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  • George and Charlotte Blonsky, who were

    喬治與夏洛蒂·布朗斯基

  • a married couple living in the Bronx in New York City,

    是一對居住在紐約布朗克斯的夫妻,

  • invented something.

    他們有一項發明,

  • They got a patent in 1965 for what they call,

    在1965年獲得專利,

  • "a device to assist women in giving birth."

    他們稱其為“協助婦女分娩的裝置”。

  • This device consists of a large, round table

    這個裝置由一個很大圓桌

  • and some machinery.

    及一些機械裝置組成,

  • When the woman is ready to deliver her child,

    當孕婦將要臨盆時,

  • she lies on her back,

    讓她平躺下來,

  • she is strapped down to the table,

    並將她捆綁在桌子上。

  • and the table is rotated at high speed.

    接著平台開始高速旋轉,

  • The child comes flying out

    小孩就藉由離心力飛出來。(笑聲)

  • through centrifugal force.

    如果你仔細檢視他們的專利,

  • If you look at their patent carefully,

    特別是如果你有任何工程背景或天分,

  • especially if you have any engineering background or talent,

    你可能會看到 這個設計有一兩項缺點。(笑聲)

  • you may decide that you see

    加州的艾凡‧施瓦布醫生

  • one or two points where the design is not perfectly adequate. (Laughter)

    是幫忙解答以下問題的主要人物之一:

  • Doctor Ivan Schwab in California

    “為什麼啄木鳥不會頭痛?”

  • is one of the people, one of the main people,

    最後得出的結論是:

  • who helped answer the question,

    因為牠們頭蓋骨包覆大腦的方式

  • "Why don't woodpeckers get headaches?"

    與人類不同,

  • And it turns out the answer to that

    當然,人類大腦也被頭蓋骨包覆着。

  • is because their brains

    而牠們,啄木鳥,通常

  • are packaged inside their skulls

    就是把頭撞向樹幹,

  • in a way different from the way

    每天上千下,每天哦!

  • our brains, we being human beings,

    而據我們所知,

  • true, have our brains packaged.

    這對牠們一點傷害都沒有。 為什麼會這樣呢?

  • They, the woodpeckers, typically

    牠們的大腦不會像人類的那樣搖盪,

  • will peck, they will bang their head

    而是與頭殼緊密地連接在一起,

  • on a piece of wood thousands of times every day. Every day!

    至少可應付來自前方的撞擊。

  • And as far as anyone knows,

    一直以來人們都很少關注這個研究,

  • that doesn't bother them in the slightest.

    直到最近幾年,

  • How does this happen?

    特別在美國,

  • Their brain does not slosh around like ours does.

    人們開始感到好奇,

  • Their brain is packed in very tightly,

    那些經常撞到頭的橄欖球運動員,

  • at least for blows coming right from the front.

    他們的大腦是否會因此受傷害。

  • Not too many people paid attention

    啄木鳥的研究可能就與此相關。

  • to this research until the last few years

    幾年前,在英國《刺胳針》 醫學期刊上刊出一篇論文,題為

  • when, in this country especially,

    《手指刺傷後,五年來 一直發出腐臭味的男人》,

  • people are becoming curious about

    卡洛琳‧米爾斯醫生和她的團隊

  • what happens to the brains of football players

    接收了這位病人,卻束手無策。

  • who bang their heads repeatedly.

    這位手指受傷的男人,

  • And the woodpecker maybe relates to that.

    他的工作是處理雞肉,

  • There was a paper published

    受傷之後他就變得非常非常臭,

  • in the medical journal The Lancet

    臭到當他在房間時,

  • in England a few years ago called

    連醫護人員都無法 忍受與他呆在一個房間裡,

  • " A man who pricked his finger and smelled putrid for 5 years."

    味道真的令人難以忍受。

  • Dr. Caroline Mills and her team

    他們嘗試了所能想到的各種藥物

  • received this patient and didn't really know what to do about it.

    和每一種治療方法,

  • The man had cut his finger,

    一年後,他依舊散發腐爛的氣味,

  • he worked processing chickens,

    兩年後,情況依舊,

  • and then he started to smell really, really bad.

    三年、四年,還是有濃濃的腐爛氣味,

  • So bad that when he got in a room

    五年後,臭味自動消失了!

  • with the doctors and the nurses,

    此案例至今是個謎。

  • they couldn't stand being in the room with him.

    在紐西蘭,莉安 • 帕金博士和她的團隊

  • It was intolerable.

    在她的城市試驗了一個古老的傳統,

  • They tried every drug,

    他們住在一個滿是大山丘的城市,

  • every other treatment they could think of.

    像舊金山那裡的山丘,

  • After a year, he still smelled putrid.

    在冬季那裡非常寒冷,

  • After two years, still smelled putrid.

