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  • Some years ago,

    幾年前,

  • I stumbled across a simple design exercise

    我偶然發現一個簡單的設計練習,

  • that helps people understand and solve complex problems,

    它幫助人們了解和解決複雜的問題,

  • and like many of these design exercises, it kind of seems trivial at first,

    像許多這類的設計練習,它剛開始看起來很不起眼,

  • but under deep inspection,

    但深入審視之後,

  • it turns out that it reveals unexpected truths

    結果它會揭開令人意想不到的真相,

  • about the way that we collaborate and make sense of things.

    有關於我們如何合作以及對事情的理解。

  • The exercise has three parts

    這個練習包括三個部分,

  • and begins with something that we all know how to do,

    由我們都知道如何做的事情開始,

  • which is how to make toast.

    即如何烤土司。

  • It begins with a clean sheet of paper, a felt marker,

    首先拿來一張乾淨的紙,一枝馬克筆,

  • and without using any words, you begin to draw how to make toast.

    不用文字描述開始畫出如何烤土司,

  • And most people draw something like this.

    大部分的人畫出像這樣的東西,

  • They draw a loaf of bread, which is sliced, then put into a toaster.

    他們畫出一條切成薄片的麵包然後放進烤麵包機。

  • The toast is then deposited for some time.

    經過一段時間。

  • It pops up, and then voila! After two minutes, toast and happiness.

    土司彈起來,完成!二分鐘後,心滿意足地享受土司。

  • Now, over the years, I've collected many hundreds of drawings of these toasts,

    這些年來,我收集好幾百張這種畫土司的圖畫,

  • and some of them are very good,

    有些畫得相當好,

  • because they really illustrate the toast-making process quite clearly.

    因為他們將烤土司的過程說明的相當清楚。

  • And then there are some that are, well, not so good.

    有些畫得並不是很好。

  • They really suck, actually, because you don't know what they're trying to say.

    說實在的,真的很糟,因為你不知道他們要表達什麼。

  • Under close inspection,

    更進一步的審視,

  • some reveal some aspects of toast-making while hiding others.

    有人揭露了烤土司的某些手續,但隱藏了一切其他手續。

  • So there's some that are all about the toast,

    有些完全和土司有關,

  • and all about the transformation of toast.

    完全和土司的變化過程有關。

  • And there's others that are all about the toaster,

    還有一些完全有關烤麵包機,

  • and the engineers love to draw the mechanics of this.

    工程師最喜歡畫這種機械圖形。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And then there are others that are about people.

    還有關於人的圖像。

  • It's about visualizing the experience that people have.

    將人類的經驗視覺化。

  • And then there are others that are about the supply chain of making toast

    還有的圖則是關於土司的整個供應鏈,

  • that goes all the way back to the store.

    從產品製作一直到產品上架。

  • It goes through the supply chain networks of teleportation

    經過快速運輸供應鏈網路,

  • and all the way back to the field and wheat,

    畫出供應鏈的最初的田園和麥田,

  • and one all actually goes all the way back to the Big Bang.

    其中有一張圖竟然回到了宇宙大爆炸時期。

  • So it's crazy stuff.

    真是瘋狂的想法。

  • But I think it's obvious

    但我認為,很顯然,

  • that even though these drawings are really wildly different,

    即使這些圖畫是如此不同,

  • they share a common quality, and I'm wondering if you can see it.

    他們有一個共通的特質,我猜想你們是否能看出來。

  • Do you see it? What's common about these?

    看出端倪了嗎?其中的共通點是什麼?

  • Most drawings have nodes and links.

    大部分的圖形有「節點」和「連結」。

  • So nodes represent the tangible objects like the toaster and people,

    「節點」代表的是有形的物體,像是烤麵包機和人,

  • and links represent the connections between the nodes.

    「連結」則代表「節點」與「節點」之間的關係。

  • And it's the combination of links and nodes

    結合「連結」和「節點」

  • that produces a full systems model,

    產生一個完整的系統模型,

  • and it makes our private mental models visible

    它展現出我們個人的心智模式,

  • about how we think something works.

    展現出我們認為某些東西如何運作。

  • So that's the value of these things.

    那就是這個構想的價值。

  • What's interesting about these systems models

    這系統模型的有趣之處

  • is how they reveal our various points of view.

    是在於揭露不同的觀點。

  • So for example, Americans make toast with a toaster.

    例如:美國人用烤土司機來烤土司。

  • That seems obvious.

    這似乎是顯而易見的。

  • Whereas many Europeans make toast with a frying pan, of course,

    然而很多歐洲人會以平底鍋煎土司,

  • and many students make toast with a fire.

    有些學生生火烤土司。

  • I don't really understand this. A lot of MBA students do this.

    雖然我不是太懂,但有很多工商管理碩士生如此做。

  • So you can measure the complexity by counting the number of nodes,

    所以計算「節點」的數量,來判斷其複雜性,

  • and the average illustration has between four and eight nodes.

