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  • In 1861, two scientists got into a very brainy argument.

    1861 年,二位科學家進行一場智慧之爭。

  • Specifically, they had opposing ideas of how speech and memory

    特別是針對語言及記憶是如何在大腦內運作,

  • operated within the human brain.

    他們持有不同的看法。

  • Earnest Aubertin, with his localistic model,

    恩斯特·奧貝坦提出區域模型,

  • argued that a particular region or the brain

    認為大腦內的特定區域

  • was devoted to each separate process.

    各自負責不同的程序。

  • Pierre Gratiolet, on the other hand, argued for the distributed model,

    相反地,皮爾·格列提奧雷提出分佈式模型,

  • where different regions work together

    腦內不同的區域一起運作,

  • to accomplish all of these various functions.

    以完成許多的功能。

  • The debate they began reverberated throughout the rest of the century,

    這個爭論在十九世紀末造成迴響,

  • involving some of the greatest scientific minds of the time.

    當時,一些具有最優秀科學頭腦的人參與其中。

  • Aubertin and his localistic model had some big names on his side.

    有些大名鼎鼎的人贊同奧貝坦的區域模型。

  • In the 17th century, René Descartes had assigned the quality

    十七世紀時,勒內·迪卡兒

  • of free will and the human soul to the pineal gland.

    把自由意志及人類靈魂特質歸因於腦內的松果腺。

  • And in the late 18th century, a young student named Frans Joseph Gall

    十八世紀末,一位年輕學生弗朗茲.約瑟夫.加爾

  • had observed that the best memorizers in his class had the most prominent eyes

    注意到班上記憶力最好的人,眼球長得特別突出,

  • and decided that this was due to higher development

    這是因為腦內的連結部分比較發達所造成的結果。

  • in the adjacent part of the brain.

    身為一個醫生,加爾建立顱相學的研究,

  • As a physician, Gall went on to establish the study of phrenology,

    該理論認為擁有高智力的人

  • which held that strong mental faculties corresponded to

    大腦區域被高度開發,故頭蓋骨會有明顯的突出。

  • highly developed brain regions, observable as bumps in the skull.

    顱相學在十九世紀早期相當普及,

  • The widespread popularity of phrenology throughout the early 19th century

    奧貝坦的區域模型取得優勢。

  • tipped the scales towards Aubertin's localism.

    問題是加爾從不做科學實驗

  • But the problem was that Gall had never bothered to scientifically test

    不知個別的顱相是否

  • whether the individual brain maps he had constructed

    適用於所有人。

  • applied to all people.

    於 1940 年代,皮爾·佛羅倫斯以下列方法對顱相學提出質疑,

  • And in the 1840's, Pierre Flourens challenged phrenology

    他選擇性破壞動物的大腦,

  • by selectively destroying parts of animal brains

    並觀察喪失那些功能。

  • and observing which functions were lost.

    佛羅倫斯發現大腦皮質遭到破壞

  • Flourens found that damaging the cortex

    一般而言,會影響判斷力及活動功能,

  • interfered with judgement or movement in general,

    但沒有辨認出大腦哪一區域與特定功能相連結,

  • but failed to identify any region associated with one specific function,

    故推論大腦皮質以整體方式發揮大腦功能。

  • concluding that the cortex carried out brain functions as an entire unit.

    佛羅倫斯為格列提奧雷取得勝利,但持續不久。

  • Flourens had scored a victory for Gratiolet, but it was not to last.

    加爾之前的學生波伊勞德,

  • Gall's former student, Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud,

    對佛羅倫斯的論點提出質疑,

  • challenged Flourens' conclusion,

    他觀察到有語言障礙的人

  • observing that patients with speech disorders

    都是額葉受損。

  • all had damage to the frontal lobe.

    1891 年之後,保羅.布諾卡,解剖一個罹患失語症

  • And after Paul Broca's 1861 autopsy of a patient who had lost the power

    但是仍可了解語意的病人,

  • to produce speech, but not the power to understand it,

    顯示其額葉區域嚴重受損,

  • revealed highly localized frontal lobe damage,

    此時分散式模型似乎已注定失敗,

  • the distributed model seemed doomed.

    區域化模型大放異采。

  • Localism took off.

    1870 年代,卡爾.維尼克將部分顳葉

  • In the 1870's, Karl Wernicke associated part of the left temporal lobe

    與語言理解力作連結。

  • with speech comprehension.

    不久之後,愛德華.希格齊和古斯塔.費理希

  • Soon after, Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch

    刺激狗的腦皮質後,發現額葉區域

  • stimulated a dog's cortex and discovered a frontal lobe region

    是負責肌肉運動的地方。

  • responsible for muscular movements.

