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  • (Rainforest noises)

    (雨林的聲音)

  • In the summer of 2011, as a tourist,

    2011年夏天, 我以旅行者的身份,

  • I visited the rainforests of Borneo for the very first time,

    第一次拜訪婆羅洲的雨林。

  • and as you might imagine,

    你也許猜想到,

  • it was the overwhelming sounds of the forest that struck me the most.

    我印象最深刻的, 是鋪天蓋地的雨林之聲。

  • There's this constant cacophony of noise.

    有一個持續不斷的雜音。

  • Some things actually do stick out.

    有一些聲音確實與眾不同。

  • For example, this here is a big bird, a rhinoceros hornbill.

    例如,這有一隻大鳥, 是一隻犀鳥

  • This buzzing is a cicada.

    這是蟬的鳴叫聲;

  • This is a family of gibbons.

    這是一個長臂猿家族,

  • It's actually singing to each other over a great distance.

    牠正向遠處的家人歌唱。

  • The place where this was recorded was in fact a gibbon reserve,

    據記載,這地方 是一個長臂猿的保護區,

  • which is why you can hear so many of them,

    因此可以聽到那麼多猿聲,

  • but in fact the most important noise that was coming out of the forest that time

    但那時森林中最重要的聲音

  • was one that I didn't notice,

    卻是我當時沒注意的聲音,

  • and in fact nobody there had actually noticed it.

    事實上那裡沒有人 真的注意到那個聲音。

  • So, as I said, this was a gibbon reserve.

    如我所說,這是長臂猿保護區。

  • They spend most of their time rehabilitating gibbons,

    他們花了大部份時間復育長臂猿,

  • but they also have to spend a lot of their time

    也花了大量時間

  • protecting their area from illegal logging that takes place on the side.

    保護長臂猿的生長區域 不受邊境非法盜木所影響。

  • And so if we take the sound of the forest

    如果我們收集森林的聲音,

  • and we actually turn down the gibbons, the insects, and the rest,

    調降長臂猿、昆蟲 以及其他動物的聲音,

  • in the background, the entire time, in recordings you heard,

    你可以在整段時間聽到背景中

  • was the sound of a chainsaw at great distance.

    來自遠處的電鋸聲。

  • They had three full-time guards who were posted around this sanctuary

    當地有三位全職警衛 戍守這個避護所,

  • whose job was in fact to guard against illegal logging,

    面對面抵抗非法伐木。

  • and one day, we went walking, again as tourists, out into the forest,

    而某天, 我們再次以旅者的身份走入雨林,

  • and within five minutes' walk,

    5分鐘後,

  • we stumbled upon somebody who was just sawing a tree down,

    我們看見了 有人剛剛把一顆樹鋸下來。

  • five minutes' walk, a few hundred meters from the ranger station.

    就在5分鐘路程內, 離警衛駐點數百公尺之外。

  • They hadn't been able to hear the chainsaws,

    他們從未聽到電鋸聲,

  • because as you heard, the forest is very, very loud.

    因為如你所聽, 森林聲音非常、非常大。

  • It struck me as quite unacceptable that in this modern time,

    這令我十分不解,在現代,

  • just a few hundred meters away from a ranger station in a sanctuary,

    僅離警衛駐點數百公尺,

  • that in fact nobody could hear it when someone who has a chainsaw gets fired up.

    竟然無人聽到有人在使用電鋸。

  • It sounds impossible, but in fact, it was quite true.

    這聽來不可思議, 但事實上,這是十分真確的。

  • So how do we stop illegal logging?

    那麼,我們如何停止非法伐木?

  • It's really tempting, as an engineer, always to come up with a high-tech,

    這真令人技癢, 工程師總想要高科技,

  • super-crazy high-tech solution,

    想出超瘋狂高科技解決方案,

  • but in fact, you're in the rainforest.

    但事實上,你身處雨林,

  • It has to be simple, it has to be scalable,

    這個方法必須簡單、易操作,

  • and so what we also noticed while were there was that

    而我們注意到

  • everything we needed was already there.

    我們所需的都已經在那裡了。

  • We could build a system that would allow us to stop this

    我們可以構架一個系統,

  • using what's already there.

    就地取材阻止盜伐。

  • Who was there? What was already in the forest?

    誰在那?森林裡有什麼?

  • Well, we had people.

