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  • The power of yet.

    「還沒」的力量。

  • I heard about a high school in Chicago

    我聽說芝加哥有一所高中,

  • where students had to pass a certain number of courses to graduate,

    學生必須過了一定數量的 必修課才能畢業,

  • and if they didn't pass a course, they got the grade "Not Yet."

    如果他們有某門課沒過, 那門成績就打成「還沒過」。

  • And I thought that was fantastic,

    我認為這超棒的,

  • because if you get a failing grade, you think, I'm nothing, I'm nowhere.

    因為如果你當了,你就會想, 我真沒用,一事無成。

  • But if you get the grade "Not Yet"

    但是如果你的成績 寫的是「還沒過」,

  • you understand that you're on a learning curve.

    你知道你還在學習中。

  • It gives you a path into the future.

    它給你一條生路。

  • "Not Yet" also gave me insight into a critical event early in my career,

    「還沒」也讓我在早期職業生涯中 對一件很關鍵的事有深入的了解,

  • a real turning point.

    一個真正的轉捩點。

  • I wanted to see

    那時我想知道

  • how children coped with challenge and difficulty,

    孩童如何應付挑戰與困難,

  • so I gave 10-year-olds

    所以我給十歲的孩童

  • problems that were slightly too hard for them.

    一些有點超齡的問題。

  • Some of them reacted in a shockingly positive way.

    有些孩童的反應驚人之積極。

  • They said things like, "I love a challenge,"

    他們會說像是「我喜歡挑戰」,

  • or, "You know, I was hoping this would be informative."

    或「你知道嗎? 我本來就希望這會讓我有更多的認識。」

  • They understood that their abilities could be developed.

    他們瞭解他們的能力是可以培養的。

  • They had what I call a growth mindset.

    他們擁有我所說的成長型思維。

  • But other students felt it was tragic, catastrophic.

    但是其它的學生卻覺得 很悲慘、被擊敗了。

  • From their more fixed mindset perspective,

    從他們傾向固定型思維的觀點來看,

  • their intelligence had been up for judgment and they failed.

    他們的智力受到判斷, 而他們失敗了。

  • Instead of luxuriating in the power of yet,

    他們不但不能盡情享受 「還沒」的力量,

  • they were gripped in the tyranny of now.

    他們反而困在目前的艱難處境。

  • So what do they do next?

    所以他們下一步會怎麼做?

  • I'll tell you what they do next.

    我告訴你們他們下一步會怎麼做。

  • In one study, they told us they would probably cheat the next time

    在一項研究中,他們告訴我們 如果他們沒考過,

  • instead of studying more if they failed a test.

    他們下次可能會作弊, 而不是更用功念書。

  • In another study, after a failure,

    在另一項研究中,在當掉之後,

  • they looked for someone who did worse than they did

    他們就去找比他們考得還糟的人,

  • so they could feel really good about themselves.

    所以他們能自我感覺良好。

  • And in study after study, they have run from difficulty.

    一項又一項的研究顯示, 他們會逃避困難。

  • Scientists measured the electrical activity from the brain

    科學家測量腦電活動,

  • as students confronted an error.

    看學生在出錯時的狀況。

  • On the left, you see the fixed mindset students.

    在左方, 你看到的是固定型思維的學生。

  • There's hardly any activity.

    幾乎測不出什麼活動。

  • They run from the error.

    他們逃避錯誤。

  • They don't engage with it.

    他們一點也不想參與。

  • But on the right, you have the students with the growth mindset,

    但在右邊, 你看到成長型思維的學生,

  • the idea that abilities can be developed.

    即能力是可以培養的想法。

  • They engage deeply.

    他們努力參與。

  • Their brain is on fire with yet.

    他們的腦部活動如火如荼, 因為「還沒」。

  • They engage deeply.

    他們努力參與。

  • They process the error.

    他們思考錯誤。

  • They learn from it and they correct it.

    他們從中學習並修正。

  • How are we raising our children?

    我們是怎麼教養我們的孩子?

  • Are we raising them for now instead of yet?

