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  • When I was invited to give this talk a couple of months ago,

    幾個月前,我受邀來進行這場演講時

  • we discussed a number of titles with the organizers,

    我們與主辦方探討了幾個題目

  • and a lot of different items were kicked around and were discussed.

    從多個角度考慮並討論了很多不同的可能

  • But nobody suggested this one,

    但沒有人建議用“擊敗伊波拉”

  • and the reason for that was two months ago,

    而其原因正是在兩個月前

  • Ebola was escalating exponentially

    伊波拉病毒以指數增長級滋生

  • and spreading over wider geographic areas than we had ever seen,

    蔓延到前所未見的廣大地區

  • and the world was terrified, concerned and alarmed

    而全世界都為之驚恐、擔憂、警惕

  • by this disease, in a way we've not seen in recent history.

    其緊張程度在近代史上是前所未見的

  • But today, I can stand here and I can talk to you about beating Ebola

    但今天,我能夠站在這裡與大家討論擊敗伊波拉這個話題

  • because of people whom you've never heard of,

    多虧了那些你們從未聽說過的人們

  • people like Peter Clement, a Liberian doctor who's working in Lofa County,

    比如彼特•克萊蒙德賴比瑞亞-洛法鎮的一名醫生

  • a place that many of you have never heard of, probably, in Liberia.

    你們當中許多人可能從未聽說過賴比瑞亞的洛法鎮

  • The reason that Lofa County is so important is because about five months ago,

    洛法鎮變得如此重要的原因是因為在大約五個月前

  • Lofa County was right at the center, the epicenter of this epidemic.

    洛法鎮正是這場疫情的中心

  • At that time, MSF and the treatment center there,

    那時,駐紮在那裡的無國界醫生組織和治療中心

  • they were seeing dozens of patients every single day,

    每天都要見數十位病人

  • and these patients, these communities were becoming more and more terrified

    而這些病人,這些社區隨著時間流逝

  • as time went by, with this disease and what it was doing to their families, to their communities, to their children, to their relatives.

    變得愈發恐懼,這場疾病給他們的家還有他們的社區,孩子以及親戚人帶來了滅頂之災

  • And so Peter Clement was charged with driving that 12-hour-long rough road

    因此彼特•克萊蒙德卯足了勁在顛簸的公路上開了12個小時

  • from Monrovia, the capital, up to Lofa County,

    從賴比瑞亞首都蒙羅維亞開到了洛法鎮

  • to try and help bring control to the escalating epidemic there.

    去試著幫助控制正在逐漸蔓延的疫情

  • And what Peter found when he arrived was the terror that I just mentioned to you.

    而像我之前所說的,彼特到達洛法鎮時,發現了村子充滿了恐慌

  • So he sat down with the local chiefs, and he listened.

    他和當地領袖們會面聆聽他們的看法

  • And what he heard was heartbreaking.

    他聽到的是令人心碎的消息

  • He heard about the devastation and the desperation of people affected by this disease.

    他聽到了那些患者的悲痛和絕望

  • He heard the heartbreaking stories

    他聽到了那些令人心碎的故事

  • about not just the damage that Ebola did to people,

    不僅僅是關於伊波拉對人們所造成的破壞

  • but what it did to families and what it did to communities.

    還有它對家庭、社區造成的影響

  • And he listened to the local chiefs there and what they told him --

    他聽著當地領袖們訴說的故事

  • They said, "When our children are sick, when our children are dying,

    他們說:“當我們的孩子生病時當我們的孩子瀕臨死亡邊緣

  • we can't hold them at a time when we want to be closest to them.

    我們在最想靠近他們的時刻,卻不能抱住他們

  • When our relatives die, we can't take care of them as our tradition demands.

    當我們的親人死去,我們無法依傳統習俗照料他們的遺體

  • We are not allowed to wash the bodies to bury them the way our communities and our rituals demand.

    我們被禁止洗梳他們的遺體和依照我們族裡的習俗幫他們下葬。

  • And for this reason, they were deeply disturbed, deeply alarmed

    正因如此,他們身心不寧,高度警惕

  • and the entire epidemic was unraveling in front of them.

