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  • In the 1600s, there were so many right whales in Cape Cod Bay

    17世紀,在美國東海岸的科德角灣 生活著大量的露脊鯨。

  • off the east coast of the U.S.

    牠们數量之多,以至於你幾乎都能踩著鯨魚背

  • that apparently you could walk across their backs

    從海灣的一端走向另一端。

  • from one end of the bay to the other.

    如今,牠們只剩數百隻,瀕臨滅絕。

  • Today, they number in the hundreds, and they're endangered.

    同露脊鯨一樣, 許多其他種類的鯨魚數量也急劇下降,

  • Like them, many species of whales saw their numbers drastically reduced

    正是由於這兩百年來的捕鯨活動。

  • by 200 years of whaling,

    這期間鯨魚被獵殺,被獵取鯨魚肉、 鯨魚油,和鯨魚骨。

  • where they were hunted and killed for their whale meat, oil and whale bone.

    今天我們的海域中之所以還有鯨魚,

  • We only have whales in our waters today

    是因為70年代的“拯救鯨魚”運動。

  • because of the Save the Whales movement of the '70s.

    該運動有效阻止了商業捕鯨,

  • It was instrumental in stopping commercial whaling,

    其基本理念是: 如果我們連鯨魚都拯救不了,

  • and was built on the idea that if we couldn't save whales,

    我們還能拯救什么?

  • what could we save?

    這實質上考驗了我們的政治能力,

  • It was ultimately a test of our political ability

    阻止環境破壞的政治能力。

  • to halt environmental destruction.

    這項運動的一個成果就是 1980年代初

  • So in the early '80s, there was a ban on commercial whaling

    商業捕鯨禁令的頒布。

  • that came into force as a result of this campaign.

    不過,我們的海域中鯨魚數量仍舊稀少,

  • Whales in our waters are still low in numbers, however,

    因為鯨魚還面臨一系列 其他的人類造成的威脅。

  • because they do face a range of other human-induced threats.

    很不幸,很多人仍覺得 我這樣的鯨魚保護人士

  • Unfortunately, many people still think that whale conservationists like myself

    是出於欣賞鯨魚的魅力 和美麗而保護鯨魚。

  • do what we do only because these creatures are charismatic and beautiful.

    這種思維其實會起反作用,

  • This is actually a disservice,

    因為鯨魚是生態系統的工程師。

  • because whales are ecosystem engineers.

    牠們幫助維護海洋的穩定和健康,

  • They help maintain the stability and health of the oceans,

    甚至還能為人類社會做貢獻。

  • and even provide services to human society.

    讓我們來談談為什麼拯救鯨魚

  • So let's talk about why saving whales is critical

    對保證海洋的自我調節很重要。

  • to the resiliency of the oceans.

    歸根結底是兩個主要的東西:

  • It boils down to two main things:

    鯨魚糞便和腐爛遺骸。

  • whale poop and rotting carcasses.

    當鯨魚潛入深海捕食 然後浮上海面呼吸時,

  • As whales dive to the depths to feed and come up to the surface to breathe,

    牠們排放出巨量的排泄流。

  • they actually release these enormous fecal plumes.

    這種所謂的鯨魚泵

  • This whale pump, as it's called,

    能將深海中的稀缺關鍵養分

  • actually brings essential limiting nutrients from the depths

    帶到水表,促進浮游生物的生長,

  • to the surface waters where they stimulate the growth of phytoplankton,

    而浮游生物是一切海洋食物鏈的基礎。

  • which forms the base of all marine food chains.

    所以,讓更多的鯨魚在海洋中排泄

  • So really, having more whales in the oceans pooping

    會對整個生態系統都有好處。

  • is really beneficial to the entire ecosystem.

    鯨魚還是遷徙距離最遠的哺乳動物之一。

  • Whales are also known to undertake some of the longest migrations of all mammals.

    灰鯨每年遷徙1萬6千公里

  • Gray whales off America migrate 16,000 kilometers

    來回在營養豐富的捕食水域和

  • between productive feeding areas and less productive calving, or birthing, areas

    營養欠缺的繁殖水域之間。

  • and back every year.

    在此過程中,牠們的糞便作為肥料

  • As they do so, they transport fertilizer in the form of their feces

    被從養分富饒的地方 運送到養分稀缺的地方。

  • from places that have it to places that need it.

