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  • Hello learned and astonishingly attractive pupils; my name is John Green, and I want

    你們好,學識淵博、魅力驚人的學生們,我叫約翰-格林,我想。

  • to to welcome you to Crash Course: World History. Over the next 40 weeks, together we will learn

    歡迎你來到速成班。世界歷史。在接下來的40周裡,我們將一起學習

  • how in a mere 15,000 years, humans went

    如何在短短的15000年內,人類就... ...

  • MR. GREEN, MR GREEN! WILL THIS BE ON THE TEST?

    先生,綠色,綠色先生!綠色,綠色先生!這將是對測試?

  • Sigh.

    嘆息。

  • Right, about the test. Listen closely: The test will measure whether you are an informed,

    對,關於考試。仔細聽。測試將衡量你是否是一個知情者。

  • engaged, and productive citizen of the world, and it will be administered in bars and offices

    在酒吧和辦公室進行管理。

  • and dorm rooms and places of worship and hospitals and yes, even schools. You will be tested

    和宿舍和禮拜場所和醫院,是的,甚至學校。你將接受考驗

  • on first dates, in job interviews, while watching football, while scrolling through your twitter

    在第一次約會時,在工作面試時,在看足球時,在翻看你的twitter時。

  • feed. The test will judge your ability to think

    飼料。該測試將判斷你的思維能力

  • about things other than celebrity marriages, whether youll be easily persuaded by empty

    關於名人婚姻之外的事情,你是否會輕易被空洞的

  • rhetoric, and whether youll be able to place your life and your community in a broader

    言論,以及你是否能把你的生活和你的社會放在一個更廣闊的

  • context. The test will last your entire life, and it

    語境。這個測試將持續你的一生,而且它

  • will be comprised of millions of decisions which, taken together, will make your life

    將由數以百萬計的決定組成,這些決定加在一起,將使你的生活

  • yours. And everythingeverythingwill be on it.

    你的。所有的一切... 所有的一切... 都會在上面。

  • Oh. Crap.

    糟了 Oh.糟糕

  • I know, right? So listen up: In just 15,000 years, humans went from hunting and gathering

    我知道,對吧?所以聽好了在短短的15000年裡 人類從狩獵和採集開始

  • to create such improbabilities as the airplane, the Internet, and the 99 cent double cheeseburger.

    以創造出飛機、互聯網、99分的雙份芝士漢堡等即興象。

  • It’s an extraordinary journey, one that I will now symbolize by embarking upon a journey

    這是一個不平凡的旅程,我現在將象徵性地踏上一段旅程。

  • of my ownover to camera 2.

    我自己的,在相機2。

  • Hi, there Camera 2. It’s me, John Green. Let’s start with that double cheeseburger,

    嗨,有相機2。這是我,約翰・格林。讓我們開始與雙芝士漢堡。

  • which contains 490 calories.

    其中含有490卡路里的熱量。

  • To get that cheeseburger, you have to feed raise and slaughter cows, then grind their

    為了得到那個漢堡,你必須餵養和屠宰奶牛,然後磨碎他們的

  • meat, then freeze it and ship it to its destination.

    肉,然後冷凍起來,運到目的地。

  • You also have to grow some wheat and then process the living hell out of it until it

    你還得種些小麥,然後把它加工成活生生的東西,直到它變成

  • tastes like unsweetened marshmallow,

    味道像不加糖的棉花糖。

  • milk some cows and turn their milk into cheese,

    擠一些牛的奶,把它們的奶變成奶酪。

  • which isn’t even to mention the growing and pickling of cucumbers or the sweeting

    這還沒有提到黃瓜的種植和醃製,或者是甜食

  • of tomatoes or grinding of mustard seeds, etc.

    番茄或磨碎芥菜籽等。

  • How in the sweet name of everything holy did we ever come to live in a world where such

    我們怎麼會生活在這樣一個世界裡?

  • a thing can even be created? And how is it possible that those 490 calories can be served

    一件東西甚至可以被創造出來?而且這490卡路里的熱量怎麼可能會被提供給

  • to me forassuming I make the federal minimum wage here in the United States

    對我來說,假設我在美國賺取聯邦最低工資,

  • And most importantly, should I be delighted or alarmed to live in this strange world of

    而最重要的是,生活在這個陌生的世界裡,我是該高興還是該驚慌?

  • relative abundance? Well, this may not strictly be history, since we don’t have much of

    相對豐富?好吧,這可能不是嚴格意義上的歷史,因為我們沒有太多的...