    而整場瘟疫就在他們面前拉開帷幕

  • People were turning on the healthcare workers who had come,

    人們開始寄望那些來到鎮上的醫務人員

  • the heroes who had come to try and help save the community,

    那些來試著拯救這個村子的英雄

  • to help work with the community, and they were unable to access them.

    來幫助這個社區的英雄但他們無法接近這些英雄

  • And what happened then was Peter explained to the leaders.

    接下來,彼特為當地領袖們進行了解釋

  • The leaders listened. They turned the tables.

    領袖們聆聽著,他們扭轉了局面

  • And Peter explained what Ebola was. He explained what the disease was.

    彼特解釋了伊波拉病毒是什麼他解釋了這種疾病是怎麼回事

  • He explained what it did to their communities.

    他解釋了伊波拉對他們社區造成的影響

  • And he explained that Ebola threatened everything that made us human.

    然後他還解釋了伊波拉病毒威脅著我們的人性

  • Ebola means you can't hold your children the way you would in this situation.

    伊波拉意味著你不能在孩子們奄奄一息時抱住他們

  • You can't bury your dead the way that you would.

    你無法按照傳統習俗安葬他們的遺體

  • You have to trust these people in these space suits to do that for you.

    你必須相信那些身著“太空服”的人相信他們會為你做這些事情

  • And ladies and gentlemen, what happened then was rather extraordinary:

    女士們先生們,接下來發生的相當非比尋常:

  • The community and the health workers, Peter, they sat down together

    整個社區和醫護人員,還有彼特一起坐了下來

  • and they put together a new plan for controlling Ebola in Lofa County.

    他們共同規劃了新方案以在洛法鎮控制伊波拉病毒

  • And the reason that this is such an important story, ladies and gentlemen,

    女士們先生們,這個故事重要的原因是因為

  • is because today, this county, which is right at the center of this epidemic

    就在今天,這個位於疫情中心的鎮

  • you've been watching, you've been seeing in the newspapers,

    這個你一直在關注的疫情你一直在報紙上見到的疫情

  • you've been seeing on the television screens,

    你一直在電視螢幕上看到的疫情的地區

  • today Lofa County is nearly eight weeks without seeing a single case of Ebola.

    已經有將近八週沒有新病例產生了

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Now, this doesn't mean that the job is done, obviously.

    顯然,這並不意味著大功告成

  • There's still a huge risk that there will be additional cases there.

    疫情隨時會爆發的風險仍然很大

  • But what it does teach us is that Ebola can be beaten.

    但這個故事教給我們的是伊波拉病毒是能夠被擊敗的。

  • That's the key thing.

    那才是關鍵

  • Even on this scale,

    甚至是在這麼大的規模下

  • even with the rapid kind of growth that we saw in this environment here,

    甚至在這樣的環境中,它是如此快速蔓延

  • we now know Ebola can be beaten.

    如今我們知道伊波拉是能被擊敗的

  • When communities come together with health care workers, work together,

    當社區居民們團結在一起,再加上醫護人員大家共同努力,

  • that's when this disease can be stopped.

    這場疫情就能被終止的時刻就來了

  • But how did Ebola end up in Lofa County in the first place?

    但伊波拉在最初是如何在洛法鎮出現的呢?

  • Well, for that, we have to go back 12 months, to the start of this epidemic.

    要回答這個問題,我們必須回到12個月前,回到這場疫情的開端

  • And as many of you know, this virus went undetected,

    你們當中許多人都知道這種病毒當時沒有被檢測到

  • it evaded detection for three or four months when it began.

    疫情爆發前,這個病毒已經潛伏了三至四個月

  • That's because this is not a disease of West Africa,

    那是因為伊波拉並非西非的疾病

  • it's a disease of Central Africa, half a continent away.

    而是來自相距半塊大陸之遠的中非

  • People hadn't seen the disease before;

    人們之前從未見過這種病

  • health workers hadn't seen the disease before.

