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  • Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a bit of a strange lesson.

    嗨,歡迎回到www.engvid.com,我是艾登。今天的課程內容有點奇怪

  • I'm going to tell you something that you can't actually learn. Well, you can learn it, there's

    我要告訴你們一些你其實沒辦法學的東西。恩,你可以學,只是這些東西

  • just no rules for it. I'm talking about specifically some prefixes.

    沒有一定的規則。我要講的是某些特定的前綴詞

  • "Dis-", "un", "in/im-/il/ir-", "non-". Okay?

    「Dis-」、「un-」、「in/im-/il/ir-」、「non-」

  • First of all, let's review a little bit. What is a prefix? A prefix is a little part of

    首先,我們來複習一下。前綴詞是什麼?前綴詞是一個單字中

  • a word that comes before the main word; can come before an adjective, before an adverb,

    主要單字前面的一小部分;它會在形容詞前面、副詞前面

  • before a noun, before a verb. Anything that comes before a word, especially before a root

    名詞前面、動詞前面。任何在一個字前面的,尤其是在一個字跟前面的

  • of a word. We're going to look at an example of that very soon.

    都是前綴詞。我們等等就會講到例子了

  • So, I was asked specifically to talk about these prefixes. All of them basically mean "not".

    那麼,有人特地要求我講講這些前綴詞。基本上他們全部都代表「不」的意思

  • Okay? They negate the word they are added to. Now, generally speaking, you can

    ok?這些前綴詞會讓原本的單字變成否定的意思。大體上,你可以

  • find specific little subtle differences between all of them. For example, "dis" means more

    在它們之間發現一些細微的不同。例如,「dis」意思比較像是

  • like be apart of or away from, separate. "Un" means not or a reversal of something,

    與某事物分開或是遠離、分離。「un」意思是不或者某事物的相反

  • or not having something, a lack of something, a deprivation. And same with these guys, not,

    或者沒有某事物、缺乏某事物、一種遭到剝奪的感覺。這些也一樣,表示不

  • reverse, opposite. "Non" is the most simple one. "Non" basically means not. Okay?

    顛倒、相反。「Non」是最簡單的一個。基本上「Non」 意思是不。ok?

  • But, the problem is that most of these can go with many words, but there's no real rule about

    但是問題在於這些都可以跟很多單字搭配,而卻沒有實際的規則

  • which word takes which prefix. Okay? So, how do you learn which one to use in which situation?

    決定哪個單字應該搭配哪個前綴詞。ok?所以你要怎麼學哪個前綴詞應該用在哪種情況呢?

  • Well, I'll tell you after we look at a few examples. Okay?

    恩,等我們看完一些例子之後我再告訴你吧,ok?

  • So, again, all of these mean not. The only thing you have to worry about the most is

    那麼,再說一次,這些詞全部都是否定的意思。你最需要擔心的唯一事情是

  • the actual word that is being connected to a prefix. Okay? Concentrate on the root or

    冠上前綴詞的那個單字本身。ok?你的注意力必須集中在字根上

  • the word itself before you concentrate on which prefix to join to it.

    或者這個單字本身,然後再來看應該要用哪個前綴詞。

  • Now, you will see that some words will take both prefixes, and be totally okay.

    你會發現有些字可以搭配兩種前綴詞,而且完全沒問題

  • The problem is that their meanings are completely different. So, "to dislike", this is a verb,

    問題是他們的意思完全不同。「to dislike」是動詞

  • "to dislike", it could also be a noun. "I have a strong dislike for certain vegetables", for example.

    「to dislike」也可以當成名詞。例如「我特別討厭某些蔬菜。」

  • But "to dislike" means to not like. Now, if you say: "I don't like Pizza."

    但是「to dislike」意思是討厭。如果你說:「我不喜歡披薩」

  • And you say: "I dislike Pizza." These are a little bit different. Right? "Don't like"

    然後你說;「我討厭披薩」這是兩個不太一樣的說法,對吧?「Don't like」

  • or "not like" means you don't have a good feeling towards. But "dislike" means you actually

    或者「not like」意思是你對某事物沒有好感。但是「dislike」意思是你真的

  • have a bad feeling towards. Right? So, this is a little bit more active. You're away from liking it.

    對某事物有不好的感覺。對吧?所以這有點主動意味。你離喜歡它的程度很遠。

  • You're actually having a bad feeling for it. "Unlike" has absolutely no connection

    你其實對它有不好的感覺。「Unlike」跟「dislike」完全沒有關聯

  • to "dislike". "Unlike" means not similar to. This is the preposition "like", "A" is like "B".

