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  • I experienced my first coup d'état at the age of four.

    我四歲大的時候時就遭遇到 人生第一場軍事政變,

  • Because of the coup d'état,

    因為軍事政變我們全家 必須離開在迦納的家園,

  • my family had to leave my native home of Ghana

    搬去了甘比亞;

  • and move to the Gambia.

    碰巧在我們抵達後的六個月,

  • As luck would have it,

    他們也發生了軍事政變,

  • six months after we arrived,

    我清楚地記得在大半夜裡被叫醒來,

  • they too had a military coup.

    而且盡我們一切努力打包了稀少的行李,

  • I vividly remember being woken up in the middle of the night

    大概走了兩小時抵達一間安全的房子,

  • and gathering the few belongings we could

    有一整個星期我們是睡在床底下的,

  • and walking for about two hours

    因為我們很怕子彈有可能會 從窗戶外飛進來。

  • to a safe house.

    後來在八歲大時我們搬去波扎納,

  • For a week, we slept under our beds

    這一次就不同了,

  • because we were worried that bullets might fly through the window.

    那裡並沒有發生政變,

  • Then, at the age of eight,

    一切運作都正常、很棒的教育建設,

  • we moved to Botswana.

    他們有非常好的基礎建設, 在當時他們甚至還有著光纖電信系統,

  • This time, it was different.

    遠早於光纖出現西方國家以前;

  • There were no coups.

    他們唯一所沒有的東西,

  • Everything worked. Great education.

    就是他們沒有自己國家的電視台,

  • They had such good infrastructure that even at the time they had

    因此我記得收看到鄰國 南非的電視節目,

  • a fiber-optic telephone system,

    看到了曼德拉在監獄中 被人給了一個機會能夠出來,

  • long before it had reached Western countries.

    前提是他要能放棄對種族隔離的抗爭。

  • The only thing they didn't have

    不過他沒有放棄、他拒絕了,

  • is that they didn't have

    待在獄中直到他真的達成目標:

  • their own national television station,

    從種族隔離中解放了南非人。

  • and so I remember watching

    而且我記得感受到 就只是有著一個好領導人,

  • TV from neighboring South Africa,

    竟能帶給非洲如此大的改變。

  • and watching Nelson Mandela in jail

    後來我十二歲的時候,

  • being offered a chance to come out

    我的家人送我去辛巴威讀高中,

  • if he would give up the apartheid struggle.

    起先這邊也是一樣棒透了的,

  • But he didn't. He refused to do that

    不停成長的經濟、優質的基礎建設,

  • until he actually achieved his objective

    它就像是非洲在經濟發展上的楷模。

  • of freeing South Africa from apartheid.

    我就從辛巴威的高中畢業了,

  • And I remember feeling how just one good leader

    離開了辛巴威去唸大學;

  • could make such a big difference in Africa.

    六年後我重新回到了這個國家,

  • Then at the age of 12,

    一切都走樣了,

  • my family sent me to high school in Zimbabwe.

    它被破壞得分崩離析,

  • Initially, this too was amazing:

    已經有數百萬人遷出了,

  • growing economy, excellent infrastructure,

    經濟是一片混亂,

  • and it seemed like it was a model

    它看起來像是30年的經濟發展

  • for economic development in Africa.

    霎時間都被破壞掉了!

  • I graduated from high school in Zimbabwe

    一個國家怎麼能這麼快 就變得如此悽慘呢?

  • and I went off to college.

    大部分人都會認同全都是因為領導風範,

  • Six years later, I returned to the country.

    有一個人─ 總統羅伯特‧穆加比,

  • Everything was different.

    幾乎得對摧毀這個國家負上全責。

  • It had shattered into pieces.

    今天生活在非洲各地的成長經驗,

  • Millions of people had emigrated,

    對我學到兩件事情,

  • the economy was in a shambles,

    第一是它讓我愛上了非洲,

  • and it seemed all of a sudden that 30 years

    每處我到過的地方,

  • of development had been wiped out.

    我都體驗到我們大陸絕妙的美麗,

  • How could a country go so bad so fast?