    醫護人員之前也從未見過這種病

  • They didn't know what they were dealing with,

    他們不知道自己面對的是什麼

  • and to make it even more complicated,

    而令事情更為複雜的是

  • the virus itself was causing a symptom, a type of a presentation that wasn't classical of the disease.

    病毒本身引起了一種症狀,一種這種病非典型的表現

  • So people didn't even recognize the disease, people who knew Ebola.

    所以知道伊波拉的人也並未認出這種疾病

  • For that reason it evaded detection for some time,

    由於這個原因,它潛伏了一段時間

  • But contrary to public belief sometimes these days,

    但與如今公眾所相信的,恰恰相反的是

  • once the virus was detected, there was a rapid surge in of support.

    當病毒被檢測到時有一大批支援湧入了疫情中心

  • MSF rapidly set up an Ebola treatment center, as many of you know, in the area.

    無國界醫生組織在這片地區迅速設置起了伊波拉治療中心

  • The World Health Organization and the partners that it works with deployed eventually hundreds of people over the next two months to be able to help track the virus.

    世界衛生組織和其合作夥伴們,在接下來的兩個月內逐步部署了幾百人,以幫助追蹤病情的發展

  • The problem, ladies and gentlemen, is by then, this virus,

    女士們先生們,問題是當時這個病毒

  • well known now as Ebola, had spread too far.

    這個如今以“伊波拉”之名聞名於世的病毒,早已蔓延開來

  • It had already outstripped what was one of the largest responses that had been mounted so far to an Ebola outbreak.

    它的規模早已超越了當時為伊波拉爆發所做出的最大準備

  • By the middle of the year, not just Guinea

    年中時,不僅僅是幾內亞

  • but now Sierra Leone and Liberia were also infected.

    還有獅子山國和賴比瑞亞也遭受感染

  • As the virus was spreading geographically, the numbers were increasing

    隨著病毒大面積擴散受感染人數不斷增加

  • and at this time, not only were hundreds of people infected

    此時,不僅有幾百人受到伊波拉感染

  • and dying of the disease,

    並死於此病

  • but as importantly, the front line responders,

    而且同樣重要的是在前線抗爭的人們

  • the people who had gone to try and help,

    那些來試著幫忙的人

  • the health care workers, the other responders

    醫護人員和其他人們

  • were also sick and dying by the dozens.

    也有數十人因此病倒並死於伊波拉病毒

  • The presidents of these countries recognized the emergencies.

    這些國家的總統意識到問題的急切性

  • They met right around that time, they agreed on common action

    他們就在那時進行了會面並一致同意共同採取行動

  • and they put together an emergency joint operation center in Conakry

    然後他們在柯那克里(幾內亞首都)成立了一個應急聯合行動中心

  • to try and work together to finish this disease and get it stopped,

    試著一起合作來消滅這場疾病阻止它的蔓延

  • to implement the strategies we talked about.

    並執行我們探討過的策略

  • But what happened then was something we had never seen before with Ebola.

    但當時我們所面臨的情況是早前對抗伊波拉時從未遇見的

  • What happened then was the virus, or someone sick with the virus,

    當時伊波拉病毒,或者是攜帶著這病毒的人

  • boarded an airplane, flew to another country,

    登上了飛機,到了另一個國家

  • and for the first time, we saw in another distant country

    而有史以來第一次我們在另一個遙遠的國度看到

  • the virus pop up again.

    伊波拉病毒再度出現

  • This time it was in Nigeria, in the teeming metropolis of Lagos,

    這一次,是在奈吉利亞在熱鬧的大都市拉哥斯

  • 21 million people.

    有兩千一百萬人口

  • Now the virus was in that environment.

    病毒到了那樣的一個環境中

  • And as you can anticipate, there was international alarm,

    正如你所預計的,國際警報就此拉響

  • international concern on a scale that we hadn't seen in recent years

    引發了一場我們近年來都不曾見到的大規模國際性關注

  • caused by a disease like this.

    正是由這樣的一場疾病所導致的

  • The World Health Organization immediately called together an expert panel,

    世界衛生組織立即召集了一個專家小組

  • looked at the situation, declared an international emergency.

