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  • Three and a half thousand years ago in Egypt, a noble pharaoh was the victim of a violent attack.

    在 3500 年前的埃及,一位尊貴的法老被殘忍地攻擊。

  • But the attack was not physical.

    但攻擊並非針對生理。

  • This royal had been dead for 20 years.

    這位法老已經過世 20 年了。

  • The attack was historical, an act of 'damnatio memoriae,' the damnation of memory.

    這是一次歷史性的攻擊,是一次「除憶詛咒」,也就是記憶抹殺之刑。

  • Somebody smashed the pharaoh's statues, took a chisel and attempted to erase the pharaoh's name and image from history.

    有人粉碎了法老的雕像,用鑿子試圖將法老的名字和形象從歷史上抹去。

  • Who was this pharaoh, and what was behind the attack?

    這位法老是誰?這次攻擊背後又有何故事?

  • Here's the key: the pharaoh, Hatshepsut, was a woman.

    關鍵在於:這位法老——哈特謝普蘇特——是位女性。

  • In the normal course of things, she should never have been pharaoh.

    在正常的狀況下,她永遠不可能當上法老。

  • Although it was legal for a woman to be a monarch, it disturbed some essential Egyptian beliefs.

    雖然女性成為君主是合法的,但此舉擾亂了埃及的核心信仰。

  • Firstly, the pharaoh was known as the living embodiment of the male god, Horus.

    第一,法老被視為神在凡間的化身,代表男性神祇「荷魯斯」。

  • Secondly, disturbance to the tradition of rule by men was a serious challenge to 'Maat,' a word for "truth," expressing a belief in order and justice, vital to the Egyptians.

    第二,打破了男性統治的傳統是對「瑪特女神」的嚴重挑戰,瑪特意為真理,代表對於秩序與正義的信仰,對埃及人而言至關重要。

  • Hatshepsut had perhaps tried to adapt to this belief in the link between order and patriarchy through her titles.

    哈特謝普蘇特可能嘗試迎合信仰,藉由她的頭銜在秩序和父權之間立足。

  • She took the name Maatkare, and sometimes referred to herself as Hatshepsu, with a masculine word ending.

    她使用了「真理太陽之魂」作為登基之名,有時候也會稱呼自己為「哈特謝普蘇」,以字尾變化突現陽性特徵。

  • But apparently, these efforts didn't convince everyone, and perhaps someone erased Hatshepsut's image so that the world would forget the disturbance to Maat, and Egypt could be balanced again.

    但是很顯然地,這些努力並未使所有人信服。或許某些人抹去哈特謝普蘇特的形象,是為了讓世界忘記她對於瑪特女神的不敬,使埃及可以再次回歸平衡。

  • Hatshepsut, moreover, was not the legitimate heir to the throne, but a regent, a kind of stand-in co-monarch.

    此外,哈特謝普蘇特並非合法的王位繼承人,而是位攝政,類似於垂簾聽政的共同執政者。

  • The Egyptian kingship traditionally passed from father to son.

    埃及的王權在傳統上由父傳子。

  • It passed from Thutmose I to his son Thutmose II, Hatshepsut's husband.

    圖特摩斯一世傳位給兒子圖特摩斯二世,也就是哈特謝普蘇特的丈夫。

  • It should have passed from Thutmose II directly to his son Thutmose III, but Thutmose III was a little boy when his father died.

    圖特摩斯二世本應直接傳位給兒子圖特摩斯三世,但圖特摩斯三世在父王過世時只是個小男孩。

  • Hatshepsut, the dead pharaoh's chief wife and widow, stepped in to help as her stepson's regent but ended up ruling beside him as a fully fledged pharaoh.

    哈特謝普蘇特身為先王的正妻及未亡人,以攝政的身分輔佐繼子,最後卻與繼子平起平坐,成為一位完全掌權的法老。

  • Perhaps Thutmose III was angry about this.

    或許圖特摩斯三世對此很憤怒。

  • Perhaps he was the one who erased her images.