    「unlike」意思是與某事物沒有共同點。這是介系詞「like」,A跟B很像

  • This is the verb "like", means to have a good feeling toward. So, concentrate on

    這是動詞「like」,意思是對某事物有好感。所以要注意

  • the word you have. You have the verb, you have the preposition, and then decide which

    單字本身。它可能是動詞也可能是介係詞,然後再決定

  • prefix you want to join to it.

    你要用哪個前綴詞

  • So, here, I have a few examples of words that can take two prefixes and have different meanings.

    這邊我有一些例子,這些字可以搭配兩個前綴詞來表示兩種不同的意思

  • So, for example: "discover" and "uncover" are two completely different verbs. "To discover"

    例如「discover」跟「uncover」是兩個完全不同的動詞。「to discover」

  • means to find by accident. You're walking along the beach, and you discover the skull,

    意思是意外發現。你走在沙灘上發現骷髏

  • the bone... Head bone of a dinosaur. You didn't look for it. You just found it. Okay?

    骨頭···是一隻恐龍的頭骨。你並沒有在尋找它。你只是剛好找到它。ok?

  • You discovered it. So, it was hidden by nature, by time, and then you took away the cover

    你發現它了。所以,它被大自然與時間藏了起來,你拿開蓋住它的東西

  • and there it is, the skull. "Uncover", on the other hand, means you were looking for

    然後就發現它了,這具骷髏。但是「uncover」意思是你一直在找

  • something and you found it.

    某事物然後找到了

  • So, you're a... I'm a reporter. I work for a major newspaper, and I think that this particular

    假設你是···我是個記者。我在一家大報社工作,我認為某位

  • politician is corrupt; he's lying to the people, he's stealing their money. So, I investigate.

    政治人物貪汙,他對人民說謊,他在偷人民的錢。所以我開始調查

  • And after my investigation, I uncover certain facts that will help the police put him in

    經過我的調查之後,我發現可以置他於獄中的某些證據

  • jail. Not, not, not covered, not covered, means not hidden, but this one by accident,

    不、不、沒有蓋住、沒有蓋住,都表示沒有隱藏,但這一個是意外得到

  • time, nature hit it, I, by accident discovered it; "uncover" means I looked for, I found.

    時間或自然把某事物藏起來,我意外發現它;而「uncover」意思是我一直在尋找後找到

  • This one, or these two, I should say: "disinterested" and "uninterested". These are always mixed

    這一個,或這兩個,我要說:「disinterested」跟「uninterested」。它們常常被搞混

  • up. You cannot use these two interchangeably; you have to use one or the other. I'll start

    這兩個字不可互換使用,你只能用其中一個。我先從

  • with "uninterested". ''Uninterested'' means indifferent, don't care. It's boring. I'm uninterested.

    「uninterested」開始說。「uninterested」意思是不感興趣、不在乎。這很無聊,我不感興趣

  • I don't want to know. Leave me alone. "Disinterested" means impartial, means you're not... You don't

    我不想知道。不要告訴我。「disinterested」意思是公平的,意思是你沒有···

  • have a reason to take one side or the other. Okay? So, again, I'm the reporter. I have

    你沒有理由選邊站。ok?所以再舉一次例子,假設我是個記者。我不會

  • nothing to gain or lose by finding out information about this politician. I am a disinterested

    因為發現這位政治人物的事情而得到或失去什麼。我居於中立

  • party. I am objective. Okay? I am not involved in the situation. I'm just reporting the facts.

    位子。我是客觀的。ok?我沒有涉入其中。我只是在報導事實

  • Here, I don't care; here, I'm not part of the situation.

    這個,我不在乎;這個,我不在其中

  • Now, you also think: "Well, these two are kind of weird. There are two different words here."

    你可能會想:「恩,這兩個字看起來很奇怪。它們是不同的字。」

  • Right? But you have a "discomfort", you are "uncomfortable". That's a little strange.

    對吧?但是,你感到「不適」,你「不舒服」。這有點奇怪

  • This is a noun, this is an adjective. You go to the doctor, you complain of a discomfort in your side.

    這是個名詞,這是個形容詞。你去看醫生時會跟醫生說身體內部不適的症狀

  • But if you sit and somebody left a pen on your chair, oh, a little uncomfortable.

    但如果你坐在有人放了一枝筆的椅子上,噢,有點不舒服

  • You're not... You know, you want to get up and see what's going on there. A discomfort

    你不是···就是你想要起來然後看椅子為什麼坐起來不舒服。「discomfort」

  • is like a real thing, probably inside. Uncomfortable, you can fix somehow.

