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  • So imagine, you're in the supermarket,

    想像你在逛超市,

  • you're buying some groceries,

    在買一些日常用品,

  • and you get given the option

    你有兩個選擇:

  • for a plastic or a paper shopping bag.

    用塑膠購物袋或紙購物袋,

  • Which one do you choose if you want to do

    如果不想破壞環境的話,

  • the right thing by the environment?

    你會選擇哪一個?

  • Most people do pick the paper.

    多數人選擇的是紙質購物袋。

  • Okay, let's think of why.

    好吧,讓我們想想爲什麽。

  • It's brown to start with.

    首先,紙是棕色的,

  • Therefore, it must be good for the environment.

    因此,它一定是有助於環保的,

  • It's biodegradable. It's reusable.

    它可以生物降解,可多次使用,

  • In some cases, it's recyclable.

    有些還可以被再循環利用,

  • So when people are looking at the plastic bag,

    所以當人們看著塑膠袋,

  • it's likely they're thinking of something like this,

    可能聯想到的是這些畫面。

  • which we all know is absolutely terrible,

    我們都知道這相當可怕,

  • and we should be avoiding at all expenses

    我們理應盡力避免

  • these kinds of environmental damages.

    這些有損於環境的行為,

  • But people are often not thinking

    但是人們很少考慮到

  • of something like this,

    這種情形,

  • which is the other end of the spectrum.

    即另一個極端現象:

  • When we produce materials,

    當我們生產材料時,

  • we need to extract them from the environment,

    需要從環境中獲取原材料,

  • and we need a whole bunch of environmental impacts.

    這會對環境造成一連串的影響。

  • You see, what happens is, when we need

    你看,就是這樣,當人們需要

  • to make complex choices,

    做出複雜的選擇時,

  • us humans like really simple solutions,

    我們喜歡很簡單的解決方案,

  • and so we often ask for simple solutions.

    人們因此而尋求簡單的方案。

  • And I work in design.

    我的工作是設計。

  • I advise designers

    我建議設計師

  • and innovators around sustainability,

    和發明家著眼於材料的永續性。

  • and everyone always says to me, "Oh Leyla,

    每個人總是對我說:「萊拉,

  • I just want the eco-materials."

    我只是想要生物材料。 」

  • And I say, "Well, that's very complex,

    我說:「這很難解釋,

  • and we'll have to spend four hours talking about

    得花上4個小時來解釋

  • what exactly an eco-material means,

    生物材料的確切含義。

  • because everything at some point

    因為從某方面來說,

  • comes from nature,

    一切都來自與自然界。

  • and it's how you use the material

    是人們使用材料的方式

  • that dictates the environmental impact.

    支配和影響著環境。

  • So what happens is, we have to rely

    實情是,我們不得不依賴

  • on some sort of intuitive framework

    幾分直覺架構

  • when we make decisions.

    去做決定。

  • So I like to call that intuitive framework

    所以我喜歡將這些直覺架構稱為

  • our environmental folklore.

    「環境的信仰」。

  • It's either the little voice at the back of your head,

    它或是人們腦中的小小的意見,

  • or it's that gut feeling you get

    或是人的一種直覺,

  • when you've done the right thing,

    一種做了件正確的事的直覺。

  • so when you've picked the paper bag

    比如你選擇了紙質購物袋,

  • or when you've bought a fuel-efficient car.

    或者你買了一輛節能汽車。

  • And environmental folklore is a really important thing

    環境的信仰真的很重要,

  • because we're trying to do the right thing.

    因為我們時刻試著去做正確的事。

  • But how do we know if we're actually

    但是如果我們真的

  • reducing the net environmental impacts

    減少了對環境的淨影響力,

  • that our actions as individuals and as professionals

    作為個體,作為專業人士,作為一個社會整體,

  • and as a society are actually having

    我們要怎樣才能知道,我們的行為

  • on the natural environment?

    確實影響了自然環境?

  • So the thing about environmental folklore is

    環境的信仰

  • it tends to be based on our experiences,

    是建立在我們的經驗之上,

  • the things we've heard from other people.

    是我們從別人那聽來的,

  • It doesn't tend to be based on any scientific framework.

    而不是基於任何科學框架。

  • And this is really hard, because we live

    這一點真的很難,因為我們生活在

  • in incredibly complex systems.

    異常複雜的多系統內。

  • We have the human systems

    人與人有相互交流,

  • of how we communicate and interrelate

    和聯繫的人類系統,

  • and have our whole constructed society,

    還有有人類構建的整個社會系統,

  • We have the industrial systems, which is essentially the entire economy,

    我們有工業系統, 本質上相當於整個經濟體系,

  • and then all of that has to operate

    這些都在一個

  • within the biggest system,

    最大的系統內運行。

  • and, I would argue, the most important,

    我認為最重要的系統

  • the ecosystem.