  • a written record, but thanks to archaeology and paleobiology, we do have some idea of

    但由於考古學和古生物學的發展,我們確實有了一些想法。

  • the prehistoric world. let’s go to the thought bubble.

    史前世界,讓我們進入思想的保麗龍。

  • 15,000 years ago, humans were foragers and hunters. Foraging meant gathering fruits,

    15000年前,人類是覓食者和獵人。覓食意味著收集水果。

  • nuts, and also wild grains and grasses. Hunting allowed for a protein-rich diet, so long as

    堅果,還有野生穀物和草類。狩獵可以提供富含蛋白質的食物,只要是

  • you could find something with meat to kill. By far the best hunting gig in the prehistoric

    你可以找到有肉的東西來殺。到目前為止,史前時代最好的狩獵工作。

  • world was fishing, which is one of the reasons that, if you look at the history of people

    全世界都在捕魚,這也是原因之一,如果你看看人們的歷史

  • populating the planet, we tended to run for the coasts and stay there.

    在這個星球上,我們傾向於奔向海岸,並留在那裡。

  • Marine life was A. abundant, and B. relatively unlikely to eat you. While we tend to think

    海洋生物A.豐富,B.相對不可能吃你。當我們傾向於認為

  • that the lives of foragers (hunter/gatherers) was pretty bad, fossil evidence suggests that

    覓食者(獵人/採集者)的生活相當糟糕,化石證據表明,他們的生活很糟糕。

  • they actually had it pretty good. Their bones and teeth are healthier than those of agriculturalists,

    他們其實過得很好。他們的骨骼和牙齒都比農家的健康。

  • and anthropologists who have studied the remaining forager peoples have noted that they actually

    和研究其餘覓食者的人類學家指出,他們實際上

  • work a lot fewer hours than the rest of us, and spend more time on art, music, storytellingand

    工作時間比我們其他人少得多,花更多的時間在藝術、音樂、講故事上------。

  • if you believe the classic of anthropology Nisa, they also have more time for skoodilypooping.

    如果你相信人類學的經典之作Nisa,他們也有更多的時間去skoodilypooping。

  • What? I call it skoodilypooping. Is that so wrong?

    我叫它 "skoodilypooping"。這有什麼不對嗎?

  • It’s important to note that cultivation of crops seems to have arisen independently

    值得注意的是,農作物的種植似乎是獨立產生的。

  • over the course of millennia in a number of places, from Africa to China to the Americas.

    在幾千年的時間裡,從非洲到中國再到美洲的一些地方。

  • Using crops that naturally grew nearbyrice in Southeast Asia, maize in Mexico, potatoes

    利用附近自然生長的農作物--東南亞的大米、墨西哥的玉米、馬鈴薯

  • in the Andes, wheat in the fertile crescent, yams in West Africapeople around the world

    安第斯山脈的小麥,新月沃土的小麥,西非的山藥--世界各地的人們

  • began to abandon their foraging for agriculture. Since so many communities made this choice

    開始放棄覓食從事農業。由於許多社區做出了這樣的選擇

  • independently, it must have been a good choice, right, even though it meant less music and

    獨立,這一定是一個不錯的選擇,對吧,儘管這意味著少了音樂和

  • skoodilypooping?

    skoodilypooping?

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble. Okay, to answer that question, let’s first take a look at the

    謝謝你,思維泡泡。好吧,為了回答這個問題,我們先來看看... ...

  • advantages and disadvantages of agrictulture.

    農耕的優缺點;

  • Advantage: Controllable food supply. You might have droughts or floods but if youre growing

    優勢。可控的食物供應。你可能會遇到乾旱或洪水,但如果你種植的是

  • the crops and breeding them to be healthier and heartier, you get a bit more say in whether

    農作物,並將它們培育得更健康、更豐盛,你就有了更多的發言權。

  • you starve.

    你餓死了。

  • Disadvantage: In order to keep feeding people as population grows, you have to radically

    缺點:隨著人口的增長,為了繼續養活人們,你必須從根本上。

  • change the landscape of the planet.

    改變地球的面貌。

  • Advantage: You can create a food surplus, especially if you grow grain, which makes

    優勢。你可以創造一個糧食過剩,特別是如果你種植糧食,這使得。

  • cities possible. As long as youre hunting and gathering

    城市的可能。只要你在打獵和採集。

  • food that will quickly become inedible, it’s impossible to create large population centers.

