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  • Now, I'm an ethnobotanist.

    我是民族植物學家。

  • That's a scientist who works in the rainforest

    是在雨林工作的科學家,

  • to document how people use local plants.

    記載人們如何使用當地植物。

  • I've been doing this for a long time,

    我從事這項工作很久了,

  • and I want to tell you,

    我想告訴你們,

  • these people know these forests and these medicinal treasures

    這些人對這片森林 及這些藥用寶藏的瞭解

  • better than we do and better than we ever will.

    比我們還多,比我們將來所知還多。

  • But also, these cultures,

    但同時,這些文化,

  • these indigenous cultures,

    這些原住民文化,

  • are disappearing much faster than the forests themselves.

    正在消失,比森林本身消失還快。

  • And the greatest and most endangered species

    而最偉大又幾乎瀕臨絕種的物種,

  • in the Amazon Rainforest

    在亞馬遜雨林中,

  • is not the jaguar,

    不是美洲豹,

  • it's not the harpy eagle,

    也不是角鵰,

  • it's the isolated and uncontacted tribes.

    而是那些與世隔絕、未被接觸的部落。

  • Now four years ago, I injured my foot in a climbing accident

    四年前, 我在一次登山意外中弄傷了腳,

  • and I went to the doctor.

    我去看醫師。

  • She gave me heat,

    她給我熱敷、

  • she gave me cold, aspirin,

    她給我冷敷、阿斯匹靈、

  • narcotic painkillers, anti-inflammatories,

    麻醉止痛劑、消炎劑、

  • cortisone shots.

    可體松針。

  • It didn't work.

    都沒有用。

  • Several months later,

    幾個月後,

  • I was in the northeast Amazon,

    我在亞馬遜東北區,

  • walked into a village,

    徒步走進一座村落,

  • and the shaman said, "You're limping."

    有個巫醫說:「你跛腳了。」

  • And I'll never forget this as long as I live.

    只要我活著, 我永遠也不會忘記這件事。

  • He looked me in the face and he said,

    他看看我的臉然後他說:

  • "Take off your shoe and give me your machete."

    「脫掉鞋子,給我你那隻大腳丫。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • He walked over to a palm tree

    他走到一棵棕櫚樹旁

  • and carved off a fern,

    切下一塊蕨類,

  • threw it in the fire,

    丟進火裡,

  • applied it to my foot,

    然後敷在我的腳上,

  • threw it in a pot of water,

    又把它丟進一碗水中,

  • and had me drink the tea.

    然後要我喝了那碗藥茶。

  • The pain disappeared for seven months.

    腳痛消失了七個月。

  • When it came back, I went to see the shaman again.

    又痛起來的時候, 我又回去看那位巫醫。

  • He gave me the same treatment,

    他給我同樣的療法,

  • and I've been cured for three years now.

    我現在已經治好有三年了。

  • Who would you rather be treated by?

    那你寧願給誰醫呢?

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Now, make no mistakeWestern medicine

    那麼,不要搞錯,西醫

  • is the most successful system of healing ever devised,

    是有史以來設計最成功的醫療系統,

  • but there's plenty of holes in it.

    但是還是有很多漏洞。

  • Where's the cure for breast cancer?

    乳腺癌的治療法在哪?

  • Where's the cure for schizophrenia?

    精神分裂症的治療法在哪?

  • Where's the cure for acid reflux?

    胃酸倒流的治療法又在哪?

  • Where's the cure for insomnia?

    失眠的治療法呢?

  • The fact is that these people

    事實是這些人

  • can sometimes, sometimes, sometimes

    時不時,一次又一次,

  • cure things we cannot.

    的確可以治好我們治不好的病。

  • Here you see a medicine man in the northeast Amazon

    這裡你看到亞馬遜東北區的巫醫

  • treating leishmaniasis,

    治療利什曼病,

  • a really nasty protozoal disease

    一種非常討厭的原蟲疾病,

  • that afflicts 12 million people around the world.