    就是生態系統。

  • And you see, the choices that we make

    我們作為一個個體

  • as an individual,

    做出選擇,

  • but the choices that we make

    我們在每一份工作中

  • in every single job that we have,

    做出選擇,

  • no matter how high or low you are in the pecking order,

    無論你所在的社會等級是高還是低,

  • has an impact on all of these systems.

    (這些選擇)都會對所有的這些系統造成影響。

  • And the thing is that we have to find ways

    關鍵是我們得找到方法。

  • if we're actually going to address sustainability

    如果我們真想解決

  • of interlocking those complex systems

    那些相互連結的複雜系統內的永續性,

  • and making better choices that result

    並且做出更好的選擇,

  • in net environmental gains.

    獲得環境淨收益。

  • What we need to do is we need to learn

    我們就要學會做到

  • to do more with less.

    事半功倍。

  • We have an increasing population,

    我們的人口在不斷增長,

  • and everybody likes their mobile phones,

    人人都喜歡拿著自己的手機,

  • especially in this situation here.

    特別是在聽演講的時候。

  • So we need to find innovative ways of solving some of these problems that we face.

    因此要解決我們面對的這些問題, 我們需要找出創新方法。

  • And that's where this process called life cycle thinking comes in.

    這就是「生命週期思維過程 」所關注的。

  • So essentially, everything that is created

    基本上每一樣被創造出來的東西,

  • goes through a series of life cycle stages,

    都要經歷一系列的生命週期階段,

  • and we use this scientific process

    我們利用的這種科學研究過程,

  • called life cycle assessment,

    被稱為生命週期評估。

  • or in America, you guys say life cycle analysis,

    在美國,它被稱為生命週期分析。

  • in order to have a clearer picture of how

    爲了得到一個清晰的圖景,

  • everything that we do in the technical part of those systems

    來顯示在這些系統的技術層面, 人類的每個做法

  • affects the natural environment.

    是怎樣影響到自然環境的。

  • So we go all the way back

    我們一直追溯到最初,

  • to the extraction of raw materials,

    從提取原始材料開始,

  • and then we look at manufacturing,

    然後加工製造的過程,

  • we look at packaging and transportation,

    我們考察包裝、運輸、使用,

  • use, and end of life,

    一直到使用壽命終結。

  • and at every single one of these stages,

    在其中的每一個階段,

  • the things that we do

    我們所做的每一件事

  • have an interaction with the natural environment,

    都與自然環境相互作用。

  • and we can monitor how that interaction

    我們可以觀察這種相互作用

  • is actually affecting the systems and services

    如何影響著所有的系統和服務,

  • that make life on Earth possible.

    使地球上生命的存在成為可能。

  • And through doing this,

    通過這些工作,

  • we've learned some absolutely fascinating things.

    我們發現了一些相當有趣的事。

  • And we've busted a bunch of myths.

    我們已經解決了一連串的謎題。

  • So to start with, there's a word that's used a lot.

    首先,有這樣一個使用頻繁的單詞,

  • It's used a lot in marketing,

    經常在市場行銷中使用,

  • and it's used a lot, I think, in our conversation

    人們在談話中經常提到,

  • when we're talking about sustainability,

    如果談論的話題與永續性相關。

  • and that's the word biodegradability.

    即「 生物降解 」。

  • Now biodegradability is a material property;

    生物降解是一種材料屬性,

  • it is not a definition of environmental benefits.

    不等於有益於環境。

  • Allow me to explain.

    允我解釋一下,

  • When something natural,

    某些天然物質

  • something that's made from a cellulose fiber

    由纖維素纖維構成,

  • like a piece of bread, even, or any food waste,

    像是一塊麵包或是那些食物垃圾,

  • or even a piece of paper,

    甚至是一張紙。

  • when something natural ends up

    當這種天然物質最終化為

  • in the natural environment, it degrades normally.

    自然界中的一部份,它就屬於自然分解。

  • Its little carbon molecules that it stored up

    它本身具有的碳分子,

  • as it was growing are naturally released

    隨著自身增長而增長的碳分子, 自然而然地會

  • back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide,

    以二氧化碳的形式被釋放到大氣中。

  • but this is a net situation.

    這是一種純粹的降解方式。

  • Most natural things

    大多數由自然物質構成的事物

  • don't actually end up in nature.

