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  • Many people in the United States and Latin America

    許多在美國和拉丁美洲的人,

  • have grown up celebrating the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's voyage,

    從小就慶祝克里斯多福‧哥倫布 航行紀念日,

  • but was he an intrepid explorer who brought two worlds together

    不過他真的是一個打通兩個世界 的英勇探險家嗎?

  • or a ruthless exploiter who brought colonialism and slavery?

    還是只是一個帶來殖民主義以及奴隸制度 的殘暴的剝削者呢?

  • And did he even discover America at all?

    甚至他真的發現了北美洲嗎?

  • It's time to put Columbus on the stand in History vs. Christopher Columbus.

    是時候把哥倫布放在審判台上與歷史對簿公堂了。

  • "Order, order in the court.

    「肅靜!肅靜!

  • Wait, am I even supposed to be at work today?"

    等等,我今天應該是要上班的嗎?」

  • Cough

    (咳嗽聲)

  • "Yes, your Honor.

    「沒錯,法官大人

  • From 1792, Columbus Day was celebrated in many parts of the United States

    從1792年開始, 美國許多地方都慶祝哥倫布紀念日,

  • on October 12th, the actual anniversary date.

    確切地說,是10月12日。

  • But although it was declared an official holiday in 1934,

    不過雖然它在1934年 被宣布為官方假日,

  • individual states aren't required to observe it.

    各州並未被要求遵守,

  • Only 23 states close public services,

    只有23個州暫停民眾服務,

  • and more states are moving away from it completely."

    並且越來越多的州開始徹底取消這個節日。」

  • Cough

    (咳嗽聲)

  • "What a pity.

    「多可惜呀! 在70年代我們甚至 把它改到了十月的第二個星期一

  • In the 70s, we even moved it to the second Monday in October

    如此一來大家可以獲得一個美好的三天週末

  • so people could get a nice three-day weekend,

    我猜你們這些人就是討厭慶祝吧。」

  • but I guess you folks just hate celebrations."

    「什麼?我們是要慶祝什麼?」

  • "Uh, what are we celebrating again?"

    「得了,法官大人。我們都在學校聽過,

  • "Come on, Your Honor, we all learned it in school.

    克里斯多福‧哥倫布說服西班牙國王派給他一個任務,

  • Christopher Columbus convinced the King of Spain to send him on a mission

    找出一條到印度的更棒的貿易路線,

  • to find a better trade route to India,

    不是經過陸地往東行進,而是繞著地球往西航行

  • not by going East over land but sailing West around the globe.

    大家都說那太荒謬了,

  • Everyone said it was crazy because they still thought the world was flat,

    因為他們始終認為地球是平的

  • but he knew better.

    不過他比較懂啦!

  • And when in 1492 he sailed the ocean blue,

    當1942年他航越了大海,

  • he found something better than India:

    他發現了比印度還棒的地方:

  • a whole new continent."

    整塊全新的大陸。」

  • "What rubbish.

    「這是什麼瞎話?

  • First of all, educated people knew the world was round since Aristotle.

    首先,大概從亞里斯多德開始, 受過教育的人都知道地球是圓的

  • Secondly, Columbus didn't discover anything.

    其次,哥倫布根本沒發現任何東西

  • There were already people living here for millennia.

    人們已經在那裡生活了數千年了。

  • And he wasn't even the first European to visit.

    而且他甚至不是第一個到的歐洲人

  • The Norse had settled Newfoundland almost 500 years before."

    北歐海盜(維京人)差不多早500年前就 在紐芬蘭島定居了。」

  • "You don't say, so how come we're not all wearing those cow helmets?"

    「不會吧!那我們怎麼沒有全都 戴著那些牛角帽子呢?」

  • "Actually, they didn't really wear those either."

    「實際上他們本來也沒怎麼戴那些東西。」

  • Cough

    「(咳嗽聲)

  • "Who cares what some Vikings did way back when?

    誰管那少數的維京人在 那麼早之前做了些什麼?

  • Those settlements didn't last, but Columbus's did.

    那些房舍並沒有存留下來, 但是哥倫布的卻是有留下來的,

  • And the news he brought back to Europe spread far and wide,

    而且他帶回歐洲的消息流傳四方,

  • inspiring all the explorers and settlers who came after.

    鼓舞了所有隨後的探險家和屯墾者,

  • Without him, none of us would be here today."

    沒有他就沒有今天的我們。」

  • "And because of him, millions of Native Americans aren't here today.

    「也是因為他,好幾百萬的 美洲原住民今天不在這裡,

  • Do you know what Columbus did in the colonies he founded?

    你知道哥倫布對他所發現的 殖民地做了些什麼嗎?

  • He took the very first natives he met prisoner

    他把最先遇見的 原住民都變成了囚犯,

  • and wrote in his journal about how easily he could conquer and enslave all of them."

    而且在他的航海日誌裡寫到:他可以 如何輕易地征服以及奴役他們。」

  • "Oh, come on. Everyone was fighting each other back then.

    「喔!拜託!以前那段日子 大家也都相互打來打去,

  • Didn't the natives even tell Columbus

    原住民們不是還告訴了哥倫布有關

  • about other tribes raiding and taking captives?"

    其他部落的掠劫以及扣押人質情況嗎?」

  • "Yes, but tribal warfare was sporadic and limited.

    「是沒錯,不過部落間的戰事 是零星而且有限的,

  • It certainly didn't wipe out 90% of the population."

    「肯定沒有滅掉90%的人口。」

  • "Hmm. Why is celebrating this Columbus so important to you, anyway?"