    看到我們人民的適應力以及熱情,

  • Most people would agree

    而在那時候我就明白我要投入我的餘生

  • that it's all because of leadership.

    來使這塊大陸變棒。

  • One man, President Robert Mugabe,

    不過我也瞭解要讓非洲變棒,

  • is almost single-handedly responsible

    將需要處理領導風範這個議題,

  • for having destroyed this country.

    你也都知道我曾經住過的國家,

  • Now, all these experiences of living in different

    我在迦納、甘比亞還有辛巴威曾經看過

  • parts of Africa growing up

    軍事政變還有貪污;

  • did two things to me.

    相較於我在波扎那還有南非看過的

  • The first is it made me fall in love with Africa.

    好領導風範之絕佳例子,

  • Everywhere I went,

    讓我明白了非洲將會因為領導人的素質

  • I experienced the wonderful beauty of our continent

    而躍升或是殞落,

  • and saw the resilience and the spirit of our people,

    可能有人會說:「那當然!

  • and at the time, I realized that I wanted to dedicate

    在任何地方領導風範都是重要的」;

  • the rest of my life to making this continent great.

    可是如果你有在我今天的 談話裡學到什麼,

  • But I also realized that making Africa great

    那就是非洲更甚於世界上的任何地方,

  • would require addressing this issue of leadership.

    只是有著一個好領導者 而能做到的改變,

  • You see, all these countries I lived in,

    要比在其他任何地方還要了不得,

  • the coups d'état

    原因在這裡, 因為在非洲我們有孱弱的體制,

  • and the corruption I'd seen in Ghana and Gambia

    就像司法、憲政、公民社會諸如此類者。

  • and in Zimbabwe,

    所以我所篤信的經驗法則是

  • contrasted with the wonderful examples I had seen

    當社會存有堅強的體制時,

  • in Botswana and in South Africa of good leadership.

    好的領導者能做的改變是有限的;

  • It made me realize that Africa would rise or fall

    但是當社會有著孱弱的體制時,

  • because of the quality of our leaders.

    就只要有著一個好的領導人,

  • Now, one might think, of course,

    他就能成就或毀掉那個國家。

  • leadership matters everywhere.

    讓我來講更具體些吧,

  • But if there's one thing you take away from my talk today, it is this:

    你變成了美國的總統,

  • In Africa, more than anywhere else in the world,

    你想著:「哇!我做到了!

  • the difference that just one good leader can make

    我是世界上最有權力的人了!」

  • is much greater than anywhere else, and here's why.

    所以你決定好 「或許讓我來通過一條法律吧!」

  • It's because in Africa, we have weak institutions,

    突然間國會就拍了一下你的肩膀,

  • like the judiciary, the constitution,

    說了:「不行!不行!你不能這樣做!」

  • civil society and so forth.

    你說:「讓我換個方式好了」,

  • So here's a general rule of thumb that I believe in:

    參議院就出現了以及說:

  • When societies have strong institutions,

    「我們不認為你能這樣做啦!」

  • the difference that one good leader can make is limited,

    你說:「也許讓我來多印些鈔票吧,

  • but when you have weak institutions,

    我認為經濟需要有一些激勵!」

  • then just one good leader

    央行行長會認為你瘋了,

  • can make or break that country.

    你還可能因為這樣被彈劾。

  • Let me make it a bit more concrete.

    但是假如你是辛巴威的總統,

  • You become the president of the United States.

    你說:「我真的很喜歡這個工作,

  • You think, "Wow, I've arrived.

    我認為我會想要永久一直做下去的。」 (笑聲)

  • I'm the most powerful man in the world."

    沒錯!你就是可以的!

  • So you decide, perhaps let me pass a law.

    你決定要印鈔票,

  • All of a sudden, Congress taps you on the shoulder

    你打個電話給中央銀行的行長,

  • and says, "No, no, no, no, no, you can't do that."

    你說:「請將鈔票的供給量加一倍」,

  • You say, "Let me try this way."

    他就會說:「遵命!長官,

  • The Senate comes and says, "Uh-uh,

    是否還有其他事情是我可以為你做的?」

  • we don't think you can do that."

    這就是非洲的領導人們所擁有的權力,

  • You say, perhaps, "Let me print some money.

