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  • Some people can't see the forest for the trees,

    有些人格局不夠,見樹不見林,

  • but before Stephen Sillett, no one could see or even imagine the forest in the trees.

    但能想像,甚至看見樹中自有林, 史提芬‧斯雷特是頭一個。

  • Stephen was an explorer of new worlds from the start.

    史提芬從小就是探險家。

  • He spent his boyhood in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

    他在賓州哈里斯堡度過童年,

  • reading Tolkien and playing Dungeons and Dragons with his brother Scott.

    讀托爾金的作品,和哥哥史考特 玩「龍與地下城」的桌遊。

  • But when the Sillett family visited their grandparent's cabin near Gettysburg,

    一家人到蓋茨堡附近的小木屋拜訪祖父母時,

  • their grandmother Helen Poe Sillett,

    祖母海倫‧坡‧斯雷特

  • would take the boys into the nearby mountains and forests to bird-watch.

    會帶他們到附近的山林賞鳥。

  • They called Grandma Sillett Poe,

    他們暱稱祖母為斯雷特‧坡,

  • and she taught the boys to identify songbirds, plants and even lichens,

    她教男孩們認鳴鳥、植物,還有地衣,

  • creatures that often look like splotches of carpet glued to the shady sides of rocks and tree trunks.

    地衣通常看起來像地上的斑點, 附著在石頭或樹幹的暗處。

  • Looking upwards, both boys found their callings.

    仰著頭認識世界,兩個男孩都找到他們志向。

  • Scott became a research scientist specializing in migratory birds.

    史考特成為研究學者,專攻候鳥。

  • Stephen was more interested in the trees.

    史提芬則對樹比較有興趣。

  • The tangle of branches and leaves attracted his curiosity.

    錯綜的枝葉勾起他的好奇心。

  • What could be hidden up there?

    樹上到底有些什麼?

  • By the time Stephen was in college, that curiosity pulled him skyward

    大學時期,好奇心驅使史蒂芬深入天際,

  • to the tallest trees on Earth: the ancient coast redwoods of Northern California.

    研究世上最高大的樹種之一: 北加州海岸的古老紅杉。

  • Rising from trunks up to 20 feet in diameter,

    紅杉直徑可達20英尺, 樹幹聳立可至380英尺高,

  • redwoods can grow up to 380 feet, or 38 stories, over a 2,000 year lifetime.

    相當於38層樓高,壽命長達2000年以上。

  • But no one had thought to investigate the crowns of these natural skyscrapers.

    早先沒人想過調查這自然界摩天大樓的樹冠。

  • Were there more than just branches up there?

    樹頂會不會不只是一堆樹枝?

  • Stephen decided to find out firsthand.

    史提芬決定親自一探究竟。

  • In 1987, Stephen, his brother Scott and his friend Marwood

    1987年,史提芬和哥哥史考特及友人馬伍德

  • drove from Reed College in Oregon

    一路從奧勒岡里德學院

  • to Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park in Northern California.

    開車前往北加州的草原溪紅木州立公園。

  • Deep inside the park, Stephen picked the tallest redwood he could find.

    深入園區,史提芬盡力找出最高的紅杉。

  • Its lowest branches were almost 100 feet up,

    這根樹離地面最近的樹枝 幾乎超過100英尺,

  • far beyond his reach.

    搆也搆不著。

  • But he saw a younger, shorter redwood growing next to the target tree.

    但他注意到旁邊剛好有棵較矮的年輕紅杉。

  • With a running start, he leapt and grabbed the lowest branch,

    他稍稍助跑,一躍攀上最矮的樹枝,

  • pulled himself up and scurried upwards.

    把自己撐上去後敏捷攀登。

  • He was free climbing without ropes or a harness,

    他徒手爬樹,沒有任何的繩索或背帶,

  • one misstep meant death.

    一失足便會粉身碎骨。

  • But up he went, and when he reached the peak,

    但他繼續向上攀爬,到樹頂時

  • he swayed and leapt across the gap of space onto a branch of the target tree

    他一盪躍身到原本大紅杉的樹枝上,

  • and into a world never seen before.

    踏入了前所未見的世界中。

  • His buddy Marwood followed him up,

    他的好友馬伍德也隨即跟進,

  • and the two young men free climbed high into the redwood's crown.

    兩個年輕人徒手爬上紅杉樹冠。

  • Stephen came across lichens like Grandma Poe had shown him as a boy.

