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  • Hi. I am an architect.

    嗨,我是建築師

  • I am the only architect in the world

    我是世界上唯一的建築師

  • making buildings out of paper like this cardboard tube,

    使用這種硬紙管來蓋房子

  • and this exhibition is the first one I did using paper tubes.

    這個展覽館是第一座我用硬紙管蓋起來的建築物

  • 1986, much, much longer before people started talking

    在1986年,遠早於人們開始談論

  • about ecological issues and environmental issues,

    生態和環境議題之前

  • I just started testing the paper tube

    我就開始測試硬紙管

  • in order to use this as a building structure.

    為了用它當作建築結構

  • It's very complicated to test the new material for the building,

    測試這種新的建築材料是非常複雜的

  • but this is much stronger than I expected,

    但這種材料比我預期的還要堅固許多

  • and also it's very easy to waterproof.

    而且也相當容易做到防水

  • Because it's industrial material,

    因為它是工業用材料

  • it's also possible to fireproof.

    也有防火的可能性

  • Then I built the temporary structure, 1990.

    接著我在1990建造了臨時構造物,

  • This is the first temporary building made out of paper.

    這是第一棟用紙蓋成的臨時建築物

  • There are 330 tubes, diameter 55 [centimeters],

    使用330個直徑55公分的紙管

  • there are only 12 tubes with a diameter of 120 centimeters,

    直徑120公分寬的紙管只用了12個

  • or four feet, wide.

    或者說四尺寬

  • As you see it in the photo, inside is the toilet.

    就像你在照片上看到的,就在廁所裡面

  • In case you're finished with toilet paper,

    萬一廁所衛生紙用完了

  • you can tear off the inside of the wall. (Laughter)

    你可以把牆壁上的紙撕下來用

  • So it's very useful.

    所以這個設計非常實用

  • Year 2000, there was a big expo in Germany.

    2000年,盛大的世界博覽會在德國舉辦

  • I was asked to design the building,

    我受邀設計這個建築物

  • because the theme of the expo was environmental issues.

    因為當年世博會的主題和環境議題相關

  • So I was chosen to build the pavilion out of paper tubes,

    所以我被選上,設計用紙蓋成的展覽館

  • recyclable paper.

    可回收再利用的紙

  • My goal of the design is not when it's completed.

    我的設計目標並不是完成這個建築物

  • My goal was when the building was demolished,

    我的目標是當這個建築物拆除的時候

  • because each country makes a lot of pavilions

    因為每個國家建造了很多展覽館

  • but after half a year, we create a lot of industrial waste,

    但是半年之後,留下大量的工業廢棄物

  • so my building has to be reused or recycled.

    所以我的建築必須能再利用或回收

  • After, the building was recycled.

    後來,這棟建築被回收了

  • So that was the goal of my design.

    這就是我的設計目標

  • Then I was very lucky to win the competition

    然後我很幸運地贏了競圖

  • to build the second Pompidou Center in France in the city of Metz.

    要在法國梅茲蓋龐畢度藝術中心的分館,

  • Because I was so poor, I wanted to rent an office in Paris,

    因為我當時很窮,想在巴黎租一個辦公室

  • but I couldn't afford it, so I decided to bring my students to Paris

    可是我無法負擔房租,所以我決定帶我的學生去巴黎

  • to build our office on top of the Pompidou Center in Paris

    把我們的辦公室蓋在巴黎龐畢度藝術中心的屋頂上

  • by ourselves. (Laughter)

    我們自己來蓋

  • So we brought the paper tubes and the wooden joints

    所以我們帶了硬紙管和木造的接頭過去

  • to complete the 35-meter-long office.

    完成了35公尺長的辦公室

  • We stayed there for six years without paying any rent.

    我們在那裡待了六年,沒有付任何房租

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲) (掌聲)

  • Thank you. I had one big problem.

    謝謝。 我當時有個大問題

  • Because we were part of the exhibition,

    因為我們是展覽的一部分

  • even if my friend wanted to see me, they had to buy a ticket to see me.