    平均每張圖表有 4 到 8 個點。

  • Less than that, the drawing seems trivial,

    少於這個數字,圖說會顯得太瑣碎,

  • but it's quick to understand,

    但可以一目了然,

  • and more than 13, the drawing produces a feeling of map shock.

    超過 13 個節點,圖形會顯得雜亂。

  • It's too complex.

    太複雜了。

  • So the sweet spot is between 5 and 13.

    所以最好是介於 5 到 13 之間。

  • So if you want to communicate something visually,

    假如你想要視覺化地傳達某些觀點,

  • have between five and 13 nodes in your diagram.

    在圖形上的「節點」介於 5 到 13 之間。

  • So though we may not be skilled at drawing,

    或許我們對於畫圖表不是在行,

  • the point is that we intuitively know how to break down complex things

    重點是直覺地將複雜的事

  • into simple things and then bring them back together again.

    分解為簡單的事,然後再合併一起。

  • So this brings us to our second part of the exercise,

    所以這帶領我們進入第二階段的練習,

  • which is how to make toast,

    也就是如何烤土司,

  • but now with sticky notes or with cards.

    只是現在用的是便利貼或卡片,

  • So what happens then?

    將會發生什麼事呢?

  • Well, with cards, most people tend to draw clear, more detailed,

    如果使用卡片,人們傾向畫得較清楚,較詳細,

  • and more logical nodes.

    以及更多具邏輯性的「節點」。

  • You can see the step by step analysis that takes place,

    你可看到循序漸進的分解過程,

  • and as they build up their model, they move their nodes around,

    當他們擴增模型,會移動「節點」,

  • rearranging them like Lego blocks.

    重新安排,就像在堆樂高積木。

  • Now, though this might seem trivial, it's actually really important.

    看上去雖然瑣碎,但相當重要。

  • This rapid iteration of expressing and then reflecting and analyzing

    這種快速重複的陳述,然後反思和分析,

  • is really the only way in which we get clarity.

    是搞清楚弄明白的唯一方法。

  • It's the essence of the design process.

    這是設計流程的本質。

  • And systems theorists do tell us

    系統理論家告訴我們

  • that the ease with which we can change a representation

    這方式易於修改其表述方式

  • correlates to our willingness to improve the model.

    與我們的想法產生關連,以改善模型。

  • So sticky note systems are not only more fluid,

    所以便利貼系統不只流暢,

  • they generally produce way more nodes than static drawings.

    一般說來比靜態圖型產生更多「節點」。

  • The drawings are much richer.

    其圖型會更加豐富。

  • And this brings us to our third part of the exercise,

    這下就讓我們來看看第三部分的練習,

  • which is to draw how to make toast, but this time in a group.

    也就是畫如何烤土司,但這次是一群人去做。

  • So what happens then?

    將會發生什麼事?

  • Well, here's what happens.

    將會發生以下的事。

  • It starts out messy, and then it gets really messy,

    剛開始有些混亂,然後還是混亂,

  • and then it gets messier,

    然後更加混亂,

  • but as people refine the models,

    但當有人將模型精確化,

  • the best nodes become more prominent,

    最好的「節點」也就更加凸顯,

  • and with each iteration, the model becomes clearer

    加以重述,模型就越清楚,

  • because people build on top of each other's ideas.

    因為人們將自己的想法架構在他人的構想上,

  • What emerges is a unified systems model

    產生這種統一系統模型的是

  • that integrates the diversity of everyone's individual points of view,

    整合每個人多樣性的個別觀點,

  • so that's a really different outcome

    與我們平時在會議上所發生的

  • from what usually happens in meetings, isn't it?

    結果非常不同不是嗎?

  • So these drawings can contain 20 or more nodes,

    這些圖包含 20 個以上的「節點」,

  • but participants don't feel map shock

    參與者沒有感覺到圖形雜亂,

  • because they participate in the building of their models themselves.

    因為他們參與其中建造自己的模式。

  • Now, what's also really interesting, that the groups spontaneously mix

    還有令人感到有趣的事是:當群體自然地融合在一起,

  • and add additional layers of organization to it.

    和加入額外的組織層級,

  • To deal with contradictions, for example,

    例如,處理相互矛盾的事,

  • they add branching patterns and parallel patterns.

    加入分支樣式和平行樣式。

  • Oh, and by the way, if they do it in complete silence,

    順道一提,如果他們完全沉默地完成這個實驗,

  • they do it much better and much more quickly.

    他們會做得更好更快。

  • Really interesting -- talking gets in the way.

    討論會礙事,真是有趣。

  • So here's some key lessons that can emerge from this.

    這裡有些關鍵課程,可以從中看出端倪。

  • First, drawing helps us understand the situations

    首先,圖形幫助我們了解情況,

  • as systems with nodes and their relationships.

    即系統的「節點」和節點間的關係。

  • Movable cards produce better systems models,

    移動卡產生較好的系統模型,

  • because we iterate much more fluidly.

