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  • Most people have heard the word "gerrymandering" once or twice,

    大部份的人可能多少聽過 「傑利蠑螈」(gerrymandering)這個詞,

  • probably during a presidential election.

    可能是在總統大選期間。

  • What exactly is gerrymandering?

    究竟什麼是傑利蠑螈呢?

  • Essentially, it's the process of giving one political party an advantage over another political party

    就本質而言,它是藉由重劃選區

  • by redrawing district lines.

    來讓一黨佔另一黨便宜的一種手段。

  • It's like Democrats trying to gain an advantage over Republicans,

    好比說民主黨想佔共和黨便宜、

  • or Republicans trying to gain an advantage over Democrats.

    而共和黨想佔民主黨便宜那樣。

  • You see, each party wants to gain as many districts as possible

    你也知道,每個黨派都希望 得到愈多選舉人票愈好,

  • so they can do things like control the state budget,

    所以它們會做一些事情, 像是控制各州預算,

  • or set themselves up to win even more districts in the future.

    或是鞏固自己地盤, 以便未來在更多地區勝選。

  • So to understand how this process began, and how it continues today,

    所以,如果要了解這手段的起源, 以及它今日的演變,

  • we must go back to 1812 in Massachusetts.

    我們必須回到 1812 的麻薩諸塞州。

  • Elbridge Gerry, the governor of Massachusetts, supported and signed a bill to allow redistricting.

    當時的麻州州長埃爾布里奇.格里(Elbridge Gerry) 主張並簽署一份允許重劃選區的法案。

  • That is, redrawing the boundaries that separate districts.

    也就是說, 重訂邊界來分隔一些區域。

  • The catch? The new lines would favor Gerry's own political party,

    用意是? 這些新的劃分將有利於格里的政黨,

  • the Democratic-Republican party, which no longer exists.

    也就是民主共和黨, 這政黨已經不存在了。

  • You see, Gerry wanted his party to win as many state Senate seats as possible.

    你可以看出,格里希望他的政黨 贏得所有可能的州議會席次。

  • The more members of your party who vote, the more likely you are to win an election.

    政黨能投票的席位愈多, 就越可能在選舉獲勝。

  • The new lines were drawn to include loads of areas that would help Governor Gerry in the future.

    新的劃分囊括進許多地區, 這些地區對州長格里的未來有幫助。

  • They were so strange looking that someone said the new districts looked like a salamander.

    因為它們的長像太奇怪了, 甚至有人說它們看起來像一隻蠑螈。

  • The Boston Gazette added Gerry's name to the word salamander,

    波士頓公報把格里的名字和蠑螈合在一起。 (譯註:兩字合併以後發音變為傑利。)

  • and voilà! Gerrymandering,

    瞧瞧,就成了傑利蠑螈,

  • the process of dividing up and redrawing districts to give your political party an advantage.

    也就是指用重劃選區 來讓自己政黨有利的手段。

  • So how exactly does someone go about protecting their own political party,

    所以,究竟要怎樣來保護自己的政黨

  • and actually gerrymandering a district?

    並進行傑利蠑螈的手段呢?

  • There are two successful practices.

    有兩種有效的方法。

  • Packing a district,

    「集中選票」

  • and cracking a district.

    以及「分散選票」。

  • Packing is the process of drawing district lines and packing in your opponents like cattle,

    集中選票是指 重劃選區將對手像城堡那樣

  • into as few districts as possible.

    集中在盡可能少的選區裡。

  • If more districts equals more votes, the fewer the districts there are,

    如果較多的勝選區等同於較多的票數, 那麼對手擁有的選區愈少,

  • the fewer votes the opposition party will get.

    他們所得的票數也就愈少。

  • Packing, then, decreases the opponent's voter strength and influence.

    集中選票這就降低了 對手選票的強度與影響力。

  • Cracking is the opposite:

    分散選票則是相反

  • taking one district and cracking it into several pieces.

    ──把一個選區分散成許多塊。

  • This is usually done in districts where your opponent has many supporters.

    這通常是發生在 對手有許多支持者的情況下。

  • Cracking spreads these supporters out among many districts,

    分散選票把這些支持者 分散到許多不同選區裡,

  • denying your opponent a lot of votes.

    這否定了對手有大量選票的事實。

  • When you have a large number of people who would generally vote for one type of party,

    當有一大群人固定會投給某一個政黨時,

  • those folks are known as a voting bloc.

    我們把他們稱為選票聯盟(voting bloc)。

  • Cracking is a way to break that all up.

    分散選票就是一種把他們打散的方法。

  • So when would a party choose to pack their opponent's districts rather than crack them?

    那什麼時候一黨會選擇集中對手選票 而不是分散他們呢?

  • Well, that really depends on what the party needs.

    這個嘛,真的要取決於這政黨的訴求。

  • To dilute your opponent's voters, you could pack them into one district

    如果想要沖淡對手的選票, 你可能會把他們集中在某一區

  • and leave the surrounding districts filled with voters of your own party.

    然後用你政黨的選民來填滿它的四周。

  • Or, if you and your party are in power when it's time to redraw district lines,

    或者,當要重劃選區的時候 你和你的政黨正好是當權者,

  • you could redraw districts and crack up a powerful district

    那你可以重劃選區 並把一個強大的選區打散,

  • and spread your opponent's voters out across several neighboring districts.

    讓對手的選民分散在鄰近的不同選區。

  • So, Governor Gerry in 1812 wanted to gain an advantage for his party,

    所以,在 1812 年 州長格里想要為自己政黨佔便宜

  • and redrew district lines in his state in such a crazy way we have a whole new word

    並將麻州的選區重劃成奇怪的樣子, 這讓我們

  • and way of thinking about how political parties can gain advantages over their opponents.

    有一個全新的詞彙與思維, 來思考一個政黨如何佔對手便宜。

  • Politicians think of creative ways to draw districts every few years.

    政客們每幾年就會想出一些 有創意的劃分方法。

  • So the next time an election comes around,

    所以當下一次選舉到了

  • and politicians ask people to vote,

    而政治人物拜託選民投票的時候,

  • be sure to look up the shape of your district and the districts that surround it.

    記得確認一下你選區的形狀, 還有你附近的選區。

  • How wide does your district stretch across your state?

    你的選區有多寬?

  • Are all of the districts in your state relatively the same shape?

    你那州裡的選區 形狀看起來都差不多嗎?

  • How many other districts does your district touch?

    你的選區附近接到了幾個其他選區?

  • But always be sure to ask yourself,

    但永遠要記得問自己:

  • does my district look like a salamander?

    「我的選區長得像蠑螈嗎?」

Most people have heard the word "gerrymandering" once or twice,

大部份的人可能多少聽過 「傑利蠑螈」(gerrymandering)這個詞,

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 選區 選票 政黨 格里 重劃

TED-Ed】Gerrymandering:繪製鋸齒狀的線條如何影響選舉--克里斯蒂娜-格里爾。 (【TED-Ed】Gerrymandering: How drawing jagged lines can impact an election - Christina Greer)

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    稲葉白兎   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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