    他有可能就是抹除她形象的人。

  • It's also possible that someone wanted to dishonor Hatshepsut because she was a bad pharaoh.

    另一個可能是有人想要羞辱哈特謝普蘇特,因為她是位失格的法老。

  • But the evidence suggests she was actually pretty good.

    然而有證據顯示她其實做得還不錯。

  • She competently fulfilled the traditional roles of the office.

    她成功地依循傳統扮演好了法老的角色。

  • She was a great builder.

    她是個偉大的建設者。

  • Her mortuary temple, Djeser-Djeseru, was an architectural phenomenon at the time and is still admired today.

    她的葬祭殿「聖中之聖」是當時的建築奇蹟,至今仍為人讚賞。

  • She enhanced the economy of Egypt, conducting a very successful trade mission to the distant land of Punt.

    她促進埃及的經濟,與遙遠的「龐特」(非洲東海岸) 進行了成功的貿易來往。

  • She had strong religious connections.

    她創造很強的宗教連結。

  • She even claimed to be the daughter of the state god, Amun.

    她甚至自稱是埃及國神「阿蒙神」的女兒。

  • And she had a successful military career, with a Nubian campaign, and claims she fought alongside her soldiers in battle.

    同時,她在與努比亞的戰役中屢建功勳,宣稱自己與士兵們並肩作戰。

  • Of course, we have to be careful when we assess the success of Hatshepsut's career, since most of the evidence was written by Hatshepsut herself.

    當然,我們必須謹慎對待這些所謂「成功」的法老事業,因為這些紀錄大多是由她自己寫下的。

  • She tells her own story in pictures and writing on the walls of her mortuary temple and the red chapel she built for Amun.

    她用圖片和文字述說自己的豐功偉業,這些紀錄存在於她葬祭殿的牆上,以及她為阿蒙神建造的紅色神廟。

  • So who committed the crimes against Hatshepsut's memory?

    所以到底是誰抹煞了有關哈特謝普蘇特的記憶?

  • The most popular suspect is her stepson, nephew and co-ruler, Thutmose III.

    最廣為人知的嫌疑犯是她的繼子、姪子和共同統治者圖特摩斯三世。

  • Did he do it out of anger because she stole his throne?

    他真的是因為氣她竊取王權而這麼做嗎?

  • This is unlikely since the damage wasn't done until 20 years after Hatshepsut died.

    這其實不太可能,因為破壞是在女法老逝世 20 年後才發生的。

  • That's a long time to hang onto anger and then act in a rage.

    以憤怒之下的行為來說,這時間未免拖得太長。

  • Maybe Thutmose III did it to make his own reign look stronger.

    或許圖特摩斯三世這麼做是為了讓自己的統治看起來更強大。

  • But it is most likely that he or someone else erased the images so that people would forget that a woman ever sat on Egypt's throne.

    但最有可能的原因是他或其他人消除記錄,好讓世人忘記曾經有女人統治過埃及。

  • This gender anomaly was simply too much of a threat to Maat and had to be obliterated from history.

    這次性別異常對瑪特女神簡直是莫大威脅,所以必須從歷史中抹去。

  • Happily, the ancient censors were not quite thorough enough.

    幸好,古代的審查不太徹底。

  • Enough evidence survived for us to piece together what happened, so the story of this unique powerful woman can now be told.

    留下足夠的證據讓我們拼湊出事情經過,如今才可以訴說這位一代女法老的故事。

Three and a half thousand years ago in Egypt, a noble pharaoh was the victim of a violent attack.

在 3500 年前的埃及,一位尊貴的法老被殘忍地攻擊。

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 法老 埃及 統治 女神 攻擊

【TED-Ed】古埃及有過女法老?你一定要認識的一位傳奇人物!(【TED-Ed】 The pharaoh that wouldn't be forgotten - Kate Narev)

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    稲葉白兎   發佈於 2019 年 07 月 07 日
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