    史提芬看見地衣,就像祖母小時候教他的。

  • He noticed that the higher he went, the thicker the branches were,

    他注意到爬得越高,樹枝反而越粗壯,

  • not the case with most trees.

    不同於一般樹木的生長情形。

  • He found moist mats of soil many inches thick,

    他發現數英寸厚的濕潤土壤層,

  • made from fallen needles, bark, other plant debris and dust from the sky

    是從天而降的針葉、樹皮、其他植物的殘骸,

  • piled on the tops of the large branches.

    還有塵埃堆積在粗壯的枝幹上。

  • He even found reiterations:

    他還發現重複生長的情形,也就是說

  • new redwood tree trunks growing out from the main trunk.

    紅杉的主幹會長出新的樹幹,

  • The redwood had cloned itself.

    就像自我複製。

  • When Stephen reached the pinnacle,

    史提芬攀至樹頂後,

  • he rested on a platform of crisscrossing branches and needles.

    在繁密枝葉形成的平台稍作休息。

  • Growing in the soil mat was a huckleberry bush with ripe berries!

    在此的堆積土壤上竟還長著熟成的越橘莓。

  • He ate some and waited for his friend.

    他嚐了一點邊等他的朋友。

  • Stephen had discovered a new world hundreds of feet above the ground.

    史提芬發現了數百英尺高空中的新世界。

  • His climb led to more excursions, with safety equipment, thank goodness,

    他的嘗試而後有了更多考察, 謝天謝地有帶安全裝備,

  • up other ancient redwoods as he mapped and measured the architecture

    他攀上其他的古老紅杉,勘察及測量

  • of branches and additional trunks in the canopy of an entire grove.

    整個樹林冠層中樹枝及新生樹幹的結構。

  • Stephen became an expert in the ecology of the tallest trees on Earth

    史提芬成為高樹的專家, 專精其樹冠豐富多樣的生態,

  • and the rich diversity of life in their crowns, aerial ecosystems no one had imagined.

    此高空生態精彩樣貌是前人始料未及。

  • There are ferns, fungi and epiphytic trees normally found at ground level

    有蕨類、真菌和常見於地面的附生植物,

  • like Douglas firs, hemlocks and tan oaks

    好比花旗松、鐵杉、石櫟,

  • whose roots had taken hold in the rich wet soil mats.

    這些植物的根緊緊抓住 富饒濕潤的堆積土壤。

  • Invertebrates such as ants, bumblebees, mites, beetles, earthworms and aquatic crustacean copepods

    無脊椎動物如螞蟻、大黃蜂、蟎、甲蟲、

  • make their homes alongside flowering plants like

    蚯蚓和水生甲殼類動物以此為家,

  • rhododendrons, currant and elderberry bushes.

    開花植物如杜鵑、醋栗、接骨木也生長於此。

  • Ospreys, spotted owls, and jays search the canopy for food.

    鶚、斑點鴞、松鴉在樹冠覓食。

  • Even the marbled murrelet, a Pacific seabird,

    連太平洋海鳥斑海雀

  • flies many miles from the ocean to nest there.

    也飛越海洋好幾里來此築巢。

  • Squirrels and voles peek out of penthouse burrows.

    松鼠和田鼠也從樹頂密處探出頭來。

  • And the top predator? The mighty wandering salamander!

    那高階掠食動物呢? 是神氣活現、四處遊走的蠑螈。

  • Sillett's research has changed how we think about tall trees,

    斯雷特的發現顛覆我們對大樹的想像,

  • and bolstered the case for their conservation,

    進而鼓勵紅杉保育,

  • not just as impressive individual organisms

    不只是保育此巨大的有機個體,

  • but as homes to countless other species.

    更是維護許許多多生物賴以生存的家。

  • So when you look up into the branches and leaves of a tree,

    下一次抬頭仰望枝葉,

  • ask, "What else is up there?"

    心裡想著:「上面到底有些什麼?」

  • A new world might be just out of reach. So leap for it.

    只要奮力縱身一躍,全新的世界觸手可及。

Some people can't see the forest for the trees,

有些人格局不夠,見樹不見林,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 紅杉 樹枝 植物 堆積 祖母

【TED-Ed】世界上最高的樹上有什麼?What's hidden among the tallest trees on Earth? - Wendell Oshiro

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2015 年 01 月 25 日
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