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  • Planet Earth is the home of every lifeform,

    據我們所知

  • known to us, in the universe.

    在宇宙中,地球是萬物的家

  • Its age is about 1/3 of the age of the universe

    地球年齡大約是宇宙的三分之一

  • and, admitted,

    而且無可否認的是

  • It is a thing of beauty.

    地球的存在就是美麗

  • a slightly squashed fair with a heavy metal core,

    受到稍微均勻擠壓的地心,充斥著重金屬

  • and a lighter surface crust,

    以及較輕的地殼表面

  • wrapped in a thin sliver of sweet air to breathe,

    以一層薄薄的甜美空氣包覆著呼吸

  • with vast oceans,

    還有無邊際的海洋

  • fertile plains,

    肥沃的平原

  • magnificent mountains,

    壯闊的高山

  • fresh water rivers, streams, lakes and aquifers,

    清澈的淡水河流、小溪、湖泊、地下水

  • orbiting a star which warms us,

    環繞著一顆提供我們溫暖的恆星

  • and gives us energy.

    並給予我們能量

  • But how did our home come in to existence,

    但是到底我們的家鄉地球是怎麼出現的呢?

  • and what's it made of?

    又是什麼組成的呢?

  • 4.6 billion years ago,

    46億年前

  • Earth was created from the remnants of dead stars,

    地球從死亡恆星的星雲中孕育而生

  • that collected in a giant, dirty gas cloud.

    聚集成一團巨大且骯髒的氣體雲

  • The gas cloud became denser in its center,

    氣體雲的中心內部變得越來越高密度

  • and formed an accretion disk.

    並形成一個吸積盤

  • small particles started clumping together,

    小型粒子開始撞擊在一起

  • and building larger and larger objects,

    並形成越來越大的物體

  • until they form the objects we call "Planets" today.

    進而形成一個我們今天所謂的「星球」

  • This process took 10 to 20 million years,

    這個過程歷時十年到兩千萬年的時間

  • and is still not very well understood.

    而且我們對此還不是很了解

  • At about this time, when the solar system was young and chaotic,

    差不多在那時候,太陽系還是相當年輕且混亂

  • a giant object, about as big as Mars,

    一個巨大的物體,大概和火星一樣大

  • collided with our home.

    撞擊了我們的家鄉地球

  • The impact was violent,

    此撞擊威力非常強大

  • and if the object had been more massive,

    而且如果當時的那個物體再大一點的話

  • it might have destroyed Earth.

    地球可能就會被毀滅

  • Materials from Earth were smashed out into orbit,

    撞擊出來的地球物質在特定軌道上運行

  • and formed the Moon,

    進而形成月球

  • which is the biggest satellite in relation to its planet in the solar system.

    月球是太陽系中最大的衛星

  • At this time, Earth was a hot hell,

    當時的地球還是個炙熱的煉獄

  • constantly being hit by asteroids,

    不斷的遭到小行星撞擊

  • with seas of lava,

    有著熔岩海洋

  • and a toxic atmosphere.

    以及劇毒大氣

  • But something was about to change drastically.

    但是事情卻開始有急遽的轉變

  • Earth cooled down.

    地球逐漸冷卻

  • Water from the inside of the Earth

    從地球內部冒出水來

  • wandered to the surface and rained down on Earth,

    佈滿地表,也開始降雨

  • only to vaporize again and become clouds.

    水又蒸發成為天上的雲

  • Millions of asteroids brought more and more water to our planet.

    數百萬的小行星帶給地球越來越多的水

  • All the water on Earth has about this volume compared to Earth.

    地球上所有的水相較於地球體積大概是這樣

  • Today,

    今日

  • the surface of Earth is 71% water,

    地球表面有百分之71是水

  • and 29% land.

    以及百分之29的陸地

  • 97.5% is saline water,

    其中百分之97.5都是鹹水

  • while only 2.5% is fresh water.

    只有百分之2.5是淡水

  • The Fresh water is 69% ice and snow,

    百分之69的淡水都是冰或雪

  • 30% are ground waters,

    百分之30是地下水

  • and only about 1% make up the remaining ground waters.

    而只有大約百分之1是地表的水

  • But even this small part is mostly frozen.

    但是雖然在這一小部分裡面大部分都是冰凍的水

  • Only a tiny part of our water is actually lakes and rivers.

    我們的水裡面只有一小部分是湖泊或河流

  • and an even tinier part is bound in living things.

    而那微小的一部分卻與萬物生存息息相關

  • So, gradually the Earth cooled down,

    所以,當地球漸漸冷卻

  • and the surface formed a thin crust.