    因為我們更加流暢地重複執行。

  • And then the group notes produce the most comprehensive models

    然後團隊使用便利貼製造出最讓人理解的模型,

  • because we synthesize several points of view.

    因為我們綜合不同的觀點。

  • So that's interesting.

    所以那很有趣有趣。

  • When people work together under the right circumstances,

    當人們在適當的環境一起工作,

  • group models are much better than individual models.

    群體模型比個別模型更好。

  • So this approach works really great for drawing how to make toast,

    這個方法對如何繪畫製作土司流程而言相當好,

  • but what if you wanted to draw something more relevant or pressing,

    但如果你要畫與工作相關或有迫切需求的事物,

  • like your organizational vision, or customer experience,

    像是公司的願景或客戶經驗,

  • or long-term sustainability?

    或永續經營呢?

  • There's a visual revolution that's taking place

    現在正在發生一個視覺的變革,

  • as more organizations are addressing their wicked problems

    當更多組織提出很棒的問題,

  • by collaboratively drawing them out.

    以共同合作方式將圖形畫出來。

  • And I'm convinced that those who see their world as movable nodes and links

    我相信,把他們的世界看成是可移動的「節點」和「連結」的人

  • really have an edge.

    的確有他們的優勢。

  • And the practice is really pretty simple.

    這練習相當簡單。

  • You start with a question, you collect the nodes,

    你由問問題開始,收集「節點」。

  • you refine the nodes, you do it over again,

    推敲琢磨「節點」,然後再做一次,

  • you refine and refine and refine, and the patterns emerge,

    你一再推敲,模式就產生出來,

  • and the group gets clarity and you answer the question.

    團隊得到清晰的構想,而你回答問題。

  • So this simple act of visualizing and doing over and over again

    一而再,再而三地做這個簡單的視覺化動作,

  • produces some really remarkable outcomes.

    產生一些令人意想不到的結果。

  • What's really important to know

    最重要的是要去了解

  • is that it's the conversations that are the important aspects,

    溝通是這個過程中的重要方面,

  • not just the models themselves.

    而不僅僅是模型本身。

  • And these visual frames of reference

    關聯的視覺架構

  • can grow to several hundreds or even thousands of nodes.

    可以發展成數百種甚至上千種「節點」。

  • So, one example is from an organization called Rodale.

    以下是一家名為羅達爾公司的例子。

  • Big publishing company.

    它是一家大型的出版公司。

  • They lost a bunch of money one year,

    這家公司有一年損失了很多錢,

  • and their executive team for three days visualized their entire practice.

    他們的高階團隊以三天的時間,將整個營業流程視覺化。

  • And what's interesting is that after visualizing the entire business,

    有趣的是,在視覺化整個商業流程後,

  • systems upon systems,

    系統架構在系統之上,

  • they reclaimed 50 million dollars of revenue,

    他們的營收已回復至五千萬元,

  • and they also moved from a D rating to an A rating from their customers.

    在他們客戶的評比中,由 D 等級變成為 A 等級。

  • Why? Because there's alignment from the executive team.

    為什麼?因為經營團隊做了調整。

  • So I'm now on a mission to help organizations

    我當前的任務,是幫助公司

  • solve their wicked problems by using collaborative visualization,

    以協同視覺化的方式解決棘手問題。

  • and on a site that I've produced called drawtoast.com,

    在我架設的網站 drawtoast.com 上,

  • I've collected a bunch of best practices.

    我收集了許多最有效的練習,

  • and so you can learn how to run a workshop here,

    你可以學到如何經營一家工作坊,

  • you can learn more about the visual language

    可以練習更多視覺化語言,

  • and the structure of links and nodes that you can apply to general problem-solving,

    「連結」和「節點」的架構,可以應用在一般的問題解決,

  • and download examples of various templates

    並下載各式樣式的範例,

  • for unpacking the thorny problems that we all face in our organizations.

    以解決我們在工作上碰到的棘手問題。

  • So the seemingly trivial design exercise of drawing toast

    這個畫土司設計練習看起來平凡簡單,

  • helps us get clear, engaged and aligned.

    實則幫助我們搞清楚,緊密結合和密切合作。

  • So next time you're confronted with an interesting challenge,

    下次你面臨一個有趣的挑戰時,

  • remember what design has to teach us.

    記得設計教會我們的道理。

  • Make your ideas visible, tangible, and consequential.

    將你的構想視覺化,明確化,將產出結果表達出來。

  • It's simple, it's fun, it's powerful,

    這簡單,有趣且功能強大,

  • and I believe it's an idea worth celebrating.

    我相信這是一個值得慶祝的構想。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Some years ago,

幾年前,

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 節點 視覺化 圖形 練習 構想

【TED】湯姆•伍耶克: 遇到棘手問題?首先,告訴我你怎麼烤土司 (Tom Wujec: Got a wicked problem? First, tell me how you make toast)

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    CUChou 發佈於 2015 年 03 月 02 日
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