    以這個成果為基礎,大衛.費里爾將每一個大腦皮質關連

  • Building on their work, David Ferrier mapped each piece of cortex

    身體各部分的動作相對應。

  • associated with moving a part of the body.

    1909 年,科比尼安.布洛德曼將他自己的皮質對應到 52 個不同區域。

  • And in 1909, Korbinian Brodmann built his own cortex map with 52 separate areas.

    這時曾被遺忘的奧貝坦區域模型似乎獲得勝利。

  • It appeared that the victory of Aubertin's localistic model was sealed.

    但神經病學家卡爾.溫尼克提出一個有趣的構想,

  • But neurologist Karl Wernicke had come up with an interesting idea.

    他推論:既然語言產生和理解力

  • He reasoned that since the regions for speech production and comprehension

    的區域沒有相互連結,

  • were not adjacent,

    若相關連的皮質區域受傷,結果應該會喪失某種語言功能,

  • then injuring the area connecting them might result

    這是大家所知道的接受性失語症。

  • in a special type of language loss, now known as receptive aphasia.

    溫尼克的類神經網路模型有助於說明失語症

  • Wernicke's connectionist model helped explain disorders

    產生這個官能障礙的原因不只是一個區域受損。

  • that didn't result from the dysfunction of just one area.

    現代神經科學工具揭露了大腦的構造

  • Modern neuroscience tools reveal a brain more complex than

    比格列提奧雷、奧貝坦甚至是溫尼克的想像還複雜。

  • Gratiolet, Aubertin, or even Wernicke imagined.

    現今我們知道,海馬迴與二個不同區域的大腦功能相連結:

  • Today, the hippocampus is associated with two distinct brain functions:

    包括長期記憶與方向感。

  • creating memories and processing location in space.

    現在我們來量測二種連結:

  • We also now measure two kinds of connectivity:

    第一是:二個大腦皮質相鄰之間

  • anatomical connectivity between two adjoining

    的結構一起運作,

  • regions of cortex working together,

    另一種是:二個不同區域之間的功能

  • and functional connectivity between separated regions

    一起運作,以完成一個程序。

  • working together to accomplish one process.

    像視覺這項基本功能,

  • A seemingly basic function like vision

    實際上是由許多小功能所結合而成,

  • is actually composed of many smaller functions,

    由不同部位腦皮質,

  • with different parts of the cortex representing

    以辨識形狀、顏色以及方向。

  • shape, color and location in space.

    當特定區域失去了功能,或許可以分辨出物體,

  • When certain areas stop functioning, we may recognize an object,

    但看不到此物體,反之亦然。

  • but not see it, or vice versa.

    行為和日常活動會使用到不同種類的記憶。

  • There are even different kinds of memory for facts and for routines.

    像是記得第一次擁有自行車的記憶。

  • And remembering something like your first bicycle

    包括不同的區域網路,各自展現不同的腳踏車概念,

  • involves a network of different regions each representing the concept

    腳踏車的形狀、鈴鐺的聲音,

  • of vehicles, the bicycle's shape, the sound of the bell,

    對腳踏車的情感與記憶產生關連。

  • and the emotions associated with that memory.

    最後,格列提奧雷及奧貝坦的說法被證明是對的。

  • In the end, both Gratiolet and Aubertin turned out to be right.

    我們利用這二種模型,來了解如何產生認知。

  • And we still use both of their models to understand how cognition happens.

    例如,在一個適當的時機量測大腦活動,

  • For example, we can now measure brain activity on such a fine time scale

    可以看到個別區域的流程

  • that we can see the individual localized processes that comprise

    是由個別記憶活動組成。

  • a single act of remembering.

    它整合這些不同的程序和

  • But it is the integration of these different processes and regions

    產生我們所經歷的連貫記憶區域。

  • that creates the coherent memory we experience.

    或許競爭理論被證明是包含二個不同觀點的理論

  • The supposedly competing theories prove to be two aspects

    成為更完整的綜合模型,

  • of a more comprehensive model,

    以現在的科學技術和方法,

  • which will in turn be revised and refined

    經過不斷修改與精進,以增進我們對大腦的了解。

  • as our scientific techologies and methods for understanding the brain improve.

In 1861, two scientists got into a very brainy argument.

1861 年,二位科學家進行一場智慧之爭。

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 區域 大腦 功能 皮質 加爾

【TED-Ed】腦的大辯論 - Ted Altschuler (The great brain debate - Ted Altschuler)

  • 2061 116
    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2014 年 12 月 29 日
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