    並不會終結於自然界中。

  • Most of the things, the waste that we produce, end up in landfill.

    人類製造的廢棄物多半被棄置在垃圾站。

  • Landfill is a different environment.

    垃圾填築地是另一種環境。

  • In landfill, those same carbon molecules

    在垃圾填築地,同樣的碳分子

  • degrade in a different way,

    以不一樣的方式進行降解,

  • because a landfill is anaerobic.

    因為垃圾站是厭氧性環境,

  • It's got no oxygen. It's tightly compacted and hot.

    那裡沒有氧氣,緊密堆積且熱氣騰騰。

  • Those same molecules, they become methane,

    在垃圾填築地,同樣的分子形成甲烷。

  • and methane is a 25 times more potent

    比二氧化碳造成的

  • greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.

    溫室效應強25倍。

  • So our old lettuces and products

    我們扔掉的

  • that we have thrown out that are made

    蔬菜和日用品,

  • out of biodegradable materials,

    即便由生物降解材料構成,

  • if they end up in landfill,

    一旦進入垃圾填築地,

  • contribute to climate change.

    就會促進氣候變化。

  • You see, there are facilities now

    現在有些設備

  • that can actually capture that methane

    能夠收集甲烷,

  • and generate power,

    轉化成電能,

  • displacing the need for fossil fuel power,

    替代化石燃料發電。

  • but we need to be smart about this.

    但這些需要人們機智的對待。

  • We need to identify how we can start to leverage

    我們需要明瞭,怎樣去影響

  • these types of things that are already happening

    這些時刻發生的反應。

  • and start to design systems and services

    怎樣去設計系統和服務體系

  • that alleviate these problems.

    來解決這些問題。

  • Because right now, what people do is they turn around and they say,

    因為當下,人們只會回過頭來說:

  • "Let's ban plastic bags. We'll give people paper

    「禁止使用塑料袋。我們為人們提供紙袋

  • because that is better for the environment."

    因為紙袋更有利於環境。」

  • But if you're throwing it in the bin,

    但如果你把它扔進了垃圾箱,

  • and your local landfill facility

    而且當地垃圾填築站的設備

  • is just a normal one,

    又很普通,

  • then we're having what's called a double negative.

    那麼我們就遭遇了雙重否定(即破壞環境)。

  • I'm a product designer by trade.

    我的職業是產品設計師,

  • I then did social science.

    然後才是從事社會科學。

  • And so I'm absolutely fascinated

    所以我很著迷於

  • by consumer goods and how the consumer goods

    消費品,著迷於那些

  • that we have kind of become immune to

    我們多少有些麻木了的、

  • that fill our lives

    充斥著我們的生活的消費品

  • have an impact on the natural environment.

    是怎樣影響自然環境的。

  • And these guys are, like, serial offenders,

    這些消費品就好像累犯一樣。

  • and I'm pretty sure everyone in this room

    我十分確定這裡的每一個人家裡

  • has a refrigerator.

    都有一台冰箱。

  • Now America has this amazing ability

    美國有驚人的實力,

  • to keep growing refrigerators.

    不斷擴大冰箱的容積。

  • In the last few years, they've grown one cubic foot

    過去的幾年間,冰箱的

  • on average, the standard size

    標準體積平均擴大了

  • of a refrigerator.

    一立方英尺。

  • And the problem is, they're so big now,

    問題是,冰箱已經過大了,

  • it's easier for us to buy more food

    容易讓人買更多的、

  • that we can't eat or find.

    找不到又吃不下的食物。

  • I mean, I have things at the back of my refrigerator

    我就有些食物放在冰箱深處

  • that have been there for years, all right?

    有些年頭了,好嗎?

  • And so what happens is, we waste more food.

    所以實情是我們會浪費更多食物。

  • And as I was just explaining, food waste is a problem.

    我剛剛說明的是 浪費食物是個問題。

  • In fact, here in the U.S., 40 percent

    事實上,在美國有40%的

  • of food purchased for the home is wasted.

    家庭購買的食物被浪費。

  • Half of the world's produced food is wasted.

    世界上有一半的食物被浪費掉。

  • That's the latest U.N. stats. Up to half of the food.

    這是聯合國最新的統計數據, 高達一半的食物被浪費。

  • It's insane. It's 1.3 billion tons of food per annum.

    這太荒唐了,相當於每年13億噸的食物。

  • And I blame it on the refrigerator,

    我將這種顯現歸咎於冰箱的使用。

  • well, especially in Western cultures,

    特別是基於西方文化,

  • because it makes it easier.