    的食物,很快就會無法食用,不可能建立大型人口中心。

  • But if you have a surplus, agriculture can support people not directly involved in the

    但如果你有盈餘,農業可以支持不直接參與的人。

  • production of food, like, say, tradesmen who can devote their lives to creating better

    比如說,商人們可以把自己的一生都投入到創造更好的食品生產中去。

  • farming equipment, which in turns makes it possible for you to produce more food more

    農業設備,這反過來使你有可能生產更多的糧食更

  • efficiently, which in turn eventually makes it possible for a corporation to turn a profit

    效益,從而最終使企業有可能實現盈利。

  • on a 99 cent double cheeseburger.

    在99分的雙份芝士漢堡上。

  • Disadvantage: Some would argue the whole complexity of large and complex agricultural communities

    劣勢。有人會認為,大型複雜的農業社區的整體複雜性。

  • that can support cities and eventually inexpensive meat sandwiches is not actually beneficial

    可以支持城市,最終廉價的肉類三明治,其實並沒有什麼好處。

  • to the planet or even necessarily its human inhabitants, although that is a tough argument

    對地球甚至人類居民的影響,儘管這是個艱難的論證。

  • to make coming to you, as I am, as a series of 1s and 0s.

    讓來到你身邊的我,就像一連串的1和0一樣。

  • Advantage: Agriculture can be practiced in many places all over the world, although in

    優勢。世界上許多地方都可以進行農業生產,雖然在農業生產中

  • lots of places it requires extensive manipulation of the environment; e.g., irrigation or controlled

    很多地方需要對環境進行廣泛的操縱,例如,灌溉或控制。

  • flooding or terracing.

    淹沒或梯田;

  • Disadvantage: Farming is hard workso hard that one is tempted to for instance claim

    缺點。

  • ownership over other humans and then force them to till the land on your behalfwhich

    對其他人類的所有權,然後強迫他們替你耕種土地--這是

  • is the kind of non-ideal social order that has tended to emerge again and again in agriculturalist

    是一種非理想的社會秩序,這種社會秩序往往在農業主

  • communities.

    社區。

  • So why did agriculture happen when itwait, I haven’t talked about herders. HERDERS,

    那麼,為什麼農業發生時,它 - 等待,我還沒有談到牧民。牧民:

  • man, always getting the short end of the stick.

    男人,總是得到短的一端棒。

  • Herding is a very good and interesting alternative to foraging: Domesticate some animals, and

    放牧是一種非常好的、有趣的替代覓食的方式。馴化一些動物,然後

  • then take them on the road with you. The upsides of herding are obvious: You get

    然後帶著它們上路放牧的好處是顯而易見的:你可以得到... ...

  • to be a cowboy, and animals are not only steady sources of meat and milk, they also help out

    做一個牛仔,動物不僅是肉和奶的穩定來源,它們還能幫助

  • with shelter by providing wool and leather. On the downside, you have to move around a

    通過提供羊毛和皮革來提供庇護。缺點是,你必須四處走動。

  • lot because your herds always need new grass to eat, and it’s hard to build cities when

    因為你的牛群總是需要新的草來吃,而當你的牛群需要新的草來吃的時候,就很難建設城市了

  • youre constantly moving, unless you are the Mongols.

    除非你是蒙古人,否則你會不停地移動。

  • By the way, over the next 40 weeks, you will frequently hear generalizations followed by

    順便說一下,在接下來的40周裡,你會經常聽到一些籠統的說法,然後就是

  • the caveatUnless you are the Mongols.”

    "除非你是蒙古人 "的警告。

  • But one of the main reasons herding only caught on in certain parts of the world is that there

    但放牧只在世界某些地區流行的主要原因之一是,有

  • aren’t that many animals that really lend themselves to domestication:

    並沒有那麼多動物真正適合被馴化。

  • Like, you have sheep goats cattle pigs horses camels donkeys reindeer water buffalo yaks

    比如,你有綿羊 山羊 牛 豬 馬 駱駝 驢 馴鹿 水牛 犛牛

  • all of which have something in common: They aren’t native to the Americas.

    所有這些都有一些共同點:它們不是美洲原產的。

  • Llamas are the only halfway useful herding animals native to the Americas, and lots of

    喇嘛是美洲原產的唯一半路出家的有用牧畜,很多

  • animals just don’t work for domestication.