    表面形成了一層薄薄的地殼

  • But inside the earth, hot rock continue to swirl about,

    但在地球內部,熾熱的岩石依然在對流

  • moving the crust from below and breaking it apart.

    在地殼下流動並將地殼分成數塊

  • This process is called "Plate Tectonics",

    這個過程就叫做「板塊運動」

  • and is happening right now.

    至今依然正在進行中

  • We'll make a whole video about it in the future.

    我們會再針對這個主題製作一個影片

  • For now,

    目前

  • let's just say that the crust of Earth consisted of

    我們只能說地球的地殼是由數塊

  • separate giant plates that move around.

    會移動的巨大分離板塊組成

  • As they meet, they crumble, and create mighty mountains.

    當板塊相撞時,它們會擠壓並形成高聳的山

  • OR:

    或是

  • violently plunge back down, deeper into Earth,

    猛烈的擠回地球內部、深入地心

  • creating deep trenches.

    形成深邃的海溝

  • That's the way the highest place on Earth was formed: Mt.Everest,

    藉由這樣的過程,地球最高點:珠穆朗瑪峰形成

  • and the deepest: the Mariana Trench.

    以及最深處:馬里亞納海溝形成

  • From our perspective,

    從我們的觀點來看

  • Earth's mountains and trenches are mighty indeed,

    地球上的高山或是海溝都很壯觀

  • but when you look at the Earth in cross-section,

    但是如果從地球的剖面來看

  • you can see how tiny they actually are.

    你就會發現其實它們相當的渺小

  • The part we stand on is the crust,

    我們站著的地方是地殼

  • which is about 50 kilometers thick,

    大約是50公里的厚度

  • though it can vary between 5 and 70 kilometers

    雖然厚度可能從5公里到70公里都有可能

  • By the way,

    順便提一下

  • the deepest hole ever drilled by man

    人類史上鑽的最深的洞

  • is 12.262 kilometers deep.

    只有 12.262 公里深

  • After the crust, comes the mantle.

    地殼之下就是地函

  • It's a silicate rocky shell,

    是一層矽酸鹽岩石外殼

  • and about 2,900 kilometers thick.

    大概是2900公里的厚度

  • The mantle consists of the upper mantle, and the lower mantle.

    地函分為上部地函及下部地函

  • The upper mantle has different regions, too.

    上部地函也分為不同的部分

  • It's upper part, which is viscous and carries the crust,

    上部地函具有高度黏性並可以帶動地殼

  • is called the "Lithosphere."

    稱為「岩石圈」

  • After that, there comes the "Asthenosphere,"

    在這之後是「軟流圈」

  • which consists of less mobile, mostly solid material.

    主要是由不太流動的固體材料所組成

  • The lower mantle reaches deep down to the outer core of Earth.

    下部地函延伸到地球的外核

  • Earth's outer core is a liquid layer of iron and nickel,

    地球外殼是鐵和鎳的液體層

  • about 2,266 kilometers thick.

    厚度約是2266公里

  • Temperatures vary from 4,000℃(7,232℉)

    溫度變化從攝氏4000度(華氏7232度)

  • to 5,700℃(10,292℉).

    到攝氏5700度(華氏10292度)

  • And in the center, is the inner core.

    而在中心的就是內核

  • It's mostly solid,

    大部分都是固體

  • a ball made of an iron-nickel alloy.

    由鐵鎳合金所形成的球體

  • with a radius of about 1,200 kilometers.

    半徑約1200公里

  • 70% of the size of the moon,

    是月亮體積的百分之70

  • and about the temperature of the surface of the Sun.

    溫度則大概跟太陽表面溫度一樣

  • It is slowly growing

    而且還會慢慢成長

  • at an estimated rate of about 1mm/year.

    估計的速度大概是每年1公厘

  • Now, for some respective,

    現在,我們來比較看看

  • this small layer of crystallized melt products of former molten mantle,

    這一小層是由地函溶解結晶的產物所形成

  • is where we live.

    就是我們居住的地方

  • Then, there's Earth's magnetic field.

    然後,我們來看看地球的磁場

  • It's an invisible phenomenon

    這是一種看不見的現象

  • that diverts high energy particles coming from the Sun and other sources,

    能夠阻擋來自地球或其他地方的高能量粒子

  • allowing for a stable environment

    以穩定地球環境

  • with comparatively little radiation impact on Earth.

    相對減少地球所受到的輻射影響

  • But why is it there?

    但是為什麼有磁場呢?