    冷到結冰,

  • Three years, four years, still smelled putrid.

    所以常常有人滑倒受傷。

  • After five years, it went away on its own.

    他們試驗的傳統就是:

  • It's a mystery.

    他們請早上去上班的人們,

  • In New Zealand, Dr. Lianne Parkin

    停下來進行兩項試驗中的一種,

  • and her team tested an old tradition in her city.

    這個傳統是:在那個城市的冬天

  • They live in a city that has huge hills,

    你將襪子穿在靴子的外面。

  • San Francisco-grade hills.

    他們從試驗的生動畫面中發現,

  • And in the winter there, it gets very cold

    是真的,

  • and very icy.

    如果你將襪子穿在 靴子外面而不是裡面,

  • There are lots of injuries.

    就比較不容易滑倒。

  • The tradition that they tested,

    我希望你們會同意,

  • they tested by asking people

    我剛剛談到的這些研究,

  • who were on their way to work in the morning,

    每一項都應該拿到某種獎項。(笑聲)

  • to stop and try something out.

    他們確實有得到,

  • Try one of two conditions.

    剛介紹的每一項都拿到搞笑(Ig)諾貝爾獎,

  • The tradition is that in the winter,

    我和一些人在1991年

  • in that city, you wear your socks on the outside of your boots.

    創立了搞笑諾貝爾獎,

  • And what they discovered by experiment,

    每一年我們頒發十個搞笑諾貝爾獎,

  • and it was quite graphic when they saw it,

    這個獎只有一個簡單的得獎標準,

  • was that it's true.

    就是你做的能讓人發笑,然後思考。

  • That if you wear your socks on the outside rather than the inside,

    不管是什麼,

  • you're much more likely to survive and not slip and fall.

    當人第一次接觸到它時,

  • Now, I hope you will agree with me that these things

    他們唯一的反應是笑,

  • I've just described to you,

    然後,在一週後,

  • each of them, deserves some kind of prize. (Laughter)

    那件事仍盤踞在他們的腦中,

  • And that's what they got,

    他們唯一想做的就是與朋友分享,

  • each of them got an Ig Nobel prize.

    那就是我們要找的特質。

  • In 1991, I, together with bunch of other people,

    每一年我們收到大約九千件

  • started the Ig Nobel prize ceremony.

    新的搞笑諾貝爾獎提名,

  • Every year we give out 10 prizes.

    其中,一直都有10%到20%

  • The prizes are based on just one criteria. It's very simple.

    是來自自我推薦。

  • It's that you've done something that makes people laugh and then think.

    (笑聲)

  • What you've done makes people laugh and then think.

    這些自行提名的絕少得獎,

  • Whatever it is, there's something about it

    從數據來看, 就算你很想得獎,得獎的機會微乎其微,

  • that when people encounter it at first,

    同樣就算你不想得獎, 得獎的機會還是微乎其微。

  • their only possible reaction is to laugh.

    你知道嗎,當我們選中一個

  • And then a week later,

    搞笑諾貝爾獎得主,

  • it's still rattling around in their heads

    我們會先私下與他聯絡,

  • and all they want to do is tell their friends about it.

    我們給他們一個

  • That's the quality we look for.

    拒絕領獎的機會,

  • Every year, we get in the neighborhood

    我們很高興,幾乎每位被選中的得主

  • of 9,000 new nominations for the Ig Nobel prize.

    都決定接受這個獎。

  • Of those, consistently between 10 percent

    作為搞笑諾貝爾獎得主, 你會得到什麼呢?

  • and 20 percent of those nominations

    你會得到幾個東西:

  • are people who nominate themselves.

    一個搞笑諾貝爾獎座,

  • Those self-nominees almost never win.

    每年的獎座設計都不一樣,(笑聲)

  • It's very difficult, numerically, to win a prize if you want to.

    它們都是用非常便宜的材料手工製成,

  • Even if you don't want to,

    你現在看到的是

  • it's very difficult numerically.

    我們去年(2013)頒發的獎座。

  • You should know that when we choose somebody

    世上大多數的獎項

  • to win an Ig Nobel prize,

    都會頒發一些獎金,

  • We get in touch with that person, very quietly.

    我們沒有任何經費,所以無法頒獎金。

  • We offer them the chance to decline

    事實上,獲獎者得自費來參加頒獎,

  • this great honor if they want to.

    但大部分的人會來。

  • Happily for us, almost everyone who's offered a prize

    去年,我們湊了一點錢,

  • decides to accept.

    給十位得獎者

  • What do you get if you win an Ig Nobel prize?

    每一位都十兆元的獎金,十兆元耶!

  • Well, you get several things.

    一張十兆元的辛巴威紙鈔。(笑聲)

  • You get an Ig Nobel prize.