    動物只是不工作的馴化。

  • Hippos are large and provide lots of meat, and they mostly eat plants, but they also

    河馬體型龐大,能提供大量的肉食,它們主要吃植物,但它們也有

  • like to kill us, which makes them bad for herding. Zebras are too ornery; grizzlies’s

    喜歡殺死我們,這使得它們不適合放牧。斑馬太過暴躁;灰熊的。

  • wild hearts can’t be broken; elephants are too slow to breed. Which reminds meit’s

    野心難斷,大象繁殖太慢。這讓我想起了......這是

  • time for the open letter.

    公開信的時間。

  • An Open Letter to Elephants:

    給大象的一封公開信。

  • Hey, Elephants. Youre so cute and smart and awesome; why you gotta be pregnant for

    嘿,大象。你這麼可愛聰明又厲害,為什麼你一定要懷孕呢?

  • 22 months? That’s crazy! And then you only have one kid! If you were more like cows,

    22個月?太瘋狂了!然後你只有一個孩子!如果你更像牛的話

  • you might have taken us over by now.

    你可能已經採取了我們現在。

  • Like, here is the graph of cow population and here is the graph of cow population.

    就像,這裡是牛的人口圖,這裡是牛的人口圖。

  • Elephants, if you’d just inserted yourself into human life the way cows did, you could

    大象,如果你像牛一樣把自己插入到人類的生活中去,你就可以...

  • have used your intelligence and power to form secret societies conspiring against the humans

    利用你們的智慧和力量成立了祕密組織,密謀反人類。

  • and then you could have risen up and destroyed us and made an awesome elephant world with

    然後你就可以崛起並摧毀我們,並創造了一個可怕的大象世界與

  • elephant cars and elephant planes, but nooooo youve gotta have 22-month pregnancies with

    大象的汽車和大象的飛機,但nooooo你必須有22個月的懷孕與。

  • one offspring and tusks that people want to kill you for. It’s so depressing.

    一個後代和人們想殺你的獠牙。真讓人鬱悶。

  • Best wishes, John

    最良好的祝願,約翰

  • Right so but back to why the Agricultural Revolution occurred. We don’t have records,

    對,所以但回到農業革命為什麼會發生。我們沒有記錄。

  • but historians love to make guesses: Maybe population pressure necessitated agriculture

    但歷史學家喜歡做猜測。也許人口的壓力使農業成為必要

  • even though it was more work, or abundance gave people leisure time to experiment with

    即使它是更多的工作,或豐富的給了人們閒暇的時間,以試驗與

  • domestication or planting originated as a fertility right oras some historians have

    馴化或種植起源於一種生育權,或者--正如一些歷史學家所言

  • arguedpeople needed to domesticate grains in order to produce more alcohol. Darwin,

    認為--人們需要馴化穀物,以生產更多的酒精。達爾文。

  • like most 19th century scientists, believed agriculture was an accident, saying:

    像大多數19世紀的科學家一樣,認為農業是一個意外,說:。

  • “a wild and unusually good variety of native plant might attract the attention of some

    "一種野生的、異常優良的在地植物品種可能會吸引一些人的注意,但這並不意味著它是一個好品種。

  • wise old savage.”

    聰明的老野人。"

  • Off-topic, but you will come to note that the definition ofsavagetends to be

    離題,但你會注意到 "野蠻 "的定義往往是:

  • not me.’

    "不是我。

  • Maybe the best theory is that there wasn’t really an agricultural revolution at all but

    也許最好的理論是,根本沒有真正的農業革命,而是

  • that it was part of an evolutionary desire to produce more to eat. After all, hunter

    這是進化過程中生產更多食物的願望的一部分。畢竟,狩獵者

  • gatherers know that seeds germinate when planted and some groups will plant crops if the weather

    採集者都知道,種子播種後會發芽,如果天氣好,有些群體會種植農作物。

  • and climate permit, while otherwise preferring to forage (since it’s less work, after all).

    和氣候允許的情況下,而在其他方面則更傾向於覓食(因為畢竟工作量少)。

  • When you find something that’s edible, you try to get more of it. So early farmers would

    當你發現一些可以吃的東西時,你就會嘗試著多吃一些。所以早期的農民會

  • take the most easily accessible seeds of einkorn and emmer wheat plants and plant those, hoping

    把最容易獲得的英克朗和埃默爾小麥植物的種子拿出來種上,希望

  • that the results would become strains wheat that were easier to eat.

