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  • When you think of Archimedes' "Eureka!" moment,

    當你想到阿基米德的「我發現了!」靈機一動的瞬間,

  • you probably think of this.

    你或許會想阿基米德定律是在這樣的情況下發現的。

  • As it turns out, it may have been more like this.

    真實的故事,可能是另外一回事。

  • In the third century BC, Hieron, king of the Sicilian city of Syracuse,

    西元前三世紀,赫農王是西拉克斯西西里城的國王,

  • chose Archimedes to supervise

    指定阿基米德監督

  • an engineering project of unprecedented scale.

    一個史無前例的工程專案。

  • Hieron commissioned a sailing vessel

    赫農王要求阿基米德建造一艘

  • 50 times bigger than a standard ancient warship,

    比戰艦還要大 50 倍的帆船,

  • named the Syracusia after his city.

    並以其城市命名為西拉克斯。

  • Hieron wanted to construct the largest ship ever,

    赫農王要建造一艘前所未有的大船,

  • which was destined to be given as a present

    要作為埃及統治者

  • for Egypt's ruler, Ptolemy.

    托勒密的禮物。

  • But could a boat the size of a palace possibly float?

    但像宮殿一樣大的船浮得起來嗎?

  • In Archimedes's day, no one had attempted anything like this.

    在阿基米德那個年代,沒有人解決過這樣的問題。

  • It was like asking, "Can a mountain fly?"

    這就像是在問「能讓一座山飛起來嗎?」

  • King Hieron had a lot riding on that question.

    赫農王對這個問題也感到疑問。

  • Hundreds of workmen were to labor for years on constructing the Syracusia

    數百名工人花了好幾年的時間建造西拉克斯

  • out of beams of pine and fir from Mount Etna,

    以埃特納火山的松樹和杉木來作船樑。

  • ropes from hemp grown in Spain,

    使用西班牙的大麻作成麻繩,

  • and pitch from France.

    使用來自法國的樹脂。

  • The top deck, on which eight watchtowers were to stand,

    甲板上有八座瞭望臺,

  • was to be supported not by columns,

    不是以圓柱撐起來,

  • but by vast wooden images of Atlas holding the world on his shoulders.

    而是傳說中將世界扛在肩上的阿特拉斯的巨大木製人像。

  • On the ship's bow,

    船頭上,

  • a massive catapult would be able to fire 180 pound stone missiles.

    巨大的彈射器能夠發射 180 磅的石彈。

  • For the enjoyment of its passengers,

    為了讓乘客享受搭乘的樂趣,

  • the ship was to feature a flower-lined promenade,

    這帆船特別作一條雕花長廊步道,

  • a sheltered swimming pool,

    一座室內游泳池,

  • and bathhouse with heated water,

    提供熱水浴的澡堂,

  • a library filled with books and statues,

    一座充满書籍和雕像的圖書館,

  • a temple to the goddess Aphrodite,

    一座供奉女神愛芙羅黛蒂的神殿,

  • and a gymnasium.

    和一座健身房。

  • And just to make things more difficult for Archimedes,

    除此之外,還要找一些更加困難的差事給阿基米德,

  • Hieron intended to pack the vessel full of cargo:

    赫農王想要將帆船裝滿貨物:

  • 400 tons of grain,

    四百噸的穀物,

  • 10,000 jars of pickled fish,

    一萬罐的醃魚,

  • 74 tons of drinking water,

    七十四噸的飲用水,

  • and 600 tons of wool.

    六百噸的羊毛。

  • It would have carried well over a thousand people on board,

    這船必須能夠搭載一千位以上的乘客,

  • including 600 soldiers.

    其中包括六百位士兵。

  • And it housed 20 horses in separate stalls.

    可在不同的馬廄安置二十匹馬。

  • To build something of this scale,

    為了建造一艘龐大的船,

  • only for that to sink on its maiden voyage?

    因為如此,它的處女航就沈沒在大海裡?