  • Actually, we don't really know a terrible lot about that.

    其實,我們並沒有很了解磁場

  • We know, it has something to do with the core of Earth.

    我們知道這個和地球有一定的關係

  • Inside this metal sphere,

    在這個金屬球體裡面

  • large electrical currents flow in complicated patterns.

    大型電流以複雜的形式流動

  • They cause a magnetic field,

    進而引起磁場

  • that sort of stabilizes itself according to the laws of electrodynamics.

    並根據電動力學的定律來穩定此磁場

  • This entire system is called the "Dynamo."

    這整個系統就稱為「地球潮磁(發電機原理)」

  • But, don't let us fool you into thinking we have it all figured out.

    但是,不要被我們騙了,以為我們已經全然了解磁場的一切

  • Speaking of breathtaking information,

    我們來談談其他驚人的事情

  • what about the airy stuff that surrounds us?

    在我們周遭的氣體又什麼東西呢?

  • By volume,

    從體積來看

  • dry air consists mostly of Nitrogen,

    乾空氣大部分都是氮

  • Oxygen,

  • Argon,

  • Carbon,

  • a variable amount of water vapor,

    以及含量不穩定的水蒸氣

  • and small amounts of other gases.

    還有一些少量的其他氣體

  • Humans are very dependent on the lowest layer of the atmosphere:

    大氣層最底層的部分對人類來說很重要

  • the Troposphere - Where the weather is.

    也就是對流層,天氣現象都是在這一層內出現

  • It's 12 kilometers thick on average.

    平均厚度是12公里

  • Above that is the Stratosphere,

    再往上就是平流層

  • which is where the ozone layer protects us

    此層能夠抵擋太陽射線中

  • from the sun's most aggressive type of light.

    最危險的紫外線,也就是臭氧層的位置

  • Above that is the Mesosphere - the coolest place on Earth,

    在往上一層就是中氣層,是地球上最寒冷的地方

  • with an average temperature around -85℃(-121℉).

    平均溫度大約在攝氏-85度(華氏-121度)

  • At about 80 kilometers up, the Thermosphere starts.

    再往上80公里就是增溫層

  • The transition to space is a fluent one, without clear borders.

    這些層之間的分界都是連續的,並沒有清楚的界線

  • but humans decided that space starts here.

    是人類決定從這裡開始就是太空

  • At about 100 kilometers, Earth stops, and space begins,

    在大約100公里處,地球的部分就結束了,接下來就是太空

  • though the atmosphere extends a bit further.

    雖然大氣層還延伸的再遠一點

  • In this region, we find the Ionosphere,

    在這區域內,我們發現了電離層

  • the aurora borealis,

    北極光

  • and the ISS,

    以及國際太空站

  • and the outermost layer is the Exosphere,

    最外層就叫做外大氣層

  • stretching up to 10,000 kilometers.

    可以向上延伸一萬公里

  • It merges fluently with outer space,

    與外太空慢慢的接壤

  • where there's no atmosphere at all.

    在那,就沒有任何的大氣

  • The atoms and molecules in this area are so far apart,

    在這區裡面的原子和分子距離非常的遠

  • that they can travel hundreds of kilometers

    它們可以移動行經數百公里之遠

  • without colliding with each other.

    而且都不會互相撞擊

  • OK.

    OK

  • Humans, in their present form,

    現在的這種人類

  • have only been around for 200,000 years.

    只大概出現在地球20萬年

  • - that's 0.004% of Earth's history.

    僅僅是地球歷史的百分之0.004

  • Not long, really.

    真的一點都不長

  • And, here we are now,

    而我們現在生存在

  • living in a thin, moist layer on a small, wet rock.

    一層又薄又濕潤的岩石

  • We call this rock: Earth.

    我們把這個岩石叫做地球

  • It is the product of the universe's deepest workings,

    地球是宇宙最匠心獨具所創造出來的產物

  • the result of a constant process of creation and destruction,

    經過不停地創造以及毀滅的過程才得以出現

  • happening all of the universe, all the time,

    發生在宇宙的每一個角落、每一秒

  • helped by chance,

    有時候有幸運的協助

  • the laws of the universe and random events,

    遵守著宇宙與隨機事件的定律

  • we are really lucky.

    我們真的是非常的幸運

Planet Earth is the home of every lifeform,

據我們所知

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B2 中高級 中文 英國腔 地球 地殼 形成 磁場 撞擊 宇宙

你需要知道的關於地球的一切 (Everything You Need to Know About Planet Earth)

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    Eating 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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