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  • In 1985, 16-year-old Douglas Casa,

    1985 年,16歲的道格拉斯•卡薩

  • ran the championship 10,000 meter track race at the Empire State Games.

    在帝國賽事中跑10公里冠軍賽

  • Suddenly, with just 200 meters to go, he collapsed,

    突然,在離終點線還有200米時, 他倒下了

  • got back up and then collapsed again on the final straightaway,

    爬起來,然後在最後直線衝刺時 又再倒下

  • with his body temperature at dangerous levels.

    此時他體溫處於危險水平

  • He had suffered an exertional heat stroke.

    他患上了運動型中暑

  • Fortunately, with immediate and proper treatment,

    幸運的是,經過及時恰當的治療

  • he survived the potentially fatal episode

    他於潛在致死性發作中存活

  • and has since helped save 167 people in similar circumstances.

    並從那時起幫忙救助了167名 處於相似情況的人

  • From ancient soldiers on the battlefield

    從戰場上的古代士兵

  • to modern day warriors on the gridiron,

    到運動場上的現代戰士

  • exertional heat stroke, or sunstroke, has long been a serious concern.

    運動型中暑,或日射病, 一直都是一個嚴重的擔憂

  • And unlike classical heat stroke, which affects vulnerable people

    還有和一般的中暑不同, 一般的中暑只影響易感人群

  • such as infants and the elderly during heat waves,

    例如在酷熱中的嬰兒和長者

  • exertional heat stroke is caused by intense exercise in the heat,

    運動型中暑由在酷熱中劇烈運動導致

  • and is one of the top three killers of athletes and soldiers in training.

    是運動員和士兵 在訓練中死亡的三大殺手之一

  • When you exercise, nearly 80% of the energy you use

    在運動時,你消耗的將近80%的能量

  • is transformed into heat.

    會轉化為熱量

  • In normal circumstances, this is what's known as

    在通常情況下,這稱為

  • compensable heat stress.

    有償性熱應激

  • And your body can dissipate the heat as quickly as it's generated

    你的身體可以在熱量 剛聚集的時候就散發掉

  • through cooling methods like the evaporation of sweat.

    通過冷卻方法,例如揮發汗水

  • But with uncompensable heat stress,

    但是無償性熱應激

  • your body is unable to lose enough heat

    你的身體由於在潮濕環境中 過度運動或高溫

  • due to overexertion or high temperatures in humidity,

    不能失去足夠熱量

  • which raises your core temperature beyond normal levels.

    導致你核心溫度升高超過正常水平

  • This causes the proteins and cell membranes to denature,

    這會導致蛋白質和細胞膜變性

  • creating cells that no longer function properly

    產生功能不正常的細胞

  • and begin to leak their contents.

    還有開始洩漏它們的內容物

  • If these leaky cells proliferate through the body,

    如果這些洩漏的細胞在整個人體中富集

  • the results can be devastating.

    能造成毀滅性的結果

  • Including liver damage, blood clot formation in the kidneys,

    包括肝損傷,腎臟血凝塊形成

  • damage to the gastrointestinal tract and even the failure of vital organs.

    胃腸道損傷,甚至重要器官壞死

  • So how do you diagnose an exertional heat stroke?

    如何診斷運動型中暑?

  • The main criterion is a core body temperature greater than 40 degrees Celsius

    主要標準是人體核心溫度高於40攝氏度

  • observed along with physical symptoms

    同時觀察身體症狀

  • such as increased heart rate, low blood pressure and rapid breathing

    例如心跳加速,低血壓和呼吸急速

  • or signs of central nervous system disfunction

    或者中央神經系統功能失調的跡象

  • such as confused behavior, aggression or loss of consciousness.

    例如行為混亂,帶有攻擊性或者失去意識

  • The most feasible and accurate way to assess core body temperature

    最可行和準確地探測核心體溫的方式

  • is with a rectal thermometer

    是使用直腸溫度計

  • as other common temperature-taking methods are not accurate in these circumstances.

    因為其他常用溫度探測方法 在這些情形下並不準確

  • As far as treatment goes,

    在進行治療的時候

  • the most important thing to remember is cool first, transport second.

    最重要的事情是記得先冷卻,再轉移

  • Because the human body can withstand a core temperature above 40 degrees Celsius

    因為人體在忍受核心溫度高於40攝氏度

  • for about 30 minutes before cell damage sets in,

    大約30分鐘時細胞會產生損傷

  • it's essential to initiate rapid cooling on site

    所以在現場開始盡快 快速降低人體溫度很重要

  • in order to lower it as quickly as possible.

    在移除患者所有運動或保護裝備后

  • After any athletic or protective gear has been removed from the victim,

    將他們放置在冰水浴缸裡 同時持續攪拌水

  • place them in an ice water tub while stirring the water

    和監測生命體徵

  • and monitoring vitals continuously.

    如果不具備上述條件

  • If this is not possible,

    給患者全身淋灑冰水 和提供濕毛巾也有幫助

  • dousing in ice water and applying wet towels over the entire body can help.

    但在你開始任何救助前, 必須先撥打急診服務電話

  • But before you start anything, emergency services should be called.

    在等待時,保持患者冷靜非常重要

  • As you wait, it's important to keep the victim calm

    同時盡可能多地冷卻患者體表

  • while cooling as much surface area as possible

    直到急診人員抵達

  • until emergency personnel arrive.

    如果旁邊有醫護人員

  • If medical staff are available on site, cooling should continue

    冷卻必須直到核心體溫 達到38.9攝氏度

  • until a core temperature of 38.9 degrees Celsius is reached.

    太陽被認為是生命之源

  • The sun is known for giving life,

    但是如果我們不小心它也能夠奪取生命

  • but it can also take life away if we're not careful,

    甚至影響我們之間最強大的人

  • even affecting the strongest among us.

    利維克博士關於運動型中暑 在1859年寫道

  • As Dr. JJ Levick wrote of exertional heat stroke in 1859,

    「它打擊它全副武裝的受害者。

  • "It strikes down its victim with his full armor on.

    年輕,健康和強壯的人都不能抵抗它的力量。」

  • Youth, health and strength oppose no obstacle to its power."

    但是雖然這種情況是 運動三大死亡成因之一

  • But although this condition is one of the top three leading causes of death in sports,

    如果處理得當它的存活率是100%

  • it has been 100% survivable with proper care.

In 1985, 16-year-old Douglas Casa,

1985 年,16歲的道格拉斯•卡薩

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 溫度 攝氏度 冷卻 體溫 患者

【TED-Ed】中暑了會怎樣?- 道格拉斯-J-卡薩 (【TED-Ed】What happens when you get heat stroke? - Douglas J. Casa)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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