    我們教養是只看眼前的成果 而不顧成長的發展?

  • Are we raising kids who are obsessed with getting A's?

    我們要教養出一心一意 只想得 100 分的孩子?

  • Are we raising kids who don't know how to dream big dreams?

    我們要教養出不知道如何 作遠大夢想的孩子?

  • Their biggest goal is getting the next A or the next test score?

    他們最大的目標是再拿一個 100 分 或是通過下次考試?

  • And are they carrying this need for constant validation with them

    難道他們一輩子都依賴於

  • into their future lives?

    不斷地確認他們很棒?

  • Maybe, because employers are coming to me and saying,

    或許,是因為有雇主來找我 並對我說,

  • we have already raised a generation

    我們已經教養出一個年輕世代,

  • of young workers who can't get through the day

    他們不知道要怎麼過

  • without an award.

    沒有獎勵的一天。

  • So what can we do?

    所以我們要怎麼做?

  • How can we build that bridge to yet?

    我們要如何築橋 把「還沒」與現在連起來?

  • Here are some things we can do.

    這些是我們能做的。

  • First of all, we can praise wisely, not praising intelligence or talent.

    第一,我們要有智慧地讚美, 不是讚美他們的聰明或才能。

  • That has failed.

    這樣的讚美已經沒有用。

  • Don't do that anymore.

    不要再重蹈覆轍。

  • But praising the process that kids engage in:

    而是要讚美孩子參與的過程:

  • their effort, their strategies, their focus, their perseverance,

    他們的努力,他們的策略, 他們的專注,他們的堅持,

  • their improvement.

    他們的進步。

  • This process praise

    讚美他們的努力

  • creates kids who are hardy and resilient.

    會教養出堅忍不拔的孩子。

  • There are other ways to reward yet.

    還有其他的方法獎勵「還沒」。

  • We recently teamed up with game scientists

    我們最近與

  • from the University of Washington

    華盛頓大學的電玩學家合作,

  • to create a new online math game that rewarded yet.

    設計了一套新的線上數學遊戲, 獎勵「還沒」。

  • In this game, students were rewarded for effort, strategy and progress.

    在這個遊戲中,學生因其努力、 策略及過程而受到獎勵。

  • The usual math game

    一般的數學遊戲

  • rewards you for getting answers right right now,

    在你答對的瞬間獎勵你,

  • but this game rewarded process.

    這組遊戲獎勵的則是過程。

  • And we got more effort,

    我們看到學生更加努力、

  • more strategies,

    想出更多的策略,

  • more engagement over longer periods of time,

    花更長的時間更積極地參與,

  • and more perseverance when they hit really, really hard problems.

    在他們碰到真的很難很難的問題時, 更有毅力。

  • Just the words "yet" or "not yet," we're finding,

    我們發現簡單一句 「還沒」或「還可以更好」,

  • give kids greater confidence,

    就能給孩子更多的信心,

  • give them a path into the future that creates greater persistence.

    給他們邁向未來的一條生路, 能更有毅力。

  • And we can actually change students' mindsets.

    我們還能真正改變學生的思維。

  • In one study, we taught them

    在一項研究中,我們教導他們

  • that every time they push out of their comfort zone

    每次他們把自己推出熟悉的舒適區,

  • to learn something new and difficult,

    去學習新的、難的東西,

  • the neurons in their brain can form new, stronger connections,

    他們腦中的神經元就開始 形成新的、更強的連結,

  • and over time they can get smarter.

    一段時間後他們變得更聰明了。

  • Look what happened: in this study,

    來看看發生了什麼:在這項研究中,

  • students who were not taught this growth mindset

    沒有接受成長型思維教學的學生

  • continued to show declining grades over this difficult school transition,

    在升班換學校等困難時刻 顯示成績持續下滑,

  • but those who were taught this lesson showed a sharp rebound in their grades.

    但是有接受這門思維課程的學生 則顯示成績大幅反彈。

  • We have shown this now, this kind of improvement,

    現在我們已經在成千上萬的 孩童上看到這種進步,

  • with thousands and thousands of kids, especially struggling students.