    全世界有一千二百萬人為之折磨。

  • Western treatment are injections of antimony.

    西醫的療法是注射銻。

  • They're painful, they're expensive,

    注射銻很痛,很貴,

  • and they're probably not good for your heart;

    對你的心臟也不太好。

  • it's a heavy metal.

    它是重金屬。

  • This man cures it with three plants from the Amazon Rainforest.

    這個人用三種取自 亞馬遜雨林的植物治療它。

  • This is the magic frog.

    這是魔法青蛙。

  • My colleague, the late great Loren McIntyre,

    我的同事, 已故的偉人羅倫‧麥肯泰爾,

  • discoverer of the source lake of the Amazon,

    亞馬遜源頭的發現者,

  • Laguna McIntyre in the Peruvian Andes,

    即秘魯境內安地斯山的 麥肯泰爾小湖,

  • was lost on the Peru-Brazil border about 30 years ago.

    在約三十年前 於秘魯巴西邊境迷路。

  • He was rescued by a group of isolated Indians called the Matsés.

    他被一群稱為馬策斯人的 隱世印地安人救起。

  • They beckoned for him to follow them into the forest, which he did.

    他們召喚他跟著他們進入森林, 他跟去了。

  • There, they took out palm leaf baskets.

    在那裡,他們拿出棕櫚葉籃。

  • There, they took out these green monkey frogs

    在那裡,他們拿出幾隻 這種綠色的猴樹蛙,

  • these are big suckers, they're like this

    這些可是大吸蟲,牠們就像這樣,

  • and they began licking them.

    牠們開始舔舐。

  • It turns out, they're highly hallucinogenic.

    結果,牠們居然是高度迷幻藥!

  • McIntyre wrote about this and it was read by the editor of High Times magazine.

    麥肯泰爾寫下了這件事,還被 《嗨翻天》毒品雜誌的編輯看到。

  • You see that ethnobotanists have friends in all sorts of strange cultures.

    你看民族植物學家 有很多三教九流的朋友。

  • This guy decided he would go down to the Amazon and give it a whirl,

    這傢伙決定要去一趟亞馬遜, 親自試一下,

  • or give it a lick, and he did, and he wrote,

    或說舔一下,他的確也舔了, 然後他寫道:

  • "My blood pressure went through the roof,

    「我的血壓飆到最高點,

  • I lost full control of my bodily functions,

    我的身體完全不聽使喚,

  • I passed out in a heap,

    我崩倒在地,

  • I woke up in a hammock six hours later,

    六個小時後我在吊床上醒來,

  • felt like God for two days."

    之後兩天覺得像神一樣!」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • An Italian chemist read this and said,

    一位義大利化學家讀了這段之後說:

  • "I'm not really interested in the theological aspects of the green monkey frog.

    「我對綠猴樹蛙的 神學方面沒什麼興趣,

  • What's this about the change in blood pressure?"

    但是這個血壓變化是怎麼回事?」

  • Now, this is an Italian chemist

    這位義大利化學家

  • who's working on a new treatment for high blood pressure

    正在研發治療高血壓的新療法,

  • based on peptides in the skin of the green monkey frog,

    以綠猴樹蛙皮膚上的肽類為基礎,

  • and other scientists are looking

    其他科學家也在研究

  • at a cure for drug-resistant Staph aureus.

    抗藥性金黃色葡萄球菌的新解方。

  • How ironic if these isolated Indians and their magic frog

    多諷刺啊!如果這些隱世的 印地安人及他們的魔蛙

  • prove to be one of the cures.

    證明的確是解方。

  • Here's an ayahuasca shaman

    這是位煮死藤水的巫師,

  • in the northwest Amazon, in the middle of a yage ceremony.

    在亞馬遜西北區, 正在舉行通靈儀式。

  • I took him to Los Angeles to meet a foundation officer

    我帶他到洛杉磯 去見一位基金會的幹事,

  • looking for support for monies to protect their culture.