    我們有人手,

  • We had this group there that was dedicated, three full-time guards,

    我們有3位全職警衛,

  • that was dedicated to go and stop it,

    其職責就是阻止盜木,

  • but they just needed to know what was happening out in the forest.

    而他們需要的是 知道森林裡發生了什麼事。

  • The real surprise, this is the big one,

    令人驚訝,超乎預期的是,

  • was that there was connectivity out in the forest.

    森林裡有網路連結訊號!

  • There was cell phone service way out in the middle of nowhere.

    手機服務訊號在雨林中無所不在,

  • We're talking hundreds of kilometers from the nearest road,

    我們談的是距道路數百公里之遙,

  • there's certainly no electricity, but they had very good cell phone service,

    當然沒有電力, 但卻有很好的手機訊號,

  • these people in the towns were on Facebook all the time,

    城鎮中的人們 總是掛在Facebook,

  • they're surfing the web on their phones,

    用他們的手機瀏覽網路,

  • and this sort of got me thinking that in fact it would be possible

    而這讓我想到也許可以

  • to use the sounds of the forest,

    利用森林裡的聲音,

  • pick up the sounds of chainsaws programmatically,

    用程序擷取電鋸的音頻,

  • because people can't hear them,

    因為人們無法聽到,

  • and send an alert.

    並送出警示。

  • But you have to have a device to go up in the trees.

    但必須把某個設備放在樹上;

  • So if we can use some device to listen to the sounds of the forest,

    如果我們可以運用某些設備 來聽取森林的聲音,

  • connect to the cell phone network that's there,

    連結到手機的網絡,

  • and send an alert to people on the ground,

    將警示傳送給地面上的人們;

  • perhaps we could have a solution to this issue for them.

    或許,我們可以 為他們找到解決方案。

  • But let's take a moment to talk about saving the rainforest,

    但我們先來談談拯救雨林,

  • because it's something that we've definitely all heard about forever.

    因為那是我們聽聞已久的事情。

  • People in my generation have heard about saving the rainforest

    與我同輩的人都聽過拯救雨林,

  • since we were kids,

    從我們還是孩子的時候,

  • and it seems that the message has never changed:

    而這似乎未曾改變,

  • We've got to save the rainforest, it's super urgent,

    我們要拯救雨林,這超級迫切,

  • this many football fields have been destroyed yesterday.

    如此多足球場般大的雨林 昨日已被摧毀。

  • and yet here we are today, about half of the rainforest remains,

    而今,仍有半數的雨林存在著,

  • and we have potentially more urgent problems like climate change.

    我們已有潛在更迫切的問題, 例如氣候變遷。

  • But in fact, this is the little-known fact that I didn't realize at the time:

    但,有一些少為人知的事實 我當時並不知道

  • Deforestation accounts for more greenhouse gas

    [13%運輸;17%伐木] 伐木造成的溫室氣體

  • than all of the world's planes, trains, cars, trucks and ships combined.

    比全世界的飛機、火車、汽車、 卡車、船運加總還要多,

  • It's the second highest contributor to climate change.

    是造成氣候變遷的第二大起因。

  • Also, according to Interpol,

    同時,根據國際刑警組織,

  • as much as 90 percent of the logging that takes place in the rainforest

    雨林區的伐木有高達90%

  • is illegal logging, like the illegal logging that we saw.

    都是違法的, 就像我們所看到的盜伐。

  • So if we can help people in the forest enforce the rules that are there,

    若我們能幫助雨林的人們 執行當地的法律,

  • then in fact we could eat heavily into this 17 percent

    我們可以減少 高達17%的溫室氣體,

  • and potentially have a major impact in the short term.

    並可在短期產生重大影響。

  • It might just be the cheapest, fastest way to fight climate change.

    這也許是擊退氣候變遷 最便宜、最快速的方法。

  • And so here's the system that we imagine.

    這是我們構想的系統,

  • It looks super high tech.

    看起來像超高端科技。

  • The moment a sound of a chainsaw is heard in the forest,

    當電鋸的聲音在森林中被聽到,

  • the device picks up the sound of the chainsaw,

    這個設備擷取電鋸的聲音,

  • it sends an alert through the standard GSM network that's already there

    透過現有的標準GSM網絡 發出警示

  • to a ranger in the field

    給當地的警衛,

  • who can in fact show up in real time and stop the logging.

    他們就可以即時出現,阻止砍伐。

  • It's no more about going out and finding a tree that's been cut.

