字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 In 1861, two scientists got into a very brainy argument. 1861 年，二位科學家進行一場智慧之爭。 Specifically, they had opposing ideas of how speech and memory 特別是針對語言及記憶是如何在大腦內運作， operated within the human brain. 他們持有不同的看法。 Earnest Aubertin, with his localistic model, 恩斯特·奧貝坦提出區域模型， argued that a particular region or the brain 認為大腦內的特定區域 was devoted to each separate process. 各自負責不同的程序。 Pierre Gratiolet, on the other hand, argued for the distributed model, 相反地，皮爾·格列提奧雷提出分佈式模型， where different regions work together 腦內不同的區域一起運作, to accomplish all of these various functions. 以完成許多的功能。 The debate they began reverberated throughout the rest of the century, 這個爭論在十九世紀末造成迴響， involving some of the greatest scientific minds of the time. 當時，一些具有最優秀科學頭腦的人參與其中。 Aubertin and his localistic model had some big names on his side. 有些大名鼎鼎的人贊同奧貝坦的區域模型。 In the 17th century, René Descartes had assigned the quality 十七世紀時，勒內·迪卡兒 of free will and the human soul to the pineal gland. 把自由意志及人類靈魂特質歸因於腦內的松果腺。 And in the late 18th century, a young student named Frans Joseph Gall 十八世紀末，一位年輕學生弗朗茲.約瑟夫.加爾 had observed that the best memorizers in his class had the most prominent eyes 注意到班上記憶力最好的人，眼球長得特別突出， and decided that this was due to higher development 這是因為腦內的連結部分比較發達所造成的結果。 in the adjacent part of the brain. 身為一個醫生，加爾建立顱相學的研究， As a physician, Gall went on to establish the study of phrenology, 該理論認為擁有高智力的人 which held that strong mental faculties corresponded to 大腦區域被高度開發，故頭蓋骨會有明顯的突出。 highly developed brain regions, observable as bumps in the skull. 顱相學在十九世紀早期相當普及， The widespread popularity of phrenology throughout the early 19th century 奧貝坦的區域模型取得優勢。 tipped the scales towards Aubertin's localism. 問題是加爾從不做科學實驗 But the problem was that Gall had never bothered to scientifically test 不知個別的顱相是否 whether the individual brain maps he had constructed 適用於所有人。 applied to all people. 於 1940 年代，皮爾·佛羅倫斯以下列方法對顱相學提出質疑， And in the 1840's, Pierre Flourens challenged phrenology 他選擇性破壞動物的大腦， by selectively destroying parts of animal brains 並觀察喪失那些功能。 and observing which functions were lost. 佛羅倫斯發現大腦皮質遭到破壞 Flourens found that damaging the cortex 一般而言，會影響判斷力及活動功能， interfered with judgement or movement in general, 但沒有辨認出大腦哪一區域與特定功能相連結， but failed to identify any region associated with one specific function, 故推論大腦皮質以整體方式發揮大腦功能。 concluding that the cortex carried out brain functions as an entire unit. 佛羅倫斯為格列提奧雷取得勝利，但持續不久。 Flourens had scored a victory for Gratiolet, but it was not to last. 加爾之前的學生波伊勞德， Gall's former student, Jean-Baptiste Bouillaud, 對佛羅倫斯的論點提出質疑， challenged Flourens' conclusion, 他觀察到有語言障礙的人 observing that patients with speech disorders 都是額葉受損。 all had damage to the frontal lobe. 1891 年之後，保羅.布諾卡，解剖一個罹患失語症 And after Paul Broca's 1861 autopsy of a patient who had lost the power 但是仍可了解語意的病人， to produce speech, but not the power to understand it, 顯示其額葉區域嚴重受損， revealed highly localized frontal lobe damage, 此時分散式模型似乎已注定失敗， the distributed model seemed doomed. 區域化模型大放異采。 Localism took off. 1870 年代，卡爾.維尼克將部分顳葉 In the 1870's, Karl Wernicke associated part of the left temporal lobe 與語言理解力作連結。 with speech comprehension. 不久之後，愛德華.希格齊和古斯塔.