    他正在尋求金援 以保護他們的文化。

  • This fellow looked at the medicine man, and he said,

    這傢伙看著這名巫醫,他說:

  • "You didn't go to medical school, did you?"

    「你沒上過醫學院,對吧?」

  • The shaman said, "No, I did not."

    這巫師說:「沒有,沒上過。」

  • He said, "Well, then what can you know about healing?"

    他又說:「嗯, 那你怎麼知道醫療過程?」

  • The shaman looked at him and he said,

    這巫師看看他,然後他說:

  • "You know what? If you have an infection, go to a doctor.

    「你知道嗎?如果你受感染, 你會去看醫生。

  • But many human afflictions are diseases of the heart, the mind and the spirit.

    但是人類很多的苦惱 是心智靈的疾病。

  • Western medicine can't touch those. I cure them."

    西醫束手無策。我卻可以醫好。」

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • But all is not rosy in learning from nature about new medicines.

    但從大自然學習新醫藥 可不是一片光明。

  • This is a viper from Brazil,

    這是一條巴西毒蛇,

  • the venom of which was studied at the Universidade de São Paulo here.

    這裡的聖保羅大學研究其毒液。

  • It was later developed into ACE inhibitors.

    後來研發成血管張力素 轉化酶抑制劑。

  • This is a frontline treatment for hypertension.

    這是高血壓的第一線藥物。

  • Hypertension causes over 10 percent

    高血壓每天在全世界

  • of all deaths on the planet every day.

    導致超過百分之十的死亡。

  • This is a $4 billion industry

    這是四十億美金的產業,

  • based on venom from a Brazilian snake,

    以巴西蛇毒為研發基礎,

  • and the Brazilians did not get a nickel.

    巴西人卻一毛錢也拿不到。

  • This is not an acceptable way of doing business.

    這可不是能令人接受的經商之道。

  • The rainforest has been called the greatest expression of life on Earth.

    雨林被稱為地球上 最偉大的生命表現。

  • There's a saying in Suriname that I dearly love:

    蘇利南國有句我非常愛的話:

  • "The rainforests hold answers to questions we have yet to ask."

    「雨林擁有我們還沒問的 問題的答案。」

  • But as you all know, it's rapidly disappearing.

    但是你們都知道, 雨林正在快速消失。

  • Here in Brazil, in the Amazon,

    在巴西這裡,在亞馬遜,

  • around the world.

    在全世界都是如此。

  • I took this picture from a small plane

    我從小飛機上照下這張相片,

  • flying over the eastern border of the Xingu indigenous reserve

    飛越巴西申谷河 原住民保留區的東疆,

  • in the state of Mato Grosso to the northwest of here.

    在巴西的馬托格羅索州 到西北這裡。

  • The top half of the picture,

    相片的上半部

  • you see where the Indians live.

    是印地安人住的地方。

  • The line through the middle

    中間這條線,

  • is the eastern border of the reserve.

    是保留區的東疆。

  • Top half Indians, bottom half white guys.

    上半部是印地安人, 下半部是白人。

  • Top half wonder drugs,

    上半是奇妙的藥物,

  • bottom half just a bunch of skinny-ass cows.

    下半不過就是一群瘦巴巴的牛。

  • Top half carbon sequestered in the forest where it belongs,

    上半的碳隱蔽在所屬的森林中,

  • bottom half carbon in the atmosphere

    下半的碳則排到大氣層,

  • where it's driving climate change.

    造成氣候變遷。

  • In fact, the number two cause

    實際上,第二大

  • of carbon being released into the atmosphere

    造成碳排放到大氣層的成因

  • is forest destruction.

    是森林破壞。

  • But in talking about destruction,

    但是要談到破壞,

  • it's important to keep in mind

    要記住這一點很重要,

  • that the Amazon is the mightiest landscape of all.

    就是亞馬遜是世上最偉大的景觀。

  • It's a place of beauty and wonder.