    研究了當下情況,並宣佈這是一場國際性緊急狀況

  • And in doing so, the expectation would be that there would be a huge outpouring of international assistance to help these countries

    這樣做是期望之後會湧現一大批國際援助,來幫助這些國家

  • which were in so much trouble and concern at that time.

    這些當時充滿難關和憂慮的國家

  • But what we saw was something very different.

    但我們所見到的卻截然不同

  • There was some great response.

    那時的反應十分熱烈

  • A number of countries came to assist -- many, many NGOs and others, as you know,

    許多國家前來支援 ﹣ 許多許多非政府組織,正如你所了解的

  • but at the same time, the opposite happened in many places.

    但與此同時,相反的情況卻在許多地區發生

  • Alarm escalated, and very soon these countries found themselves not receiving the support they needed, but increasingly isolated.

    警報逐步升級,很快這些國家發現自己得不到所需的援助而且變得愈發孤立

  • What we saw was commercial airlines started flying into these countries

    我們見到商業航線開始飛入這些國家

  • and people who hadn't even been exposed to the virus

    而那些根本沒有接觸過伊波拉病毒的人們

  • were no longer allowed to travel.

    被禁止旅行

  • This cause not only problems, obviously, for the countries themselves,

    很顯然,這不單為那些國家帶來了問題

  • but also for the response.

    還對救援工作造成了麻煩

  • Those organizations that were trying to bring people in,

    那些正試著將人帶入這些國家的組織

  • to try and help them respond to the outbreak,

    那些想要幫助他們對抗伊波拉病毒爆發的組織

  • they could not get people on airplanes,

    他們無法將人送上飛機

  • they could not get them into the countries to be able to respond.

    也無法把人帶到施以援助的國家

  • In that situation, ladies and gentleman,

    在那樣的情況下,女士們先生們

  • a virus like Ebola takes advantage.

    像伊波拉這樣的病毒就會趁虛而入

  • And what we saw then was something also we hadn't seen before.

    我們所面臨的局面是前所未見的

  • Not only did this virus continue in the places

    伊波拉病毒不單在這些已受感染的地方繼續傳播

  • where they'd already become infected, but then it started to escalate

    然後病毒甚至開始蔓延

  • and we saw the case numbers that you see here,

    於是我們得到了你們眼前所見的病例數量

  • something we'd never seen before on such a scale,

    這種規模是前所未見的

  • an exponential increase of Ebola cases

    伊波拉病例以指數般增長

  • not just in these countries or the areas already infected in these countries

    不單是在這些國家或是這些國家中已受感染的地區

  • but also spreading further and deeper into these countries.

    並且它在這些國家擴散得更廣更深

  • Ladies and gentleman, this was one of the most concerning international emergencies in public health we've ever seen.

    女士們先生們,這是我們所見過最令人擔憂的國際性公共衛生緊急狀況之一

  • And what happened in these countries then,

    而之後在這些國家發生的事情

  • many of you saw, again, on the television, read about in the newspapers,

    正如你們許多人在電視上所看到的或是在報紙上所讀到的

  • we saw the health system start to collapse under the weight of this epidemic.

    這些國家的醫療與衛生體系開始在這場伊波拉戰役的重壓下崩潰

  • We saw the schools begin to close, markets no longer started,no longer functioned the way that they should in these countries.

    在這些國家,學校開始關閉,市場不再開門,這些機構都無法正常運行。

  • We saw that misinformation and misperceptions started to spread

    誤報和誤解在這些社區

  • even faster through the communities, which became even more alarmed about the situation.

    開始以更快的速度流傳,令他們對局勢變得愈發緊張

  • They started to recoil from those people that you saw in those space suits,

    他們開始疏遠那些被稱為“身著太空服的人”

  • as they call them, who had come to help them.

    而那些人是來幫助當地社區的

  • And then the situation deteriorated even further.

    然後局勢進一步惡化

  • The countries had to declare a state of emergency.

    這些國家不得不宣告國家處於緊急狀況

  • Large populations needed to be quarantined in some areas, and then riots broke out.