費理希 Soon after, Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch 刺激狗的腦皮質後，發現額葉區域 stimulated a dog's cortex and discovered a frontal lobe region 是負責肌肉運動的地方。 responsible for muscular movements. 以這個成果為基礎，大衛.費里爾將每一個大腦皮質關連 Building on their work, David Ferrier mapped each piece of cortex 身體各部分的動作相對應。 associated with moving a part of the body. 1909 年，科比尼安.布洛德曼將他自己的皮質對應到 52 個不同區域。 And in 1909, Korbinian Brodmann built his own cortex map with 52 separate areas. 這時曾被遺忘的奧貝坦區域模型似乎獲得勝利。 It appeared that the victory of Aubertin's localistic model was sealed. 但神經病學家卡爾.溫尼克提出一個有趣的構想， But neurologist Karl Wernicke had come up with an interesting idea. 他推論：既然語言產生和理解力 He reasoned that since the regions for speech production and comprehension 的區域沒有相互連結， were not adjacent, 若相關連的皮質區域受傷，結果應該會喪失某種語言功能， then injuring the area connecting them might result 這是大家所知道的接受性失語症。 in a special type of language loss, now known as receptive aphasia. 溫尼克的類神經網路模型有助於說明失語症 Wernicke's connectionist model helped explain disorders 產生這個官能障礙的原因不只是一個區域受損。 that didn't result from the dysfunction of just one area. 現代神經科學工具揭露了大腦的構造 Modern neuroscience tools reveal a brain more complex than 比格列提奧雷、奧貝坦甚至是溫尼克的想像還複雜。 Gratiolet, Aubertin, or even Wernicke imagined. 現今我們知道，海馬迴與二個不同區域的大腦功能相連結： Today, the hippocampus is associated with two distinct brain functions: 包括長期記憶與方向感。 creating memories and processing location in space. 現在我們來量測二種連結： We also now measure two kinds of connectivity: 第一是：二個大腦皮質相鄰之間 anatomical connectivity between two adjoining 的結構一起運作， regions of cortex working together, 另一種是：二個不同區域之間的功能 and functional connectivity between separated regions 一起運作，以完成一個程序。 working together to accomplish one process. 像視覺這項基本功能， A seemingly basic function like vision 實際上是由許多小功能所結合而成， is actually composed of many smaller functions, 由不同部位腦皮質， with different parts of the cortex representing 以辨識形狀、顏色以及方向。 shape, color and location in space. 當特定區域失去了功能，或許可以分辨出物體， When certain areas stop functioning, we may recognize an object, 但看不到此物體，反之亦然。 but not see it, or vice versa. 行為和日常活動會使用到不同種類的記憶。 There are even different kinds of memory for facts and for routines. 像是記得第一次擁有自行車的記憶。 And remembering something like your first bicycle 包括不同的區域網路，各自展現不同的腳踏車概念， involves a network of different regions each representing the concept 腳踏車的形狀、鈴鐺的聲音， of vehicles, the bicycle's shape, the sound of the bell, 對腳踏車的情感與記憶產生關連。 and the emotions associated with that memory. 最後，格列提奧雷及奧貝坦的說法被證明是對的。 In the end, both Gratiolet and Aubertin turned out to be right. 我們利用這二種模型，來了解如何產生認知。 And we still use both of their models to understand how cognition happens. 例如，在一個適當的時機量測大腦活動， For example, we can now measure brain activity on such a fine time scale 可以看到個別區域的流程 that we can see the individual localized processes that comprise 是由個別記憶活動組成。 a single act of remembering. 它整合這些不同的程序和 But it is the integration of these different processes and regions 產生我們所經歷的連貫記憶區域。 that creates the coherent memory we experience. 或許競爭理論被證明是包含二個不同觀點的理論 The supposedly competing theories prove to be two aspects 成為更完整的綜合模型， of a more comprehensive model, 以現在的科學技術和方法， which will in turn be revised and refined 經過不斷修改與精進，以增進我們對大腦的了解。 as our scientific techologies and methods for understanding the brain improve.