    這不需要走到外面, 才發現樹木被砍了。

  • It's not about seeing a tree from a satellite

    也不必看區域衛星圖

  • in an area that's been clear cut,

    看有沒有樹被砍倒,

  • it's about real-time intervention.

    這是即時的干預。

  • So I said it was the cheapest and fastest way to do it,

    如我所說, 這是最便宜、最快速的方法,

  • but in fact, actually, as you saw, they weren't able to do it,

    但事實上,如你所見, 他們無法做到,

  • so it may not be so cheap and fast.

    所以它也許不是那麼便宜、快速。

  • But if the devices in the trees were actually cell phones,

    但如果樹上的設備是手機的話,

  • it could be pretty cheap.

    那可以是非常便宜的。

  • Cell phones are thrown away by the hundreds of millions every year,

    每年有數以億計的手機被丟棄,

  • hundreds of millions in the U.S. alone,

    僅在美國就有上億部,

  • not counting the rest of the world, which of course we should do,

    這還沒算到世界其他地區, 當然我們應該算到;

  • but in fact, cell phones are great.

    但事實上,手機是很棒的!

  • They're full of sensors.

    手機充滿感測器

  • They can listen to the sounds of the forest.

    可以聽取森林的聲音;

  • We do have to protect them.

    我們需要保護手機,

  • We have to put them in this box that you see here,

    我們需要把手機放在盒子裡, 如你在此所見。

  • and we do have to power them.

    我們需要替手機充電,

  • Powering them is one of the greater engineering challenges

    替手機充電一項重大工程挑戰,

  • that we had to deal with,

    我們必須面對,

  • because powering a cell phone under a tree canopy,

    因為在樹蔭下替手機充電,

  • any sort of solar power under a tree canopy,

    任何在樹蔭下的太陽能,

  • was an as-yet-unsolved problem,

    都尚未做到;

  • and that's this unique solar panel design that you see here,

    而這就是獨一無二的 太陽能面板設計,

  • which in fact is built also from recycled byproducts of an industrial process.

    這是由工廠製程中 回收的副產品所組成的,

  • These are strips that are cut down.

    這些是剩下的腳料。

  • So this is me putting it all together

    這是我, 正將所有東西組裝在一起,

  • in my parents' garage, actually.

    在我父母的車庫中,

  • Thanks very much to them for allowing me to do that.

    非常感謝他們允許我這麼作。

  • As you can see, this is a device up in a tree.

    如你所見, 這套設備在樹上的樣子。

  • What you can see from here, perhaps, is that they are pretty well obscured

    如你所見,樹上的這些設備,

  • up in the tree canopy at a distance.

    從遠方看起來很不顯眼。

  • That's important, because although they are able to hear chainsaw noises

    那很重要,雖然它們可以聽到

  • up to a kilometer in the distance,

    遠至一公里之外的電鋸聲,

  • allowing them to cover about three square kilometers,

    範圍可覆蓋約3平方公里,

  • if someone were to take them, it would make the area unprotected.

    但如果有人把它拿走, 這個區域就不受保護了。

  • So does it actually work?

    這真的行得通嗎?

  • Well, to test it, we took it back to Indonesia,

    嗯,來試試看, 我們帶著它回到印尼,

  • not the same place, but another place,

    不是同個地方,而是另一個地方,

  • to another gibbon reserve

    去到另一個長臂猿保護區,

  • that was threatened daily by illegal logging.

    天天被盜伐威脅的保護區。

  • On the very second day, it picked up illegal chainsaw noises.

    就在第二天, 它擷取到非法的電鋸聲,

  • We were able to get a real-time alert.

    我們能夠得到一個即時的警示,

  • I got an email on my phone.

    我在手機上收到郵件。

  • Actually, we had just climbed the tree. Everyone had just gotten back down.

    事實上,我們剛爬完樹, 大家才剛回到地面,

  • All these guys are smoking cigarettes,

    大夥正在抽煙,

  • and then I get an email, and they all quiet down,

    然後我收到郵件,他們都安靜下來,

  • and in fact you can hear the chainsaw

    事實上你可以聽到電鋸聲,

  • really, really faint in the background,

    在背景聲中非常非常模糊的聲音,

  • but no one had noticed it until that moment.

    但直到警示響起時大家才注意到。

  • And so then we took off to actually stop these loggers.

    接著,我們動身前去阻止伐木者;

  • I was pretty nervous.