    這些地區大量人口要被隔離然後更爆發騷亂

  • It was a very, very terrifying situation.

    此時的局勢非常非常的可怕

  • Around the world, many people began to ask,

    在全球各地,許多人開始問

  • can we ever stop Ebola when it starts to spread like this?

    當伊波拉病毒開始如此瘋狂擴散時我們還能阻止它嗎?

  • And they started to ask, how well do we really know this virus?

    他們開始問我們對這個病毒到底有多少了解?

  • The reality is we don't know Ebola extremely well.

    事實上,我們對伊波拉病毒了解的並不多

  • It's a relatively modern disease in terms of what we know about it.

    就我們所了解的而言,它是一種相對現代的疾病

  • We've known the disease only for 40 years,

    我們知道這種病僅僅 40 年

  • since it first popped up in Central Africa in 1976.

    它第一次出現是在 1976 年的中非

  • But despite that, we do know many things:

    但除此之外,我們的確知道許多事情:

  • We know that this virus probably survives in a type of a bat.

    我們知道這種病毒很有可能存在於一種蝙蝠體內

  • We know that it probably enters a human population when we come in contact with a wild animal that has been infected with the virus and probably sickened by it.

    我們推測它應該在人類接觸到帶病原體的野生動物時,而感染到人類的。

  • Then we know that the virus spreads from person to person

    我們還知道這種病毒在人與人之間的擴散

  • through contaminated body fluids.

    是通過體液感染

  • And as you've all seen,

    正如你們都見到的

  • we know the horrific disease that it then causes in humans,

    我們也知道這種病毒在人體內所造成的可怕疾病

  • where we see this disease cause severe fevers, diarrhea, vomiting,

    這種疾病會導致發高燒、腹瀉、嘔吐

  • and then unfortunately, in 70 percent of the cases or often more, death.

    不幸的是,在超過70%的病例中,患者會死亡

  • This is a very dangerous, debilitating, and deadly disease.

    這是一種十分危險、令人逐步衰竭、並且置人于死地的疾病

  • But despite the fact that we've not known this disease for a particularly long time,

    然而,儘管我們了解這種疾病的時間並不長

  • and we don't know everything about it, we do know how to stop this disease.

    也並沒有了解它的一切但我們的確知道如何阻止伊波拉

  • There are four things that are critical to stopping Ebola.

    有四件十分關鍵的事可以阻止伊波拉

  • First and foremost, the communities have got to understand this disease,

    首先,社區必須要去理解這種疾病

  • they've got to understand how it spreads and how to stop it.

    他們必須要理解伊波拉是如何擴散、如何阻止的

  • And then we've got to be able to have systems that can find every single case,

    然後我們必須建立一個體系能夠找到每一宗病例

  • every contact of those cases,

    以及那些病例的所有聯繫人

  • and begin to track the transmission chains so that you can stop transmission.

    並且開始追蹤傳播的路徑這樣才能阻止傳播

  • We have to have treatment centers, specialized Ebola treatment centers,

    我們必須要建立治療中心專門研究伊波拉的治療中心

  • where the workers can be protected

    在那裡,醫療工作者們能得到保護

  • as they try to provide support to the people who are infected,

    在他們努力為那些受感染的人提供幫助時

  • so that they might survive the disease.

    這樣他們才能夠活下來

  • And then for those who do die,

    而對於那些逝者

  • we have to ensure there is a safe, but at the same time dignified, burial process,

    我們必須確保有一個安全而又保有尊嚴的埋葬流程

  • so that there is no spread at that time as well.

    以確保在此流程中不會造成病毒的擴散

  • So we do know how to stop Ebola, and these strategies work, ladies and gentlemen.

    女士們先生們,我們真的知道如何有效的阻止伊波拉

  • The virus was stopped in Nigeria by these four strategies

    我們以這四個策略成功在奈及利亞阻止了伊波拉病毒

  • and the people implementing them, obviously.

    當然的,也多虧了執行這四個策略的人

  • It was stopped in Senegal, where it had spread, and also in the other countries

    該病毒也在之前不斷擴散的塞內加爾被阻止

  • that were affected by this virus, in this outbreak.