    是真實的東西,可能是內部的。而「Uncomfortable」則是你可以處理修復的

  • "Disable", okay? We're going to look at the verb, "disable". Means make not able. Take

    「disable」,ok?我們看一下這個動詞「disable」。意思是讓某人或物沒有能力做某是。

  • away the ability of something. So, you have a machine running. You think: "Oh, it's a

    去除他或牠做某事的能力。 假設你有台運作中的機器。你想:「好,這

  • little bit dangerous." You don't want anybody to use it, so you disable it. You disconnect

    有點危險」你不希望有人因為用了它而受傷,所以你關掉它。你切斷

  • the fuse. Now, nobody can come and use this machine. It has been disabled. We say about

    電源。現在沒有人可以用這台機器了。它已經不能用了。如果我們說

  • a person if he or she is disabled, usually they're in a wheelchair, they had an accident

    一個人disabled,通常指的是需要坐輪椅的人,他們有過意外

  • or they were born with a problem. They are not able. "Unable" means can't. I am unable

    或他們天生有生理上的問題。他們沒有某種能力。「Unable」意思是不能。我不能

  • to help you because I just don't know. Okay? "Unable", "disable".

    幫你因為我不知道。ok?「unable」、「disable」

  • We're going to come back to this bottom one, here. So, that's a few things. Oh, a couple

    我們等下會再回到下面這組單字。這邊還有些單字要提一下。

  • more. "Disorganized", "unorganized". Usually, you would say about a person: "He or she is

    「Disorganized」、「unorganized」通常你會用來形容人:「他或她

  • disorganized." He has things everywhere or she has things everywhere; it's a big mess.

    有失條理。」意思是他東西亂放或她東西亂放;非常亂

  • But the office or the room of this person is unorganized. So, we talk about an organization,

    但是說辦公室或某人的房間亂是用unorganized。假設我們在說一個組織

  • or a company, or an association, or a place that is unorganized. We talk about a person

    或一家公司、或一個協會、或一個地方環境不整齊。但如果我們是在說一個人

  • being disorganized. I'm going to come back to these.

    就是用disorganized。我等下會再回來講這組

  • So, now, we know, "dis", "un", depends on the word you're using. Same goes for these

    那麼現在我們知道「dis」、「un」,看你是用哪個單字。同理可以了解這邊這幾個前綴詞

  • ones. Right? For example, "non", "non", there are not that many words. You have a "nonpayment".

    對吧?例如「non」,「non」搭配的字不多。有「未付款(nonpayment)」

  • Okay? You bought something, it's non-refundable. Keep in mind sometimes you will have a hyphen,

    Ok?你買了東西,這個東西不可退還(non-refundable)。記住,有時候會用分號連接

  • sometimes you will not. How do you know? Check the dictionary. Again, not really any rule

    有時候不用。你怎麼知道要不要用?查字典就可以了。再說一次,這其實沒有規則可以記

  • here. Some dictionaries, like American dictionaries will put like a hyphen, British ones won't.

    有些字典,像美式字典就會用分號,但英式字典就不會用

  • Depends what you need, that's what you'll use.

    看你需要什麼,那就是你要用的字

  • "In", "im", same thing, especially with "il", "ir", they're all exact same. They also mean

    「in」、「im」是一樣的,還有「il」、「ir」,它們都是一樣的意思。它們也代表

  • not, or opposite, or lack. We usually use "im" with words that begin with a "b", "m",

    不,或相反的意思,或缺乏。我們通常會把「im」用在「b」、「m」

  • or a "p". Now, the thing about "in" or "im", you have to be careful about it. They don't

    或「p」開頭的單字前。現在我們來看「in」、「im」,使用時要小心。它們不只

  • only mean not; they have other meanings. For example, it could mean to put something into,

    代表部的意思;它們還有其他意思。例如,它可以表示把某物放入

  • or show direction towards the inside of something. Right?

    或指出某個方向,指向某事物內部的方向。對吧?

  • So, for example, "immigrate" means migrate into a country. So, come... Or come into a

    舉個例子,「immigrate」代表移民進入某國家。所以,他們來...或進入來到一個國家

  • country, I should say, sorry. "Migrate" move, "im", into. Move into a country. "Inflame",

    抱歉我應該說「migrate」移入,就是「im」。移入一個國家。「Inflame」

  • so this is another use of the prefix "in". Means to cause, to be, or to make. Right?

    這是前綴詞「in」的另一個用法。意思是導致、激怒。對吧?

  • So, you inflame, you make it... The flame, you make it more of a flame, you intensify it.