    這就是為什麼他們能在這塊大陸

  • I think the economy needs a stimulus."

    做出最多的改變,

  • The central bank governor will think you're crazy.

    好消息是在非洲領導風範 的素質已經在改善了的,

  • You might get impeached for that.

    在我的印象中我們有著 三個世代的領導人,

  • But if you become the president of Zimbabwe,

    第一個世代是那些出現在 1950-60年代者,

  • and you say, "You know, I really like this job.

    這些人像是迦納的夸梅·恩克鲁瑪、

  • I think I'd like to stay in it forever." (Laughter)

    坦尚尼亞的朱利葉斯・尼雷爾,

  • Well, you just can.

    他們遺留的成就是他們把 獨立帶給了非洲,

  • You decide you want to print money.

    他們從殖民主義中解放了我們,

  • You call the central bank governor and you say,

    讓我們為這個來讚揚他們。

  • "Please double the money supply."

    緊接在他們後面是第二個世代,

  • He'll say, "Okay, yes, sir,

    這些是除了破壞、混亂外 什麼也沒帶給非洲的人,

  • is there anything else I can do for you?"

    想看看戰爭、貪污、違反人權等,

  • This is the power that African leaders have,

    這是傳統的非洲領導人的刻板印象,

  • and this is why they make the most difference

    我們總是想到薩伊的蒙博托·塞塞·塞科、

  • on the continent.

    奈及利亞的薩尼·阿巴查,

  • The good news is that

    好消息是這群領導人大多已經不在位了,

  • the quality of leadership in Africa has been improving.

    他們被第三個世代的領導人所取代了,

  • We've had three generations of leaders, in my mind.

    這些人像是近代的尼爾森‧曼德拉、

  • Generation one are those who appeared

    還有大部分今天我們在非洲 所看到的領導人們,

  • in the '50s and '60s.

    像是保羅·卡加梅...等等;

  • These are people like Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana

    這些領導人也稱不上完美,

  • and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania.

    不過他們所做到的一件事

  • The legacy they left is that they brought independence to Africa.

    是他們已經整理好大部分 第二世代造成的亂象,

  • They freed us from colonialism,

    他們停止了戰爭,

  • and let's give them credit for that.

    我叫他們「比較穩定世代」,

  • They were followed by generation two.

    對人民來說他們可信得多了,

  • These are people that brought nothing

    他們已經改善了總體經濟的政策,

  • but havoc to Africa.

    而且我們首次看見非洲的經濟成長,

  • Think warfare, corruption, human rights abuses.

    實際上它還是世界上第二快 的經濟成長區域。

  • This is the stereotype of the typical African leader

    所以這些領導人一點也稱不上完美,

  • that we typically think of:

    不過他們絕大多數是近50年來

  • Mobutu Sese Seko from Zaire,

    我們所知道的最佳領導人。

  • Sani Abacha from Nigeria.

    那麼接下來呢?

  • The good news is that most of these leaders have moved on,

    我相信接在這個世代後面的世代,

  • and they were replaced by generation three.

    也就是第四代,

  • These are people like the late Nelson Mandela

    有一個轉變這塊大陸的難得機會,

  • and most of the leaders that we see in Africa today,

    特別是他們能做到前面世代 還沒做到過的兩件事的話。

  • like Paul Kagame and so forth.

    第一件他們需要做的事,

  • Now these leaders are by no means perfect,

    是他們需要創造富足給這片大陸,

  • but the one thing they have done is that they have

    為什麼富足如此重要?

  • cleaned up much of the mess of generation two.

    因為先前的世代都沒有人 有辦法處理好貧窮的問題,

  • They've stopped the fighting,

    今天的非洲有著全世界成長最快人口,

  • and I call them the stabilizer generation.

    不過也是最窮的國家,

  • They're much more accountable to their people,

    等到2030年時非洲會有 比中國還多的勞動力,

  • they've improved macroeconomic policies,

    到了2050年它會有 世界上最多的勞動力,

  • and we are seeing for the first time

    非洲將會有10億人口需要有工作,

  • Africa's growing, and in fact it's the second fastest

    所以假如我們不趕緊提升我們的經濟,

  • growing economic region in the world.

