Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Hey, congratulations!

    嗨,恭喜!

  • You've just won the lottery,

    你剛剛贏得了抽獎

  • only the prize isn't cash or a luxury cruise.

    只是獎品不是現金或奢華的旅遊

  • It's a position in your country's national legislature.

    獎品是你國家立法機關的一個職位

  • And you aren't the only lucky winner.

    而你不是唯一的幸運得主

  • All of your fellow lawmakers were chosen in the same way.

    你所有的立法同事都是用同樣的方式選出來的

  • This might strike you as a strange way to run a government,

    你可能會認為這是一個奇特的方式來組成政府

  • let alone a democracy.

    更不用說是一個民主國家

  • Elections are the epitome of democracy, right?

    選舉是民主的最佳象徵,不是嗎?

  • Well, the ancient Athenians who coined the word had another view.

    發明「民主」這個字的古雅典人有不同的看法

  • In fact, elections only played a small role in Athenian democracy,

    事實上,選舉在雅典民主裡的作用不大

  • with most offices filled by random lottery from a pool of citizen volunteers.

    大部分的職務是從一群有意願的市民中隨機挑選出來擔任

  • Unlike the representative democracies common today,

    不像今日常見的代議式民主制

  • where voters elect leaders to make laws and decisions on their behalf,

    選民選出領導者,代表他們來制定法律及做決策

  • 5th Century BC Athens was a direct democracy

    西元前五世紀的雅典則是使用直接民主制

  • that encouraged wide participation

    鼓勵大家廣泛的參與政治

  • through the principle of ho boulomenos, or anyone who wishes.

    透過「ho boulomenos」原則,意味著誰想要就可以參與

  • This meant that any of its approximately 30,000 eligible citizens

    這表示大約3萬名合格的市民

  • could attend the ecclesia,

    都可以參加「市民議會」

  • a general assembly meeting several times a month.

    市民議會是每月聚集數次的全體集會

  • In principle, any of the 6,000 or so who showed up at each session

    原則上,參與每次集會大約6千人中的任何人

  • had the right to address their fellow citizens,

    都有權力向他們對市民同儕演說

  • propose a law,

    提出法案

  • or bring a public lawsuit.

    或是替大眾審判

  • Of course, a crowd of 6,000 people trying to speak at the same time

    當然,6千人的群眾同時說話

  • would not have made for effective government.

    不會成為一個有效的政府

  • So the Athenian system also relied on a 500 member governing council

    所以雅典民主也仰賴由500名成員組成的治理議會

  • called the Boule,

    稱為「Boule」

  • to set the agenda and evaluate proposals,

    來設立議程及評估提案

  • in addition to hundreds of jurors and magistrates to handle legal matters.

    以及數百位的陪審員和地方法官來處理法律事務

  • Rather than being elected or appointed,

    比起被選拔出來或受指派的

  • the people in these positions were chosen by lot.

    這些職位的人們是用抽籤來決定的

  • This process of randomized selection is know as sortition.

    這個隨機選擇的過程就是熟知的抽籤

  • The only positions filled by elections

    唯一經過選舉填補職位的

  • were those recognized as requiring expertise,

    是那些被認為需要專業知識的職位

  • such as generals.

    例如將軍

  • But these were considered aristocratic, meaning rule by the best,

    但這些制度被認為是貴族化,意味著由菁英統治

  • as opposed to democracies, rule by the many.

    與多數人統治的民主制度相違背

  • How did this system come to be?

    這個系統是如何成形的呢?

  • Well, democracy arose in Athens after long periods of social and political tension

    民主制度在長期社會及政治上的緊張關係後崛起

  • marked by conflict among nobles.

    特別是貴族之間的衝突

  • Powers once restricted to elites,

    權力原本只限於菁英

  • such as speaking in the assembly and having their votes counted,

    例如在集會中發言,以及投票能算數

  • were expanded to ordinary citizens.

    後來權力擴展到一般市民身上

  • And the ability of ordinary citizens to perform these tasks

    而一般的市民能執行這些事務

  • adequately became a central feature of the democratic ideology of Athens.

    適切地成為雅典理想民主的中心特色

  • Rather than a privilege,

    與其說是個特權

  • civic participation was the duty of all citizens,

    市民參與是所有市民的責任

  • with sortition and strict term limits preventing governing classes

    抽籤和嚴格的任期限制阻絕了統治階級

  • or political parties from forming.

    以及政治派別的形成

  • By 21st century standards,

    依照21世紀的標準

  • Athenian rule by the many excluded an awful lot of people.

    雅典的多數統治排除了極多的人們在外

  • Women, slaves and foreigners were denied full citizenship,

    女人、奴隸以及外國人都拒絕擁有完整的公民權

  • and when we filter out those too young to serve,

    當我們剔除掉太過年輕而無法任職者

  • the pool of eligible Athenians drops to only 10-20% of the overall population.

    合格的雅典選民降至只有全國人口數的10至20%

  • Some ancient philosophers, including Plato,

    有些古哲學家,包括柏拉圖

  • disparaged this form of democracy as being anarchic and run by fools.

    貶低這種形式的民主為無政府的,而且由愚者所運行

  • But today the word has such positive associations,

    但在今日「民主」這詞有著正面的關聯

  • that vastly different regimes claim to embody it.

    許多不同的政權都主張要實現它

  • At the same time, some share Plato's skepticism about the wisdom of crowds.

    在這同時,有些人對柏拉圖有關於群眾智慧的懷疑態度有相同的想法

  • Many modern democracies reconcile this conflict

    許多現代民主制度調解這種爭端

  • by having citizens elect those they consider qualified

    藉由讓市民選出他們認為有資格

  • to legislate on their behalf.

    來代表他們制定法律的人

  • But this poses its own problems,

    但這也產生了問題

  • including the influence of wealth,

    包括財富的影響力

  • and the emergence of professional politicians

    以及專職政客的出現

  • with different interests than their constituents.

    他們與選民的利益不同

  • Could reviving election by lottery lead to more effective government

    透過更多元和更具代表性的立法機關

  • through a more diverse and representative group of legislatures?

    就能讓復興的抽籤選舉造就更有效的政府嗎?

  • Or does modern political office, like Athenian military command,

    還是現代政治官員,也如同雅典軍隊指揮官一樣

  • require specialized knowledge and skills?

    需要更專業的知識和技巧?

  • You probably shouldn't hold your breath

    你大概不能抱太大的希望

  • to win a spot in your country's government.

    在你的國家政府贏得一個職位

  • But depending on where you live,

    但依據你所住的地方

  • you may still be selected to participate in a jury,

    你也許仍會被選出來參與審判

  • a citizens' assembly,

    市民集會

  • or a deliberative poll,

    或者是商議式民調

  • all examples of how the democratic principle behind sortition

    所有民主原則如何支持抽籤的例子

  • still survives today.

    仍在今日繼續存留著

Hey, congratulations!

嗨,恭喜!

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 民主 市民 雅典 職位 選舉

【TED-Ed】什麼才是民主最初的意義? (What did democracy really mean in Athens? - Melissa Schwartzberg)

  • 5294 740
    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 01 日
影片單字