    如果我的朋友想要見我,他們就只好買票進來

  • (Laughter) That was the problem.

    這就是問題所在

  • Then I completed the Pompidou Center in Metz.

    然後我完成了龐畢度藝術中心梅茲分館

  • It's a very popular museum now,

    它現在是個很受歡迎的美術館

  • and I created a big monument for the government.

    而我為政府建造了宏偉不朽的建築物

  • But then I was very disappointed

    但後來我很失望

  • at my profession as an architect,

    對於我做為一個建築師的專業

  • because we are not helping, we are not working for society,

    因為我們並沒有幫助社會、沒有為社會付出

  • but we are working for privileged people,

    我們為特權階級的人工作

  • rich people, government, developers.

    有錢人、政府單位、開發商

  • They have money and power.

    他們有金錢和權勢

  • Those are invisible.

    但那是看不見的

  • So they hire us to visualize their power and money

    所以這些人僱用我們來讓他們的權勢和金錢具體可見

  • by making monumental architecture.

    透過建造宏偉不朽的建築物

  • That is our profession, even historically it's the same,

    這就是我們的專業,即使以歷史上來說也是如此

  • even now we are doing the same.

    就算到了現在我們仍然在做同樣的事

  • So I was very disappointed that we are not working for society,

    所以我對於我們不為社會工作而感到失望

  • even though there are so many people

    即使有非常多的人

  • who lost their houses by natural disasters.

    因天然災害失去家園

  • But I must say they are no longer natural disasters.

    但我得說那其實不是自然災害

  • For example, earthquakes never kill people,

    舉例來說,地震從來沒有殺人

  • but collapse of the buildings kills people.

    是倒塌的房子殺了人

  • That's the responsibility of architects.

    那是建築師的責任

  • Then people need some temporary housing,

    然後人們需要一些臨時的住所

  • but there are no architects working there

    但是沒有建築師在那幫忙

  • because we are too busy working for privileged people.

    因為我們忙著為特權階級的人工作

  • So I thought, even as architects,

    所以,當時我想,即使我們是建築師

  • we can be involved in the reconstruction of temporary housing.

    我們還是可以投入重建臨時性房屋的工作

  • We can make it better.

    我們可以讓它變得更好

  • So that is why I started working in disaster areas.

    那就是為什麼我開始去災區工作

  • 1994, there was a big disaster in Rwanda, Africa.

    1994年,非洲盧安達有一場非常大的災難

  • Two tribes, Hutu and Tutsi, fought each other.

    兩個部落,胡圖族和圖西族相互交戰 (盧安達大屠殺)

  • Over two million people became refugees.

    超過兩百萬人成為難民

  • But I was so surprised to see the shelter,

    我被眼前的避難所嚇了一跳

  • refugee camp organized by the U.N.

    由聯合國組織所安排的難民營

  • They're so poor,

    人們非常可憐

  • and they are freezing with blankets during the rainy season.

    難民在雨季時裹著毯子,都凍壞了

  • In the shelters built by the U.N.,

    聯合國組織建造的避難所裡

  • they were just providing a plastic sheet,

    只提供塑膠布

  • and the refugees had to cut the trees, and just like this.

    難民必須去砍樹來用,像這樣(木材搭棚子,棚頂蓋塑膠布)

  • But over two million people cut trees.

    但超過兩百萬人都去砍樹

  • It just became big, heavy deforestation

    只會造成大型、嚴重的森林濫伐

  • and an environmental problem.

    以及環境問題

  • That is why they started providing aluminum pipes, aluminum barracks.

    那就是為什麼聯合國開始提供鋁管及鋁製臨時棚屋

  • Very expensive, they throw them out for money,

    非常昂貴,難民把那些材料拿去換錢

  • then cutting trees again.

    然後繼續砍樹

  • So I proposed my idea to improve the situation

    所以我提出我的想法來改善這情況

  • using these recycled paper tubes

    使用可回收的硬紙管

  • because this is so cheap and also so strong,

    因為這種材料便宜又堅固

  • but my budget is only 50 U.S. dollars per unit.