    它是美麗與奇妙共存的地方。

  • The biggest anteater in the world

    世上最大的食蟻獸

  • lives in the rain forest,

    就生活在這片雨林裡,

  • tips the scale at 90 pounds.

    體重重達 90 磅 (41 公斤)。

  • The goliath bird-eating spider

    巨人食鳥蛛

  • is the world's largest spider.

    是世界上最大的蜘蛛,

  • It's found in the Amazon as well.

    也能在亞馬遜找到。

  • The harpy eagle wingspan is over seven feet.

    角鵰展翼可以超過七呎(二公尺)。

  • And the black cayman

    而黑鱷

  • these monsters can tip the scale at over half a ton.

    這些怪物可以超過半噸重。

  • They're known to be man-eaters.

    人稱這些為食人獸。

  • The anaconda, the largest snake,

    森蚺,最大的蛇,

  • the capybara, the largest rodent.

    水豚,最大的齧齒類。

  • A specimen from here in Brazil

    從巴西這裡來的一副標本

  • tipped the scale at 201 pounds.

    重達 201 磅(91 公斤)。

  • Let's visit where these creatures live,

    讓我們探訪一下這些生物住的地方,

  • the northeast Amazon,

    亞馬遜東北區,

  • home to the Akuriyo tribe.

    阿庫里優部落的家鄉。

  • Uncontacted peoples hold a mystical and iconic role

    未接觸部落在我們的想像中

  • in our imagination.

    總給人一種神秘與定型的印象。

  • These are the people who know nature best.

    他們是最瞭解大自然的人。

  • These are the people who truly live

    他們是真正與大自然

  • in total harmony with nature.

    和諧共存的人。

  • By our standards, some would dismiss these people as primitive.

    按照我們的標準, 有些人會視他們為原始人。

  • "They don't know how to make fire,

    他們不知道如何生火,

  • or they didn't when they were first contacted."

    或說在首次接觸外界前 他們不知道如何生火。

  • But they know the forest far better than we do.

    但是他們比我們更了解森林。

  • The Akuriyos have 35 words for honey,

    阿庫里優人對蜂蜜 有 35 種叫不同的方法,

  • and other Indians look up to them

    其它的印地安人景仰他們,

  • as being the true masters of the emerald realm.

    因為他們是這片 翡翠大地真正的主人。

  • Here you see the face of my friend Pohnay.

    這是我的朋友波奈的臉。

  • When I was a teenager rocking out

    當我還是青少年在老家紐奧良

  • to the Rolling Stones in my hometown of New Orleans,

    隨著滾石樂團搖頭晃腦時,

  • Pohnay was a forest nomad

    波奈已經是個森林遊牧人,

  • roaming the jungles of the northeast Amazon

    在亞馬遜東北的叢林中漫遊,

  • in a small band, looking for game,

    與一小群人為伍,找尋獵物,

  • looking for medicinal plants,

    找尋藥用植物,

  • looking for a wife,

    找老婆,

  • in other small nomadic bands.

    在外族中找。

  • But it's people like these

    但是就是這樣的人

  • that know things that we don't,

    瞭解我們不了解的東西,

  • and they have lots of lessons to teach us.

    而且他們能教我們很多功課。

  • However, if you go into most of the forests of the Amazon,

    然而,如果你進入 亞馬遜森林大部分的地方,

  • there are no indigenous peoples.

    都看不到原住民。

  • This is what you find:

    而這是你會看到的:

  • rock carvings which indigenous peoples,

    石刻,為原住民,

  • uncontacted peoples, used to sharpen the edge of the stone axe.

    未接觸之民 拿來磨利石斧之刃留下的。

  • These cultures that once danced,

    這些原本舞蹈、

  • made love, sang to the gods,

    交合、向諸神歌頌、

  • worshipped the forest,

    信奉森林的文化,

  • all that's left is an imprint in stone, as you see here.

