

    合而為一。

  • The present encapsulates the past

    "現在"壓縮了過去

  • and a promise for the future.

    與對未來的承諾。

  • The present joins a flow of time

    "現在"參與了時間的洪流,

  • from before and after.

    串連起過去和未來。

  • I first experienced these feelings with my grandmother.

    我第一次經歷這種感覺是在和祖母相處時。

  • I wanted to learn to skip, and she found an old rope

    我想要學跳繩,於是她找來了一條舊繩子,

  • and she tucked up her sari

    接著她捲起莎麗後

  • and she jumped over it.

    就跳過了那繩子。

  • I wanted to learn to cook, and she kept me in the kitchen,

    我想要學做飯,她把我留在廚房裡,

  • cutting, cubing and chopping for a whole month.

    讓我又切又剁了整整一個月。

  • My grandmother taught me that things happen

    祖母教導我事情的發生需要時間來消化,

  • in the time they take, that time can't be fought,

    這段時間是必要的,

  • and because it will pass and it will move,

    又因為這段時間會過去、會繼續向前進,

  • we owe the present moment our full attention.

    所以我們應用心專注"現在"這個當下。

  • Attention is time.

    專注就是時間。