    你可能記得辛巴威 在過去幾年稍有波折,

  • The design is different every year.

    就是通貨膨脹,

  • These are always handmade from extremely cheap materials.

    他們最後印的紙鈔

  • You're looking at a picture

    最高票面金額達十兆元。

  • of the prize we gave last year, 2013.

    順便提一下,負責此事的國家銀行總裁

  • Most prizes in the world also give

    贏得了搞笑諾貝爾獎的數學獎。(笑聲)

  • their winners some cash, some money.

    另外,你會得到一張 搞笑諾貝爾獎頒獎典禮的邀請函,

  • We don't have any money,

    典禮是在哈佛大學舉行,

  • so we can't give them.

    當你來到哈佛最大的會議室兼教室,

  • In fact, the winners have to pay their own way

    你會看到在可容納1100千人的會場 擠得水泄不通。

  • to come to the Ig Nobel ceremony,

    而在舞台上 等著和你握手並頒獎給你的是

  • which most of them do.

    一堆(真正的)諾貝爾獎得主。

  • Last year, though, we did manage to scrape up some money.

    那是整個典禮的精髓,

  • Last year, each of the 10 Ig Nobel prize winners

    直到那一刻,獲獎者名單仍是秘密,

  • received from us 10 trillion dollars.

    即使那些會與他們握手的諾貝爾獎得主

  • A $10 trillion bill from Zimbabwe. (Laughter)

    也不知道誰是得獎者,直到名字被公佈。

  • You may remember that Zimbabwe had a little adventure

    現在我要跟你們分享一些

  • for a few years there of inflation.

    我們頒發的醫療相關獎項,

  • They ended up printing bills

    提醒你我們已頒發了230個獎項。

  • that were in denominations as large as 100 trillion dollars.

    許多得主可能在你們之中,

  • The man responsible, who runs the national bank there, by the way,

    或者你自己就是。

  • won an Ig Nobel prize in mathematics.

    30年前,有一篇發表的論文題目是

  • The other thing you win is an invitation

    ”墜落的椰子導致的傷害”,

  • to come to the ceremony,

    作者是加拿大的彼得‧巴爾斯醫生,

  • which happens at Harvard University.

    巴爾斯醫生在頒典禮時解釋,

  • And when you get there,

    當他是年輕醫生時,想要看看世界,

  • you come to Harvard's biggest meeting place and classroom.

    所以他去了巴布亞紐幾內亞,

  • It fits 1,100 people,

    當他在當地醫院工作時,

  • it's jammed to the gills,

    他很好奇當地人送醫的原因為何?

  • and up on the stage,

    他翻閱了醫療記錄後,

  • waiting to shake your hand,

    驚奇得發現,

  • waiting to hand you your Ig Nobel prize,

    相當多的病人是因為

  • are a bunch of Nobel prize winners.

    被墜落的椰子砸傷而送醫。

  • That's the heart of the ceremony.

    典型的事件經過是:

  • The winners are kept secret until that moment,

    一些來自沒有許多 椰子樹的高地人,

  • even the Nobel laureates who will shake their hand

    來到有許多椰子樹的海邊拜訪親戚,

  • don't know who they are until they're announced.

    他們想椰子樹下似乎是

  • I am going to tell you about just a very few

    很適合站立或躺下的地方,

  • of the other medical-related prizes we've given.

    椰子樹有27公尺高,

  • Keep in mind, we've given 230 prizes.

    每個椰子約0.9公斤重,隨時可能會掉下來。

  • There are lots of these people who walk among you.

    有一組在歐洲的醫生

  • Maybe you have one.

    發表了一系列有關大腸鏡檢查的論文,

  • A paper was published about 30 years ago

    各位應該對大腸鏡檢查 多少知道一些,

  • called "Injuries due to Falling Coconuts."

    有些知道還不止一些。

  • It was written by Dr. Peter Barss,

    在這些論文裡,

  • who is Canadian.

    他們對進行大腸鏡檢查的醫生解釋,

  • Dr. Barss came to the ceremony

    如何降低病人進行 大腸鏡檢查時爆炸的機率,

  • and explained that as a young doctor,

    (笑聲)

  • he wanted to see the world.

    其中一位作者艾曼紐勒‧貝蘇桑醫生

  • So he went to Papua New Guinea.

    從巴黎飛來參加頒獎典禮,

  • When he got there, he went to work in a hospital, and he was curious

    在典禮中,他解釋了有關這方面的歷史,

  • what kinds of things happen to people that bring them to the hospital.

    在1950年代,

  • He looked through the records, and he discovered

    那時大腸鏡檢查才開始 成為一個普遍的技術,

  • that a surprisingly large number of people

    大家都在摸索怎麼做最好,

  • in that hospital were there

    剛開始時有些困難,

  • because of injuries due to falling coconuts.