    只剩下石頭上的印記留存, 如你現在所見。

  • Let's move to the western Amazon,

    再來看亞馬遜西區,

  • which is really the epicenter of isolated peoples.

    那裡真的是隱世之民的中心。

  • Each of these dots represents

    這裡每一個點都代表了

  • a small, uncontacted tribe,

    一個小小的、未接觸部落。

  • and the big reveal today is we believe there are 14 or 15 isolated groups

    今天的大揭密是我們相信 光是在哥倫比亞屬的亞馬遜

  • in the Colombian Amazon alone.

    就有 14 或 15 個隱世的部落。

  • Why are these people isolated?

    為什麼這些人要隱世獨立?

  • They know we exist, they know there's an outside world.

    他們知道我們的存在, 他們知道有外面的世界。

  • This is a form of resistance.

    這是一種反抗的形式。

  • They have chosen to remain isolated,

    他們選擇繼續隱世,

  • and I think it is their human right to remain so.

    而我認為繼續如此是他們的人權。

  • Why are these the tribes that hide from man?

    為什麼這些部落要躲人?

  • Here's why.

    我告訴你為什麼。

  • Obviously, some of this was set off in 1492.

    很明顯,這從 1492 年就開始了。

  • But at the turn of the last century

    但就在上世紀之初,

  • was the rubber trade.

    橡膠貿易興起。

  • The demand for natural rubber,

    人們對天然橡膠的需求,

  • which came from the Amazon,

    天然橡膠來自亞馬遜,

  • set off the botanical equivalent of a gold rush.

    爆發了橡膠的淘金潮。

  • Rubber for bicycle tires,

    橡膠能做自行車輪胎,

  • rubber for automobile tires,

    橡膠能做車胎,

  • rubber for zeppelins.

    橡膠還能做齊柏林飛船。

  • It was a mad race to get that rubber,

    那是一場瘋狂的橡膠大戰,

  • and the man on the left, Julio Arana,

    而左邊的那位,胡利歐·阿拉納,

  • is one of the true thugs of the story.

    則是這個故事裡真正的惡棍。

  • His people, his company,

    他的人,他的公司,

  • and other companies like them

    及其他跟他們一樣的公司,

  • killed, massacred, tortured, butchered Indians

    殘殺、屠殺、虐待、宰殺印地安人,

  • like the Witotos you see on the right hand side of the slide.

    像你在照片右手邊看到的維多多人。

  • Even today, when people come out of the forest,

    即使在今天, 他們離開森林與外界接觸,

  • the story seldom has a happy ending.

    也很少有好下場。

  • These are Nukaks. They were contacted in the '80s.

    這些是努卡人。 他們於 80 年代開始與外界接觸。

  • Within a year, everybody over 40 was dead.

    不到一年,每一個 超過 40 歲的人都死了。

  • And remember, these are preliterate societies.

    你要記得,這些是文前社會。

  • The elders are the libraries.

    耆老就是圖書館。

  • Every time a shaman dies,

    每次有巫師死亡,

  • it's as if a library has burned down.

    就好像有圖書館被燒掉了一樣。

  • They have been forced off their lands.

    他們被迫離開他們的土地。

  • The drug traffickers have taken over the Nukak lands,

    毒品販子占領了努卡人的地,

  • and the Nukaks live as beggars

    努卡人則成了乞丐,

  • in public parks in eastern Colombia.

    在東哥倫比亞的公園裡行乞為生。

  • From the Nukak lands, I want to take you to the southwest,

    我要帶你們從 努卡人的土地到西南區,

  • to the most spectacular landscape in the world:

    到全世界最壯麗的地景上:

  • Chiribiquete National Park.

    奇里比格達國家公園。

  • It was surrounded by three isolated tribes

    它被三個遺世的部落環繞,

  • and thanks to the Colombian government and Colombian colleagues,

    感謝哥倫比亞政府 及哥倫比亞的同僚,

  • it has now expanded.

    現在公園的範圍擴大了。