    的結果將成為更容易食用的小麥品系。

  • Like, for instance: We have evidence that as early as 13000 years ago humans in southern

    比如說我們有證據表明,早在13000年前,南部的人類

  • Greece were domesticating snails for food. In a cave at Frankthi is a huge pile of snail

    希臘人在馴化蝸牛作為食物。在Frankthi的一個山洞裡,有一大堆蝸牛。

  • shells. Most of them are larger than current snails, suggesting that the people who ate

    殼。它們中的大部分比現在的蝸牛大,說明吃過的人。

  • them were selectively breeding them to be bigger and more nutritious. Snails, btw, make

    他們有選擇地培育他們,使其更大,更有營養。蝸牛,順便說一下,使

  • excellent domesticated food sources because A. they are nutritious, and

    優秀的家養食物來源,因為A.它們營養豐富,而且.

  • B. theyre easy to carry, since they come with their own suitcases, and

    B. 他們很容易攜帶,因為他們自帶行李箱,而且

  • C. you can imprison them just be scratching a small ditch around their living quarters.

    C.你只要在他們的生活區周圍劃一條小溝,就可以把他們關起來。

  • That’s not exactly a revolution. That’s just people wanting to increase the number

    這不完全是一場革命。這只是人們想增加的數量

  • of their available calories.

    其可用熱量的。

  • But one non-revolution needs to another, and pretty soon you have this as far as the eye

    但是,一個不革命需要另一個,很快你就有了這個,只要眼球

  • can see. No doubt that the impact of the discovery and adoption of agriculture is probably the

    可以看到。毫無疑問,農業的發現和採用的影響可能是

  • most momentouseventin human and the planet’s history.

    人類和地球歷史上最重大的 "事件"。

  • I’m cold; let’s go inside. Without agriculture we couldn’t have large

    我很冷,我們進去吧。沒有農業,我們就不可能有大

  • groups of people in the same place (they’d starve) and therefore no complex societies,

    群人在同一個地方(他們會餓死),是以沒有複雜的社會。

  • cities, religions, writing, metalworking, all that good stuff.

    城市,宗教,寫作,金屬加工,所有這些好東西。

  • It’s also true that without agriculture we wouldn’t have all the bad things that

    同樣的道理,沒有農業,我們就不會有那麼多的壞事。

  • come with complex civilizations, like inequality, patriarchy, war, and unfortunately, famine.

    伴隨著複雜的文明,比如不平等,父權制,戰爭,以及不幸的饑荒。

  • And as far as the planet is concerned, agriculture has been a big loserwithout it humans

    而就地球而言,農業一直是個大輸家--沒有了農業,人類

  • would never have changed the environment so much, clearing forests, moving rivers, building

    根本就不會對環境有這麼大的改變,開墾森林,移動河流,建設

  • dams to create and prevent floods, drilling wells for agriculture, and in the 20th and

    築壩造田防洪、打井務農,在20年和20年的時間裡,人們還在不斷地創造新的就業機會。

  • 21st century drilling for oil to process into fertilizer. Many people made these choices

    21世紀鑽探石油,加工成肥料。許多人做出了這些選擇

  • independently from each other, but does that mean it was the right choice? Maybe so, but

    彼此獨立,但這是否意味著這是正確的選擇?也許是的,但

  • it’s impossible to unmake that choice today, which is one of the reasons I think history

    今天不可能再做選擇了,這也是我認為歷史的原因之一。

  • is worth our attention: It reminds us that revolutions are not events so much as processes,

    是值得我們關注的。它提醒我們,革命不是事件,而是過程。

  • that for tens of thousands of years people have been making decisions that irrevocably

    幾萬年來,人們一直在做著不可改變的決定

  • shaped our world, just as today were making subtle, irrevocable decisions that the people

    塑造了我們的世界,就像今天我們正在做一些微妙的、不可改變的決定,而這些決定是人民

  • of the future will remember

    後人會記得

  • as revolutions.

    作為旋轉。

Hello learned and astonishingly attractive pupils; my name is John Green, and I want

你們好,學識淵博、魅力驚人的學生們,我叫約翰-格林,我想。

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B1 中級 中文 CrashCourse 農業 馴化 大象 小麥 種植

【世界歷史速成班】農業革命 (The Agricultural Revolution: Crash Course World History #1)

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    Fu Jung Lai 發佈於 2012 年 12 月 20 日
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