    我十分緊張,

  • This is the moment where we've actually arrived close to where the loggers are.

    那時我們到達伐木人附近,

  • This is the moment where you can see where I'm actually regretting

    這時我也許之前的所有努力 開始感到後悔,

  • perhaps the entire endeavor.

    這時我也許對之前所有的努力 開始感到後悔,

  • I'm not really sure what's on the other side of this hill.

    我不確定山坡另一邊的狀況。

  • That guy's much braver than I am.

    那位老兄比我勇敢得多,

  • But he went, so I had to go, walking up,

    但他去了,所以我必須去,

  • and in fact, he made it over the hill,

    他登上山坡,

  • and interrupted the loggers in the act.

    中斷伐木者的行動。

  • For them, it was such a surprise --

    對他們而言,這非常令人驚訝---

  • they had never, ever been interrupted before --

    他們之前從來沒有被中斷過---

  • that it was such an impressive event for them,

    這對他們來說相當印象深刻,

  • that we've heard from our partners they have not been back since.

    後來夥伴們告訴我們, 自此之後他們再也沒來。

  • They were, in fact, great guys.

    他們真的是很棒的人!

  • They showed us how the entire operation works,

    他們展示這個運作是可行的,

  • and what they really convinced us on the spot was that

    他們當場使我們相信:

  • if you can show up in real time and stop people,

    如果你可以即時出現、阻止伐木者,

  • it's enough of a deterrent they won't come back.

    那會有很足夠的嚇阻作用 讓他們不再回來。

  • So --

    所以

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝 (掌聲)

  • Word of this spread, possibly because we told a lot of people,

    這件事情廣泛流傳了, 也許是因為我們跟很多人說過了,

  • and in fact, then some really amazing stuff started to happen.

    而事實上, 後來有些令人驚喜的東西開始發生。

  • People from around the world started to send us emails, phone calls.

    世界各地的人們 開始寄郵件和手機給我們,

  • What we saw was that people throughout Asia,

    我們看到來自亞洲、

  • people throughout Africa, people throughout South America,

    非洲、南美洲的人們,

  • they told us that they could use it too,

    他們告訴我們, 他們也可以運用這個方法;

  • and what's most important,

    而最重要的是,

  • what we'd found that we thought might be exceptional,

    我們之前發現了不起的是

  • in the forest there was pretty good cell phone service.

    雨林的手機服務相當不錯,

  • That was not exceptional, we were told,

    人們告訴我們,那不是了不起,

  • and that particularly is on the periphery of the forests that are most under threat.

    特別是在森林的邊陲地帶、 最深受威脅的地區。

  • And then something really amazing happened,

    接著真正令人驚喜的東西發生了,

  • which was that people started sending us their own old cell phones.

    人們開始寄給我們舊手機;

  • So in fact what we have now is a system

    我們現在擁有一個系統,

  • where we can use people on the ground, people who are already there,

    我們可以運用普羅大眾、四周的居民,

  • who can both improve and use the existing connectivity,

    他們可以同時改善、 使用現有的網絡,

  • and we're using old cell phones that are being sent to us

    並且我們利用 世界各地人們寄過來的舊手機,

  • by people from around the world

    並且我們利用 世界各地人們寄過來的舊手機,

  • that want their phones to be doing something else in their afterlife,

    他們希望舊手機 可以在丟棄後發揮功效,

  • so to speak.

    或許可以這麼說。

  • And if the rest of the device can be completely recycled,

    假若剩餘的手機也可以完全作回收,

  • then we believe it's an entirely upcycled device.

    我們相信 那會是全然升級改造的手機。

  • So again, this didn't come because of any sort of high-tech solution.

    再次重申,這個項目的成功 不是因為任何高科技解決方案,

  • It just came from using what's already there,

    這僅是就地取材,

  • and I'm thoroughly convinced that if it's not phones,

    而我完全相信如果不是用手機,

  • that there's always going to be enough there

    當地總會有足夠的東西

  • that you can build similar solutions

    可以建構相似的解決方案,

  • that can be very effective in new contexts.

    在新的環境中起到很好的作用。

  • Thank you very much.

    謝謝!

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

(Rainforest noises)

(雨林的聲音)

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 手機 森林 聲音 警示 警衛

【TED】托佛.懷特: 什麼可以拯救雨林?你的舊手機 (Topher White: What can save the rainforest? Your used cell phone)

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    CUChou 發佈於 2015 年 03 月 24 日
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