  • Well, let's just say that failure

    嗯,也就是說失敗的結果

  • wouldn't have been a pleasant option for Archimedes.

    對阿基米德來說並不是他想要的作法。

  • So he took on the problem: will it sink?

    他提出了問題:這艘船會沈嗎?

  • Perhaps he was sitting in the bathhouse one day,

    有一天他坐在澡堂裡,

  • wondering how a heavy bathtub can float,

    很想知道如何讓一個浴缸浮起來,

  • when inspiration came to him.

    一個靈感突然浮現腦海。

  • An object partially immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force

    一個物體的一部分浸入液體會有浮力

  • equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

    這浮力等於物體排出的液體的重量。

  • In other words, if a 2,000 ton Syracusia displaced exactly 2,000 tons of water,

    換句話說,如果一艘二千噸的西拉克斯所排出的水量也正好是二千噸,

  • it would just barely float.

    它剛好可以浮起來。

  • If it displaced 4,000 tons of water, it would float with no problem.

    如果可以排出四千噸的水,要船浮起來是沒問題的。

  • Of course, if it only displaced 1,000 tons of water,

    如果只排出一千噸的水是浮不起來的,

  • well, Hieron wouldn't be too happy.

    當然,赫農王對此結果會不高興。

  • This is the law of buoyancy,

    這就是浮力定律,

  • and engineers still call it Archimedes' Principle.

    工程師仍然稱它為阿基米德定律。

  • It explains why a steel supertanker can float as easily as a wooden rowboat

    它解釋為何一艘超級鋼製油輪能夠像木造划艇般容易浮起來

  • or a bathtub.

    浴缸也是相同的道理。

  • If the weight of water displaced by the vessel below the keel

    若船龍骨線以下所排出的水的重量

  • is equivalent to the vessel's weight,

    等於船的重量,

  • whatever is above the keel will remain afloat above the waterline.

    船龍骨線以上的地方將保持浮在船的吃水線之上。

  • This sounds a lot like another story involving Archimedes and a bathtub,

    這聽起來像是另一個故事,有別於阿基米德和浴缸的故事,

  • and it's possible that's because they're actually the same story,

    也可能是因為它們是同一個故事,

  • twisted by the vagaries of history.

    卻被異想天開的歷史故事所扭曲。

  • The classical story of Archimedes' Eureka! and subsequent streak through the streets

    大家所知的阿基米德靈機一動的故事!「大喊我發現了」然後裸奔穿過

  • centers around a crown, or corona in Latin.

    圍繞著皇冠的街道中心,皇冠的拉丁文是"corona"。

  • At the core of the Syracusia story is a keel, or korone in Greek.

    西拉克斯故事的主旨是船龍骨,其西臘文是"korone"。

  • Could one have been mixed up for the other?

    是因為把 "corona"和 "korone" 混淆了嗎?

  • We may never know.

    我們不得而知。

  • On the day the Syracusia arrived in Egypt on its first and only voyage,

    當西拉克斯在它的第一次也是唯一一次的航行抵達埃及時,

  • we can only imagine how residents of Alexandria thronged the harbor

    我們只能想像亞歷山大的居民蜂擁至港口

  • to marvel at the arrival of this majestic, floating castle.

    看到這雄偉的,飄浮的城堡的到來而感到驚訝。

  • This extraordinary vessel was the Titanic of the ancient world,

    這艘特別的船是古文明世界的鐵達尼號,

  • except without the sinking, thanks to our pal, Archimedes.

    但這艘船並未沈入大海,這要歸功於阿基米德。

When you think of Archimedes' "Eureka!" moment,

當你想到阿基米德的「我發現了!」靈機一動的瞬間,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 故事 浴缸 建造 定律 重量

TED-Ed】阿基米德《尤里卡》背後的真實故事!--Armand D'Angour。 (【TED-Ed】The real story behind Archimedes’ Eureka! - Armand D'Angour)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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