    為什麼慶祝這個哥倫布日對你們是這般重要呢?」

  • "Your Honor, Columbus's voyage was an inspiration

    「法官大人,哥倫布的航程對 在歐洲日子艱困的人來說是一種鼓勵,

  • to struggling people all across Europe, symbolizing freedom and new beginnings.

    象徵著自由以及全新的開始,

  • And his discovery gave our grandparents and great-grandparents

    而且他的發現讓我們的祖父母、 曾祖父母有機會來到這邊,

  • the chance to come here and build better lives for their children.

    以及為他們的小孩創造更好的生活,

  • Don't we deserve a hero to remind everyone that our country

    難道我們不該有個英雄來提醒每個人

  • was build on the struggles of immigrants?"

    我們的國家是建立於 移民者們的艱苦打拼之上嗎?」

  • "And what about the struggles of Native Americans

    「那麼美洲原住民的艱苦又如何呢?

  • who were nearly wiped out and forced into reservations

    他們幾乎是被消滅殆盡、 被迫進入了保留區,

  • and whose descendants still suffer from poverty and discrimination?

    他們的後代仍然深受貧窮以及歧視之苦,

  • How can you make a hero out of a man who caused so much suffering?"

    你怎麼可以用造成了這麼多苦難的人來當英雄呢?」

  • "That's history. You can't judge a guy in the 15th century by modern standards.

    「那就是歷史,你不能用現代的 標準來衡量一個15世紀的傢伙,

  • People back then even thought spreading

    那時候的人甚至認為

  • Christianity and civilization across the world was a moral duty."

    向全世界傳佈基督教和文明 是個天賦的責任。」

  • "Actually, he was pretty bad, even by old standards.

    「事實上就算是用舊的標準來看, 他也是個非常惡劣的人,

  • While governing Hispaniola, he tortured and mutilated

    當他掌管伊斯帕尼奧拉島的時候,

  • natives who didn't bring him enough gold

    他折磨和殘害那些沒有帶給他 足夠黃金的原住民,

  • and sold girls as young as nine into sexual slavery,

    販賣小至9歲大的女孩成為性奴隸,

  • and he was brutal even to the other colonists he ruled,

    甚至對他所管轄的 殖民地開墾者他也是殘忍的,

  • to the point that he was removed from power and thrown in jail.

    殘忍到他最終被解除職務關進了監牢

  • When the missionary, Bartolomé de las Casas,

    當傳教士巴托洛梅·德拉斯·卡薩斯

  • visited the island, he wrote,

    來到那個島上,他寫道:

  • 'From 1494 to 1508, over 3,000,000 people had perished

    「從1494年到1508年,

  • from war, slavery and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this?'"

    超過300萬人因為戰爭、 奴役和開礦丟了性命,後人誰會相信有這些事呢?」

  • "Well, I'm not sure I believe those numbers."

    「我不太敢相信這些數字。」

  • "Say, aren't there other ways the holiday is celebrated?"

    「哎呀!難道沒有其他 慶祝這個節日的方式嗎?」

  • "In some Latin American countries,

    「在一些拉丁美洲國家,

  • they celebrate the same date under different names, such as Día de la Raza.

    他們用不同的名字慶祝同一個日子, 像是「種族文化日」;

  • In these places, it's more a celebration of the native and mixed cultures

    在這些地方,更多的是慶祝殖民後存留下來的

  • that survived through the colonial period.

    本土的和交融文化

  • Some places in the U.S. have also renamed the holiday,

    美國一些地方也把節日改名字了,

  • as Native American Day or Indigenous People's Day

    像是「美洲原住民日」或「原住民日」,

  • and changed the celebrations accordingly."

    相應地也改變了慶祝方式。」

  • "So, why not just change the name if it's such a problem?"

    「如果是這樣的話,改名字不就好了嗎?」

  • "Because it's tradition.

    「因為這是傳統,

  • Ordinary people need their heroes and their founding myths.

    一般人需要英雄偶像 還有英雄們建立的神話,

  • Can't we just keep celebrating the way we've been doing for a century,

    難道我們就不能延續我們已經奉行了一個世紀的慶祝方式,

  • without having to delve into all this serious research?

    而不要去探究這些嚴肅的調查嗎?

  • It's not like anyone is actually celebrating genocide."

    又不是大家真的在慶祝大屠殺似的。」

  • "Traditions change, and the way we choose to keep them alive

    「傳統不是一成不變的, 我們讓傳統延續下去的方式

  • says a lot about our values."

    表達了我們很多的價值觀。」

  • "Well, it looks like giving tired judges a day off isn't one of those values, anyway."

    「不管怎樣,看起來給疲累的法官一天假 並不是其中的一種價值觀!」

  • Traditions and holidays are important to all cultures,

    傳統以及節日對所有的 文化來說都很重要,

  • but a hero in one era may become a villain in the next

    一個時代的英雄偶像可能會

  • as our historical knowledge expands and our values evolve.

    變成下一個時代的惡棍

  • And deciding what these traditions should mean today

    決定這些傳統在今天的意義

  • is a major part of putting history on trial.

    是把歷史放上來做公斷的一個主要目的

Many people in the United States and Latin America

許多在美國和拉丁美洲的人,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 哥倫布 慶祝 原住民 節日 法官

TED-Ed】歷史VS克里斯托弗-哥倫布--亞歷克斯-根德勒。 (【TED-Ed】History vs. Christopher Columbus - Alex Gendler)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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