    同時,這次疫情爆發中受感染的其他國家也阻止了伊波拉

  • So there's no question that these strategies actually work.

    因此,毋庸置疑,這些策略的確奏效

  • The big question, ladies and gentlemen, was whether these strategies could work

    女士們先生們,而最大的問題在於

  • on this scale, in this situation, with so many countries affected

    這些策略是否能在這樣的規模下這樣的情況中奏效

  • with the kind of exponential growth that you saw.

    已有這麼多國家受到感染擴散的速度如你所見以指數增加

  • That was the big question that we were facing just two or three months ago.

    那就是我們在兩到三個月前所面對的大問題

  • Today we know the answer to that question.

    今天,我們知道了解決這個問題的答案

  • And we know that answer because of the extraordinary work of an incredible group of NGOs, of governments, of local leaders,of U.N. agencies and many humanitarian and other organizations

    而我們之所以知道答案就是因為一群人的傑出努力包括一群了不起的非政府組織一群政府,當地領袖聯合國機構,以及,許多人道主義組織

  • that came and joined the fight to try and stop Ebola in West Africa.

    他們前來加入了阻止伊波拉在西非擴散的抗爭中

  • But what had to be done there was slightly different.

    但在那裡要完成的有稍許不同

  • These countries took those strategies I just showed you;

    這些國家採取了我剛剛給你們看的那些策略

  • the community engagement, the case finding, contact tracing, etc.,

    社區配合措施,尋找病例,追蹤聯繫人,等等

  • and they turned them on their head.

    然後他們改變了策略

  • There was so much disease, they approached it differently.

    疾病已擴散得如此猖獗他們要用不同的手法來解決

  • What they decided to do was they would first try and slow down this epidemic

    他們決定先試試延緩傳播速度

  • by rapidly building as many beds as possible in specialized treatment centers

    透過在專治伊波拉的治療中心快速搭建儘可能多的床位

  • so that they could prevent the disease from spreading from those were infected.

    這樣一來他們就能阻止疾病從已感染的人身上擴散開來

  • They would rapidly build out many, many burial teams

    他們會快速成立許多安葬隊伍

  • so that they could safely deal with the dead,

    這樣一來他們就能安全地處理病人的屍體

  • and with that, they would try and slow this outbreak to see if it could actually then be controlled using the classic approach of case finding and contact tracing.

    從而減緩這場傳染病的傳播速度看看是否真的能夠控制伊波拉擴散通過利用這種“尋找病例和追蹤聯繫人”的經典手法

  • And when I went to West Africa about three months ago,

    當我三個月前去西非時

  • when I was there what I saw was extraordinary.

    我在那兒看到了一副不可思議的景象

  • I saw presidents opening emergency operation centers themselves against Ebola

    我看到總統親自到緊急治療中心坐鎮以對抗伊波拉

  • so that they could personally coordinate and oversee and champion

    如此一來他們就能夠親自協調、監督、支持

  • this surge of international support to try and stop this disease.

    大量湧入的國際支援,以對抗這場疾病的肆虐

  • We saw militaries from within those countries and from far beyond

    我們看到來自那些國家,甚至其他國家的軍隊

  • coming in to help build Ebola treatment centers that could be used to isolate those who were sick.

    來到這裡幫助搭建伊波拉治療中心用以隔離那些病人

  • We saw the Red Cross movement working with its partner agencies on the ground there

    在這裡,我們看到紅十字會和其他組織合作並採取行動

  • to help train the communities so that they could actually safely bury their dead in a dignified manner themselves.

    來幫助訓練社區成員使他們安全地安葬死去的親友,並以有尊嚴的方式,親自為死者下葬

  • And we saw the U.N. agencies, the World Food Program,

    我們還看到聯合國機構和世界糧食計劃署

  • build a tremendous air bridge

    搭建了一架巨大的空運橋樑

  • that could get responders to every single corner of these countries rapidly

    將救援者快速送至這些國家的各個角落

  • to be able to implement the strategies that we just talked about.

    以執行我們剛剛提到的策略