    因為冰箱使人更容易浪費食物。

  • I mean, there's a lot of complex systems going on here.

    這其中有太多複雜的體系。

  • I don't want to make it so simplistic.

    我不想將它簡單化。

  • But the refrigerator is a serious contributor to this,

    但是冰箱是其中一個嚴峻的促因。

  • and one of the features of it

    它有一個特色,

  • is the crisper drawer.

    就是保鮮儲藏格。

  • You all got crisper drawers?

    大家都有保鮮箱吧?

  • The drawer that you put your lettuces in?

    就是放生菜的那一格?

  • Lettuces have a habit of going soggy

    生菜會變得濕軟,

  • in the crisper drawers, don't they?

    在保鮮箱裡,對吧?

  • Yeah? Soggy lettuces?

    變軟的生菜?

  • In the U.K., this is such a problem

    在英國,這樣一個問題

  • that there was a government report a few years ago

    在幾年前被寫成了一份政府報告。

  • that actually said the second biggest offender

    報告稱,英國第二大

  • of wasted food in the U.K. is the soggy lettuce.

    浪費的食物就是變軟的生菜。

  • It was called the Soggy Lettuce Report.

    該報告被稱為《軟生菜報告》。

  • Okay? So this is a problem, people.

    所以,朋友,這是個問題。

  • These poor little lettuces are getting thrown out

    那些不幸的生菜被扔得

  • left, right and center because the crisper drawers

    到處都是,就因為保鮮箱

  • are not designed to actually keep things crisp.

    沒真正起到保鮮的作用。

  • Okay. You need a tight environment.

    你需要一個密閉的環境。

  • You need, like, an airless environment

    像沒有空氣的環境

  • to prevent the degrading that would happen naturally.

    來防止降解的自然發生。

  • But the crisper drawers, they're just a drawer

    但是保鮮箱只是個

  • with a slightly better seal.

    密封較好的抽屜而已。

  • Anyway, I'm clearly obsessed.

    總之,很明顯,我困惑了。

  • Don't ever invite me over because I'll just start going through your refrigerator

    永遠別邀請我去你家。 因為我會檢查你的冰箱,

  • and looking at all sorts of things like that.

    查看所有這類現象。

  • But essentially, this is a big problem.

    但本質上,這是個大問題。

  • Because when we lose something like the lettuce from the system,

    因為在這個系統內, 當我們扔掉生菜這類食物,

  • not only do we have that impact I just explained at the end of life,

    不只是影響到 我剛剛提到的生命的終結,

  • but we actually have had to grow that lettuce.

    還影響到種植生菜這個起點。

  • The life cycle impact of that lettuce is astronomical.

    對生菜生命週期的影響是難以估計的。

  • We've had to clear land.

    我們已經備好了耕地,

  • We've had to plant seeds, phosphorus,

    我們已經種了種子,撒了磷,

  • fertilizers, nutrients, water, sunlight.

    撒了化肥,養肥,澆了水,曬了陽光。

  • All of the embodied impacts in that lettuce

    所有體現在那顆生菜上的作用

  • get lost from the system,

    從系統中丟失了。

  • which makes it a far bigger environmental impact

    這使得它對環境有更大的影響,

  • than the loss of the energy from the fridge.

    比冰箱的能量損失嚴重得多。

  • So we need to design things like this far better

    所以我們需要好得多的設計。

  • if we're going to start addressing serious environmental problems.

    如果我們要著手 解決這些嚴重的環境問題,

  • We could start with the crisper drawer and the size.

    我們可以從保鮮盒抽屜的大小著手。

  • For those of you in the room who do design fridges,

    對於在座的設計的冰箱各位來講,

  • that would be great.

    這是極好的。

  • The problem is, imagine if we

    問題是,想像一下,如果我們

  • actually started to reconsider how we designed things.

    重新開始考慮我們是怎樣進行設計的。

  • So I look at the refrigerator as a sign of modernity,

    所以我將冰箱視為現代化的標誌。

  • but we actually haven't really changed the design

    但其實自1950 年代以來,我們並沒有

  • of them that much since the 1950s.

    對這個設計做多少改變。

  • A little bit, but essentially they're still big boxes,

    有點變化,但本質上它們還是大箱子,

  • cold boxes that we store stuff in.

    用於存儲食物的冷藏盒。

  • So imagine if we actually really started

    想像一下,我們是否真的開始

  • to identify these problems and use that

    面對這些問題。

  • as the foundation for finding innovative and elegant

    並且將其作為基準,來尋找

  • design solutions that will solve those problems.

    創新一流的設計方案,來解決這些問題。