    所以你點燃,你導致...火,你讓它更大了,你強化它

  • Sorry, intensify. So, there's a... Somebody's having a fight, you want to inflame it. You

    抱歉,強化。所以,假設某人在吵架,你想要激怒他。

  • give them both reasons to fight more. You inflame the product, the situation. So, "in"

    你給他們吵得更兇的理由。你火上加油。所以,「in」

  • and "im" not only mean "not", they also mean "toward" or "to cause". So, be careful.

    跟「im」不只代表不的意思,它們還有「朝向」或「導致」的意思。所以,要注意這點

  • "Il" and "ir" we use with words that begin with "l" or "r". For example, "illogical",

    我們會把「il」、「ir」用在以「l」或「r」開頭的單字前。例如「不合理的(illogical)」

  • "irrelevant". Going back to "im", "b", "m", "p". "Imbalanced", "immaterial", "impossible".

    「不恰當的(irrelevant)」。回來看「im」,「b」、「m」、「p」。「不平衡的(Imbalanced)」、「不重要的(immaterial)」、「不可能的(impossible)」

  • I'm using adjectives. You're not limited to adjectives. There could be other things. For

    我用的都是形容詞。你不用限制於形容詞。也有可能是其他詞性

  • example, "immigration" is a noun. "Immigrate" is a verb. I'm still using the "im". So be

    例如「immigration」是名詞。「immigrate」是動詞。我還在舉「im」的例子

  • careful about these. And the "non", "nonpayment", "non-refundable".

    所以要小心這些字。至於「non」,「未付款(nonpayment)」、不可退還(non-refundable)

  • Now, there is another situation. "Mis", I know this is not on my list, this is a different

    現在我們來看另一個狀況。「mis」,我知道這個前綴詞不再我的列表上,它是個不同的

  • prefix. But many people think that "mis" means "not". It doesn't. "Mis" means wrongly, in

    前綴詞。但是很多人以為「mis」意思是「不」。其實不是。「mis」意思是錯誤地

  • a wrong way. So, "inappropriate" means not appropriate, not proper, not correct. "Misapproriate",

    不對的方法。所以「inappropriate」意思是不適當、不合適、不正確。而「Misappropriate」

  • "inappropriate", "misappropriate", this word and this word are two different words. This

    「inappropriate」和「Misappropriate」這個字跟這個字是兩個不同的字

  • is an adjective, means correct or proper. "Appropriate" is a verb, means take. If you

    這是個形容詞,意思是正確或合適。「appropriate」是個動詞,意思是挪用。如果你

  • misappropriate, you take something in a dishonest way, in a wrong way. Okay? So, be very careful

    盜用(misappropriate),意思是你用不誠實的方式拿走某物,錯誤的方式。ok?所以務必要小心

  • about "mis". And make sure you understand which word you are using before you add your prefix.

    在加上前綴詞之前要先確認你懂你要用的字

  • Now, we're getting to the gist of the lesson, we're getting to the main point. How do you

    現在,我們要進入這堂課的要點了,我們要進入重點部分。你如何知道

  • know, and what if you don't know which prefix to use? So, for example, "unsecure", "insecure".

    以及如果你不知道要用哪個前綴詞時怎麼辦?例如「unsecure」、「insecure」

  • "Insecure" generally, we talk about a person... A person's attitude toward him or herself.

    通常「insecure」是用來形容人的...某人對待自己的態度

  • If someone is insecure, means they lack confidence; they're not confident. They don't have the

    如果某人沒有信心(insecure)意思是他們缺乏自信;他們沒有自信。他們沒有

  • self-security. "Unsecure" means not safe. Now, if you're talking about a computer that

    自我安全感。「unsecure」意思是不安全。如果一台電腦

  • doesn't have an anti-virus, it's unsecure. It doesn't have a firewall, it's unsecure.

    沒有防毒軟體,那它就不安全。它沒有防火牆,它不安全

  • If you attach a picture to the wall... For example, this, this whiteboard is secured

    如果你把一幅畫掛在牆上...例如這個白板在牆上

  • to the wall. If I take out the screws, it might fall over, it would be unsecure.

    很安全。如果我拿掉釘子,它可能會掉下來,那它就不安全

  • But many people feel this word is uncomfortable, it just doesn't sound right, "unsecure". If

    但很多人覺得這個字讓人不舒服,聽起來不對,「unsecure」

  • you're not sure, use the two words. Say: "Not secure". If this word, "unsecure" doesn't

    如果你不確定,就用兩個字:「Not secure」。如果你覺得「unsecure」

  • feel correct, don't use it. Use "not secure". Tell me the meaning of this. Okay? Don't worry

    不對就不要用。用「Not secure」就可以了。告訴我這個的意思。如果你不喜歡加上前綴詞

  • about the word itself if you don't like it.