    特別是苦苦掙扎的學生。

  • So let's talk about equality.

    所以讓我們來談一下平等。

  • In our country, there are groups of students

    在美國,有幾類學生

  • who chronically underperform,

    長期表現不佳,

  • for example, children in inner cities,

    例如貧民區的孩童,

  • or children on Native American reservations.

    或是美國原住民保留區的孩童。

  • And they've done so poorly for so long that many people think it's inevitable.

    他們的表現長期如此之差, 大家都認為他們就是這樣。

  • But when educators create growth mindset classrooms steeped in yet,

    但是當老師以「還沒」觀點 設計成長型思維教學法,

  • equality happens.

    平等就發生了。

  • And here are just a few examples.

    隨便舉幾個例子。

  • In one year, a kindergarten class in Harlem, New York

    僅一年的時間, 紐約哈林區的一個幼稚園班,

  • scored in the 95th percentile on the National Achievement Test.

    其全國能力測驗得分率高達 95%。

  • Many of those kids could not hold a pencil when they arrived at school.

    其中很多小孩剛進學校的時候 還不會拿筆。

  • In one year,

    僅一年時間,

  • fourth grade students in the South Bronx, way behind,

    紐約市南布朗克斯區 嚴重落後的四年級學生,

  • became the number one fourth grade class in the state of New York

    變成紐約州全州數學測驗 排名第一的四年級生。

  • on the state math test.

    僅一年到一年半,

  • In a year to a year and a half,

    某美國原住民保留區 一所學校的學生

  • Native American students in a school on a reservation

    成績從學區的墊底直升第一,

  • went from the bottom of their district to the top,

    而且那個學區還包括 西雅圖的富裕區。

  • and that district included affluent sections of Seattle.

    所以原住民小孩比微軟小孩棒多了。

  • So the native kids outdid the Microsoft kids.

    能有此結果是因為

  • This happened because the meaning

    努力與困難的意義有所轉變。

  • of effort and difficulty were transformed.

    之前,努力與困難

  • Before, effort and difficulty

    讓他們覺得很蠢, 讓他們覺得很想放棄,

  • made them feel dumb, made them feel like giving up,

    但是現在,努力與困難,

  • but now, effort and difficulty,

    成了他們神經元產生新連結的時候,

  • that's when their neurons are making new connections,

    還是更強的連結。

  • stronger connections.

    那就是他們變更聰明的時候。

  • That's when they're getting smarter.

    我最近收到一封 13 歲男孩 寫給我的信。

  • I received a letter recently from a 13-year-old boy.

    他說:「親愛的德威克教授,

  • He said, "Dear Professor Dweck,

    我明白你的文章 有紮實的科學根據,

  • I appreciate that your writing is based on solid scientific research,

    這就是為什麼我決定 要將其付諸實踐。

  • and that's why I decided to put it into practice.

    我在課業上下了更多工夫,

  • I put more effort into my schoolwork,

    還有我與我家人的關係上,

  • into my relationship with my family,

    還有我與同學的關係上,

  • and into my relationship with kids at school,

    而我在這些方面都經歷長足進步,

  • and I experienced great improvement in all of those areas.

    我現在才明瞭之前我多浪費生命。」

  • I now realize I've wasted most of my life."

    不要再浪費生命了,

  • Let's not waste any more lives,

    因為一但我們知道

  • because once we know

    能力是能如此培養成長的,

  • that abilities are capable of such growth,

    它就變成孩童、所有孩童的 基本人權,

  • it becomes a basic human right for children, all children,

    在創造此等成長的地方生活,

  • to live in places that create that growth,

    在充滿「還沒」的氛圍下生活。

  • to live in places filled with yet.

    謝謝。

  • Thank you.

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

The power of yet.

「還沒」的力量。

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A2 初級 中文 美國腔 TED 學生 孩童 思維 獎勵 讚美

【TED】卡蘿·德威克: 相信你能進步的力量 (The power of believing that you can improve | Carol Dweck)

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    CUChou 發佈於 2015 年 01 月 17 日
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