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  • In the summer of 1976,

    1976年夏天,

  • a mysterious epidemic suddenly struck two central African towns,

    一個神祕的傳染病突然重創非洲的兩個小鎮,

  • killing the majority of its victims.

    大多數受害者均無法生還。

  • Medical researchers suspected

    醫學專家懷疑

  • the deadly Marburg virus to be the culprit.

    致命的馬爾堡病毒是罪魁禍首。

  • But what they saw in microscope images was an entirely new pathogen,

    但是他們在顯微鏡看到的的卻是一種前所未見的病原體,

  • which would be named after the nearby Ebola river.

    他們以鄰近的伊波拉河將其命名。

  • Like yellow fever or dengue,

    如同登革熱和黃熱病,

  • the disease caused by the Ebola virus is a severe type of hemorrhagic fever.

    伊波拉病毒也會導致嚴重的出血性發熱。

  • It begins by attacking the immune system's cells

    剛開始它會攻擊免疫細胞,

  • and neutralizing its responses,

    中和他的回應能力,

  • allowing the virus to proliferate.

    讓病毒能快速繁殖。

  • Starting anywhere from two to twenty days after contraction,

    發病後的二至二十天,從任何地方都可能開始繁殖,

  • initial symptoms like high temperature,

    最初的病徵包含高溫,

  • aching,

    痛症,

  • and sore throat,

    和喉嚨痛,

  • resemble those of a typical flu,

    病徵類似流感,

  • but quickly escalate to vomiting,

    但很快會逐漸擴大至嘔吐,

  • rashes,

    紅疹,

  • and diarrhea.

    和腹瀉。

  • And as the virus spreads,

    隨著病毒擴散,

  • it invades the lymph nodes and vital organs,

    他開始破壞淋巴結和重要器官,

  • such as kidneys and liver, causing them to lose function.

    像是腎臟,肝臟,導致其失去功能。

  • But the virus itself is not what kills Ebola victims.

    但是伊波拉病患並非死於病毒。

  • Instead, the mounting cell deaths trigger an immune system overload,

    大量的細胞壞死使免疫系統負荷超載,

  • known as a cytokine storm,

    也就是俗稱的高細胞因子症(細胞因子風暴)。

  • an explosion of immune responses that damages blood vessels,

    大量的免疫反應破壞血管,

  • causing both internal and external bleeding.

    導致內外出血。

  • The excessive fluid loss and resulting complications

    過度的流失流質導致多重性的問題

  • can be fatal within six to sixteen days of the first symptoms,

    第一波症狀在六到十六天內就能致死,

  • though proper care and rehydration therapy

    適當的照護和補液療法

  • can significantly reduce mortality rates in patients.

    能大量減少致死率。

  • Fortunately, while Ebola is highly virulent,

    幸運的是,雖然伊波拉有著高致死率,

  • several factors limit its contagiousness.

    有很多因素限制了他的傳染性。

  • Unlike viruses that proliferate through small, airborne particles,

    不像細菌能在空氣粒子中繁殖,

  • Ebola only exists in bodily fluids,

    伊波拉只能於體液中生存,

  • such as saliva,

    比如唾液,

  • blood,

    血液,

  • mucus,

    組織液,

  • vomit,

    嘔吐物,

  • or feces.

    或排泄物。

  • in order to spread,

    如果要擴展,

  • these must be transmitted from an infected person into another's body

    這些液體必須要從一個感染者傳給另一個感染者

  • through passageways such as the eyes, mouth, or nose.

    透過眼,口,鼻。

  • And because the disease's severity

    因為這疾病的嚴重程度

  • increases directly along with the viral load,

    隨病毒量增加而加劇,

  • even an infected person is unlikely to be contagious

    就算一個已患病的病人

  • until they have begun to show symptoms.

    在開始出現症狀之前也很難傳染給他人。

  • While Ebola has been shown to survive on surfaces for several hours,

    但是伊波拉其實可以在外面存活幾小時的時間,

  • and transmission through sneezing or coughing is theoretically possible,

    而且透過打噴嚏或咳嗽傳染理論上是有可能的,

  • virtually all known cases of contraction have been through direct contact

    事實上所有已知的傳染都是透過與重病者

  • with the severely ill,

    直接接觸,

  • with the greatest risk posed to medical workers

    所以危險群包含醫護人員

  • and friends or relatives of the victims.

    以及病人的親戚朋友。

  • This is why, despite its horrifying effects,

    這也是為甚麼儘管伊波拉的症狀極為恐怖,

  • Ebola has been far less deadly overall than more common infections,

    它的致死率卻比其他傳染病還要低,

  • such as measles,

    比如說麻疹

  • malaria,

    瘧疾,

  • or even influenza.

    甚至流行性感冒。

  • Once an outbreak has been contained,

    當疫情被穩定,

  • the virus does not exist in the human population

    病毒就不存在於人類中

  • until the next outbreak begins.

    直到下一波疫情。

  • But while this is undoubtedly a good thing,

    這不一定是件好事,

  • it also makes Ebola difficult to study.

    這讓伊波拉很難被研究。

  • Scientists believe fruit bats to be its natural carriers,

    科學家相信果蝠是它的自然帶原者,

  • but just how it is transmitted to humans remains unknown.

    但是它又是如何傳染給人類的尚屬未知。

  • Furthermore, many of the countries where Ebola outbreaks occur

    除此之外,許多伊波拉疫情爆發的國家

  • suffer from poor infrastructure and sanitation,

    皆為基礎建設和衛生設備較差的地區,

  • which enables the disease to spread.

    使得疫情能快速擴散。

  • And the poverty of these regions,

    這些地區的貧困,

  • combined with the relatively low amount of overall cases

    加上發病案例相對低

  • means there is little economic incentive for drug companies to invest in research.

    代表藥廠沒有甚麼利益動機能好好投入研究開發新藥。

  • Though some experimental medicines have shown promise,

    雖然一些實驗性的藥物已經證明有效,

  • and governments are funding development of a vaccine,

    政府也提供資金開發疫苗,

  • as of 2014,

    在2014年,

  • the only widespread and effective solutions to an Ebola outbreak remain

    最普及並有效控制伊波拉疫情的方式還是

  • isolation,

    隔離,

  • sanitation,

    增進衛生設備

  • and information.

    和資訊透明。

In the summer of 1976,

1976年夏天,

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 伊波拉 病毒 疫情 繁殖 細胞

【TED-Ed】伊波拉病毒到底有多恐怖 TED-ED : What we know (and don't know) about Ebola - Alex Gendler

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2016 年 02 月 25 日
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