    很顯然,鯨魚在海洋的 營養循環中起重要作用,

  • So clearly, whales are really important in nutrient cycling,

    無論是縱向還是橫向的營養循環。

  • both horizontally and vertically, through the oceans.

    但非常有意思的是, 牠們死後也起重要作用。

  • But what's really cool is that they're also really important after they're dead.

    鯨魚遺骸是海平面下最大的腐質之一,

  • Whale carcasses are some of the largest form of detritus

    它們被稱作鯨魚下沉物。

  • to fall from the ocean's surface, and they're called whale fall.

    當遺骸下沉時,

  • As these carcasses sink,

    它們給 400 個物種提供了盛宴,

  • they provide a feast to some 400-odd species,

    其中包括鰻魚狀的、產生粘液的盲鰻。

  • including the eel-shaped, slime-producing hagfish.

    所以,超過200年的捕鯨,

  • So over the 200 years of whaling,

    我們在匆忙殺戮, 從海洋中移除這些遺骸的同時,

  • when we were busy killing and removing these carcasses from the oceans,

    我們也很可能改變了這些鯨魚下沉物的

  • we likely altered the rate and geographic distribution of these whale falls

    產生率和地理分布,

  • that would descend into deep oceans,

    而這很可能導致了一些

  • and as a result, probably led to a number of extinctions

    專門食用和依靠 這種遺骸生存的生物的滅絕。

  • of species that were most specialized

    鯨魚的遺骸也能運輸約19萬噸的碳,

  • and dependent on these carcasses for their survival.

    這相當於

  • Whale carcasses are also known to transport about 190,000 tons of carbon,

    8萬輛汽車

  • which is the equivalent of that produced

    一年從大氣到海洋的碳排放。

  • by 80,000 cars per year

    深海被我們稱為“碳池”,

  • from the atmosphere to the deep oceans,

    因為那裡能鎖住和存儲大氣中多餘的碳,

  • and the deep oceans are what we call "carbon sinks,"

    從而幫助減緩全球暖化。

  • because they trap and hold excess carbon from the atmosphere,

    有時這些遺骸還被沖刷上海岸,

  • and therefore help to delay global warming.

    為陸地上的一些捕獵生物提供食物。

  • Sometimes these carcasses also wash up on beaches

    這二百年的捕鯨行為破壞巨大,

  • and provide a meal to a number of predatory species on land.

    它導致鯨魚數量減少了

  • The 200 years of whaling was clearly detrimental

    60%到90%。

  • and caused a reduction in the populations of whales

    拯救鯨魚行動

  • between 60 to 90 percent.

    在阻止商業捕鯨中確實起了關鍵作用,

  • Clearly, the Save the Whales movement

    但我們還需要做一些改進。

  • was instrumental in preventing commercial whaling from going on,

    我們需要應對如今鯨魚所面臨的

  • but we need to revise this.

    更當代,更緊迫的問題。

  • We need to address the more modern, pressing problems that these whales face

    其中,我們要防止鯨魚

  • in our waters today.

    在餵養水域中被運輸船撞死,

  • Amongst other things, we need to stop them

    還要防止鯨魚在海洋上游蕩時

  • from getting plowed down by container ships when they're in their feeding areas,

    被漁網纏住。

  • and stop them from getting entangled in fishing nets

    我們還需學會將我們的動物保護資訊具體化,

  • as they float around in the ocean.

    以便人們能夠真正了解 這些生物的實際生態價值。

  • We also need to learn to contextualize our conservation messages,

    讓我們再次拯救鯨魚,

  • so people really understand the true ecosystem value of these creatures.

    然而這次,我們這樣做不僅是為鯨魚,

  • So, let's save the whales again,

    也是為我們自己!

  • but this time, let's not just do it for their sake.

    謝謝。

  • Let's also do it for ours.

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

In the 1600s, there were so many right whales in Cape Cod Bay

17世紀,在美國東海岸的科德角灣 生活著大量的露脊鯨。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED 鯨魚 海洋 拯救 營養 生物

【TED】阿莎-德-沃斯。為什麼你應該關心鯨魚便便(Asha de Vos: Why you should care about whale poo)。 (【TED】Asha de Vos: Why you should care about whale poo (Asha de Vos: Why you should care about whale poo))

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    CUChou 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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