    你們對根本的問題應有些熟悉,

  • One typical thing that happens is

    你得從一個很長、很窄 又很黑的地方看進去,

  • people will come from the highlands, where there are not many coconut trees,

    你會希望有比較寬闊的空間,

  • down to visit their relatives on the coast,

    所以你會灌入一些氣體使它膨脹,

  • where there are lots.

    讓你有空間可以看清楚,

  • And they'll think that a coconut tree

    在裡面原已存在甲烷

  • is a fine place to stand and maybe lie down.

    起初他們大多數灌入氧氣,

  • A coconut tree that is 90 feet tall,

    他們將氧氣加入原有的甲烷相混和,

  • and has coconuts that weigh two pounds

    然後為了他們能夠看清楚,

  • that can drop off at any time.

    他們需要亮光,

  • A team of doctors in Europe

    所以就加上光源,

  • published a series of papers about colonoscopies.

    在1950年代,光源是很熱的,

  • You're all familiar with colonoscopies,

    就這樣,你有了易燃的甲烷,

  • one way or another.

    氧氣和熱源,

  • Or in some cases,

    他們很快就停用氧氣了。(笑聲)

  • one way and another.

    現在,很少有病人會爆炸,

  • They, in these papers,

    但是偶而仍會發生。

  • explained to their fellow doctors who perform colonoscopies,

    最後我要告訴你們的是我們頒發給

  • how to minimize the chance

    伊蓮娜‧巴特那醫生的獎項。

  • that when you perform a colonoscopy,

    她發明了一個在緊急時可以 很快拆開變成兩個口罩的胸罩。

  • your patient will explode. (Laughter)

    一個可以救你自己的命 ,

  • Dr. Emmanuel Ben-Soussan

    另外一個可以救很幸運的旁觀者。(笑聲)

  • one of the authors,

    你可能會想, 為什麼會有人要做這個?

  • flew in from Paris to the ceremony,

    巴特那醫生來到頒獎典禮,她解釋說:

  • where he explained the history of this,

    她在烏克蘭長大,

  • that in the 1950s,

    她是治療車諾比核能廠

  • when colonoscopies were becoming a common technique for the first time,

    核災受害者的醫生之一,

  • people were figuring out how to do it well.

    他們後來發現

  • And there were some difficulties at first.

    許多最嚴重的醫療問題,

  • The basic problem, I'm sure you're familiar with,

    都導於因病患吸入的物體,

  • that you're looking inside a long, narrow, dark place.

    之後她就經常在想,

  • And so, you want to have a larger space.

    若是意外發生時,有什麼是 簡單又隨手可得的口罩,

  • You add some gas to inflate it

    多年後,她移居美國

  • so you have room to look around.

    並生了一個小孩,

  • Now, that's added to the gas, the methane gas,

    有一天,她看到小孩揀起她在地上的胸罩,

  • that's already inside.

    並將它放在臉上,

  • The gas that they used at first, in many cases, was oxygen.

    那就是她的靈感來源。

  • So they added oxygen to methane gas.

    她來參加頒獎典禮時,

  • And then they wanted to be able to see,

    還帶了第一個原型樣本

  • they needed light,

    現場進行示範。

  • so they'd put in a light source,

    (笑聲和掌聲)

  • which in the 1950s was very hot.

    [保羅‧庫格曼,2008年諾貝爾經濟獎得主]

  • So you had methane gas, which is flammable,

    [沃爾夫岡‧克特勒,2001年諾貝爾物理獎得主]

  • oxygen and heat.

    我自己也擁有一個緊急用胸罩,(笑聲)

  • They stopped using oxygen pretty quickly. (Laughter)

    這是我最喜歡的胸罩,

  • Now it's rare that patients will explode,

    但有需要時,我會很樂意 和你們任何一個人分享。

  • but it does still happen.

    謝謝!

  • The final thing that I want to tell you about is a prize

    (掌聲)

  • we gave to Dr. Elena Bodnar.

  • Dr. Elena Bodnar invented a brassiere

  • that in an emergency

  • can be quickly separated

  • into a pair of protective face masks.

  • One to save your life,

  • one to save the life of some lucky bystander. (Laughter)

  • Why would someone do this, you might wonder.

  • Dr. Bodnar came to the ceremony

  • and she explained that she grew up in Ukraine.

  • She was one of the doctors who treated victims

  • of the Chernobyl power plant meltdown.

  • And they later discovered that

  • a lot of the worst medical problems

  • came from the particles people breathed in.

  • So she was always thinking after that

  • about could there be some simple mask

  • that was available everywhere when the unexpected happens.

  • Years later, she moved to America.

  • She had a baby,