    我們就是坐在一顆定時炸彈上,

  • So these leaders are by no means perfect,

    不只是對非洲,對整個世界也一樣。

  • but they are by and large

    讓我舉個例子給你看,

  • the best leaders we've seen in the last 50 years.

    有一個人做得就跟打造富足的 成就一樣棒:拉堤莎,

  • So where to from here?

    她是來自肯亞的年輕女孩子,

  • I believe that the next generation

    在13歲的時候就輟學了,

  • to come after this, generation four,

    因為她們家沒有辦法幫她付學費,

  • has a unique opportunity

    因此她展開了自己的生意-飼養兔子,

  • to transform the continent.

    在肯亞她所住的那個區塊把這變成佳餚,

  • Specifically, they can do two things

    這門生意不到一年就發展得很好了,

  • that previous generations have not done.

    她雇用了15個女人,

  • The first thing they need to do

    而且能夠積攢足夠的營收,

  • is they need to create prosperity for the continent.

    讓她有能力送自己回去上學,

  • Why is prosperity so important?

    而且又透過這些員工

  • Because none of the previous generations

    資助其他65位的孩子去唸書,

  • have been able to tackle this issue of poverty.

    她所積攢的利潤被她拿來蓋學校,

  • Africa today

    今天她讓她們社區的400個小孩有書讀,

  • has the fastest growing population in the world,

    而且她才剛滿18歲而已。

  • but also is the poorest.

    (掌聲)

  • By 2030, Africa will have a larger workforce than China,

    另一個例子是艾瑞可‧芮喬奈利,

  • and by 2050, it will have the largest workforce in the world.

    艾瑞可來自馬達加斯加的小島,

  • One billion people will need jobs in Africa,

    艾瑞可明白農業會是在 馬達加斯加的農村地區

  • so if we don't grow our economies fast enough,

    創造出工作的關鍵。

  • we're sitting on a ticking time bomb,

    可是他也明白對大多數的 馬達加斯加農夫而言

  • not just for Africa but for the entire world.

    肥料是非常花錢的開銷;

  • Let me show you an example

    馬達加斯加有非常特別的蝙蝠

  • of one person who is living up to this legacy

    會產生非常有養分的糞便,

  • of creating prosperity: Laetitia.

    在2006年艾瑞可辭掉了 執業會計師的工作,

  • Laetitia's a young woman from Kenya

    成立了用蝙蝠的糞便製造肥料的公司,

  • who at the age of 13 had to drop out of school

    如今艾瑞可已經打造出

  • because her family couldn't afford to pay fees for her.

    能收到好幾百萬美金收入的公司,

  • So she started her own business rearing rabbits,

    而且他全職雇用了70個人,

  • which happen to be a delicacy in this part of Kenya

    還有在蝙蝠排泄最多糞便的 季節另外聘用的800人,

  • that she's from.

    我最喜歡這故事的地方,

  • This business did so well that within a year,

    是它證明了創造富足的機會 幾乎隨處都能發現,

  • she was employing 15 women

    艾瑞可就被當成蝙蝠俠了。

  • and was able to generate enough income

    (笑聲...)

  • that she was able to send herself to school,

    有誰曾經想過你能設立 有好幾百萬美金的公司,

  • and through these women

    只是靠蝙蝠的糞便就雇用了許多人。

  • fund another 65 children to go to school.

    這個世代需要做到的第二件事情

  • The profits that she generated,

    是建立我們的體制,

  • she used that to build a school,

    他們一定得建立這些體制,

  • and today she educates

    那我們就永遠不會再受制於

  • 400 children in her community.

    像羅伯特‧穆加比這些少數人了。

  • And she's just turned 18.

    這些全部聽起來很棒,

  • (Applause)

    但是我們要到哪裡找到這些第四世代呢?

  • Another example is Erick Rajaonary.

    難道我們就乾坐盼望他們碰巧的出現嗎?

  • Erick comes from the island of Madagascar.

    或是上帝會把他們帶來給我們嗎?