    不要擔心單字本身會有問題

  • Which, brings us, again, to the main point: how do you know? Well, you have to feel.

    這讓我們再度回到主題:你怎麼知道要怎麼用?恩,靠語感

  • You have to feel the language, you have to feel which word sounds correct or not. Now, this

    你必須感受這個語言,你必須感覺哪個字聽起來對或不對。

  • is especially important in writing. In spoken English, if you say: "Dispossible", people

    這對寫作非常重要。口語上,如果你說:「Dispossible」,別人

  • will look at you a little bit strange, but they will understand what you're saying. In

    會覺得你有點奇怪,但他們還是能理解你想說什麼。

  • writing, they will look at it and try to figure out what's going on; they'll get confused.

    在寫作時,他們看到這個字會試著去弄清楚是什麼意思;他們會感到困惑

  • In writing, it's very important to use the right word, the correct word. You have to feel it.

    寫作時,用正確的字非常重要。你必須用心感受

  • Now, how do you feel which word is correct and which word is not? Read. Read a lot, a

    你要如何感覺哪個字是對的,哪個字不對呢?閱讀。要讀很多

  • lot, a lot, a lot. This is where you get to feel the language. For example, if you read

    很多很多很多。這是你培養語感的方法。例如,如果你讀了

  • 100 books by 100 different authors, all of them will use "imbalanced". Nobody will use

    100本由100個不同作家寫的書,他們都會用「imbalanced」,沒有人用

  • "disbalanced". Some might use "unbalanced". Okay? So, you're free to use one or the other.

    「disbalanced」,有時候可能會用「unbalanced」,ok?所以,你可以自由選擇兩個的其中一個

  • Okay? "Immaterial", everybody will use "immaterial" or "not material". "Immaterial", by the way,

    ok?「Immaterial」,大家都會用「Immaterial」或是「not material」。順便說一下,「Immaterial」

  • means not important, not relevant. Same as "irrelevant", "immaterial", synonyms. Okay?

    意思是不重要,沒有關係。「irrelevant」、「immaterial」是同義字。ok?

  • So, now, personally, I recommend reading novels. Why? Because the authors of novels, technically,

    現在,我個人建議閱讀小說。為什麼?因為小說作家理論上

  • should have a very strong command of grammar. They spend a lot of time thinking about every

    應該有很強的文法能力。他們花很多時間思考每個

  • word they use, and they have editors, who also check every word they use. So, novels

    他們要用的字,而且他們有編輯可以幫他們校稿。所以,小說

  • get you... Really play with the language and really help you get this feel for the language.

    可以...小說真的是種文字遊戲,而且真的能幫你培養語感

  • But until you get that feeling, until that time comes, use a dictionary. Like anything

    但在你養成語感以前,只能好好運用字典。就像其他的東西一樣

  • else, if you're not sure, check. The dictionary says like this, use it like that. If you're

    如果你不確定就查查看。字典說這樣用 ,你就這樣用。如果你

  • in the middle of the test and you can't think of... You don't have a dictionary, you have

    在考試,你不能....你沒有字典可以用,但你必須

  • to write something, give it your best guess and hope for the best. But eventually, you

    寫些東西,就猜一個你最有把握的字然後希望是對的吧。但最終,你

  • will know just by looking at it if it's right or wrong.

    還是要查查看它是對的或錯的

  • Okay, if you go to www.engvid.com, I put a quiz there that will test your knowledge of

    ok,如果你到www.engvid.com,我放了個小測驗來測測你

  • some of these words with their prefixes. A couple little surprise ones for you as well.

    對今天講到的一些前綴詞認識多少。裡面當然還有一些給你們的小驚喜

  • Also, don't forget to subscribe to my channel on YouTube. And ask any questions you'd like,

    還有,記得訂閱我在Youtube上的頻道。有任何問題都可以提出

  • and I'll get back to you as soon as I can. Thanks.

    我會盡快回覆你們。謝囉。

Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Today's lesson is a bit of a strange lesson.

嗨,歡迎回到www.engvid.com,我是艾登。今天的課程內容有點奇怪

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

A2 初級 中文 美國腔 單字 事物 動詞 字典 形容詞 搭配

【英文技巧】一次搞定「否定字首」(English Grammar: Negative Prefixes - "un", "dis", "in", "im", "non")

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    Chris 發佈於 2016 年 09 月 16 日
影片單字