  • Now, Erick realized that agriculture

    錯了,我不這麼認為,

  • would be the key to creating jobs

    這問題對我們來說重要到 不能放任它偶然發生,

  • in the rural areas of Madagascar,

    我深信我們必需建立非洲本土的體制,

  • but he also realized that fertilizer was a very

    那將會在一個有系統、務實的方法下

  • expensive input for most farmers in Madagascar.

    找出以及栽培這些領導人,

  • Madagascar has these very special bats

    我們透過了「非洲領導力學院」

  • that produce these droppings

    做這些事情已有十年之久,

  • that are very high in nutrients.

    拉堤莎就是其中一位我們的年輕領導人,

  • In 2006, Erick quit his job as a chartered accountant

    今天我們有700位的年輕領導人, 他們被培訓來給非洲大陸所用,

  • and started a company to manufacture

    而接下來的五十年內,

  • fertilizer from the bat droppings.

    我們預計教出6,000位這樣的人,

  • Today, Erick has built a business

    不過有件事情一直在困擾著我,

  • that generates several million dollars of revenue,

    我們一年大概會收到4,000份 入學申請書,

  • and he employs 70 people full time

    為了申請我們可以收進學院的 100位年輕領導人的名額,

  • and another 800 people during the season

    我看到了有非常巨大的需求存在,

  • when the bats drop their droppings the most.

    就為了參加我們提供的領導人訓練。

  • Now, what I like about this story

    但是我們無法滿足這個需求,

  • is that it shows that opportunities to create prosperity

    所以今天我要公開做出首次的聲明,

  • can be found almost anywhere.

    非洲領導力學院為了這願景 的擴建計畫,

  • Erick is known as the Batman.

    我們計畫要在非洲建立25間全新的大學,

  • (Laughter)

    打算栽培出下個世代的非洲領導人們,

  • And who would have thought that you would have

    每個校園我們會同時有 10,000名的領導人學生,

  • been able to build a multimillion-dollar business

    這麼一來我們在任何時點都可以 教育、栽培出25萬位的領導人,

  • employing so many people just from bat poo?

    (掌聲)

  • The second thing that this generation needs to do

    經過接下來的五十年,

  • is to create our institutions.

    我們創造的這個機構可以為非洲大陸 產生300萬位有改造力的領導人。

  • They need to build these institutions such that we

    我的希望是他們中的半數

  • are never held to ransom again

    會成為我們需要的企業家,

  • by a few individuals like Robert Mugabe.

    創造出我們需要的工作;

  • Now, all of this sounds great,

    而另外那一半會進入政府和非營利部門,

  • but where are we going to get this generation four from?

    而他們會建立我們所需要有的體制。

  • Do we just sit and hope that they emerge

    而且他們不會只有學唸書,

  • by chance, or that God gives them to us?

    他們也會學習如何成為領導人、

  • No, I don't think so.

    以及他們會培養出企業家的技能。

  • It's too important an issue for us to leave it to chance.

    所以把這想成是非洲的長春藤聯盟,

  • I believe that we need to create African institutions,

    不過被錄取卻非是因為你的SAT成績、

  • home-grown, that will identify and develop

    你多有錢、或是你的出身,

  • these leaders in a systematic, practical way.

    進入這間大學主要的標準,

  • We've been doing this for the last 10 years

    是你有什麼樣的潛能來轉變非洲。

  • through the African Leadership Academy.

    但是我們所正在做的只有一小群的體制,

  • Laetitia is one of our young leaders.

    我們無法靠自己轉變非洲,

  • Today, we have 700 of them that are being groomed

    我的希望是本土許許多多 的其他非洲體制也會興旺,

  • for the African continent,

    這些體制將會一起合作,

  • and over the next 50 years,

    秉持同樣的願景: 培養下個世代的非洲領導人,

  • we expect to create 6,000 of them.

    也就是第四個世代。

  • But one thing has been troubling me.

    他們會教給他們這個共同的訊息:

  • We would get about 4,000 applications a year

    「創造工作、建立自己的體制」,

  • for 100 young leaders that we could take

    尼爾森‧曼德拉曾經說過:

  • into this academy,

    「有時候某個世代會被拜請要傑出,

  • and so I saw the tremendous hunger that existed

    你可以成為傑出的一代。」