    但我的每單元預算只有50美金

  • We built 50 units to do that as a monitoring test

    我們蓋了50個單元來監測

  • for the durability and moisture and termites and so on.

    耐久性、濕氣和白蟻之類的問題

  • And then, a year afterward 1995 in Kobe, Japan,

    接下來,一年後的1995年,在日本神戶,

  • we had a big earthquake.

    發生大地震

  • Nearly 7000 people were killed,

    將近7000人罹難

  • and the city like this Nagata district,

    而像是永田區這個城市

  • all the city was burned in a fire after the earthquake.

    地震後大火燒毀整個城市

  • And also I found out there's many Vietnamese refugees

    而且我還發現有許多越南籍難民

  • suffering and gathering at a Catholic church --

    受苦受難,擠在一座天主教堂

  • all the buildings were totally destroyed.

    所有建築物被完全摧毀

  • So I went there and also I proposed to the priests,

    所以我去了那裡,向神父提案

  • "Why don't we rebuild the church out of paper tubes?"

    "我們何不用紙重建這座教堂呢?

  • And he said, "Oh God, are you crazy?

    他說" 老天啊,你瘋了嗎? "

  • After a fire, what are you proposing?"

    "在經歷火災後,這算是哪門子的提案?"

  • So he never trusted me, but I didn't give up.

    他完全不相信我,但我不放棄

  • I started commuting to Kobe,

    我開始通勤往返神戶

  • and I met the society of Vietnamese people.

    也去看了越南群眾的狀況

  • They were living like this with very poor plastic sheets in the park.

    他們住在像這樣的的地方,在公園裡搭這種簡陋的塑膠布

  • So I proposed to rebuild. I did fundraising.

    因此我提議重建,辦募款活動

  • I made a paper tube shelter for them,

    為他們建造硬紙管做的避難所

  • and in order to make it easy to be built by students

    而為了讓學生更容易建造

  • and also easy to demolish,

    也容易拆除

  • I used beer crates as a foundation.

    我用啤酒箱當基座

  • I asked the Kirin beer company to propose,

    我向麒麟啤酒公司提出請求

  • because at that time,

    因為那個時候呢

  • the Asahi beer company made their plastic beer crates red,

    朝日啤酒公司把啤酒箱做成紅色的

  • which doesn't go with the color of the paper tubes.

    也就是和硬紙管完全不搭的顏色

  • The color coordination is very important.

    顏色的協調性非常重要

  • And also I still remember, we were expecting

    還有,我還記得,我們當時很期待

  • to have a beer inside the plastic beer crate,

    啤酒箱裡會有啤酒

  • but it came empty. (Laughter)

    但送來的時候空空如也

  • So I remember it was so disappointing.

    我記得這超令人失望的

  • So during the summer with my students,

    那年夏天和我的學生一起

  • we built over 50 units of the shelters.

    建造了超過50個避難所單元

  • Finally the priest, finally he trusted me to rebuild.

    神父最後,終於信任我們去重建(紙教堂)

  • He said, "As long as you collect money by yourself,

    他說 "只要你們自己湊到錢,

  • bring your students to build, you can do it."

    帶你的學生來建造,那就可以"

  • So we spent five weeks rebuilding the church.

    所以我們花了五個星期重建這座教堂

  • It was meant to stay there for three years,

    本來預計放置三年

  • but actually it stayed there 10 years because people loved it.

    但實際上它留了10年,因為人們喜歡這個空間

  • Then, in Taiwan, they had a big earthquake,

    之後,台灣發生大地震

  • and we were proposed to donate this church,

    我們提議捐出這個教堂

  • so we dismantled them,

    所以我們把這裡的拆掉

  • we sent them over to be built by volunteer people.

    然後送過去,由志工們組裝建造

  • It stayed there in Taiwan as a permanent church even now.

    它就留在台灣直到現在,當作永久性的教堂

  • So this building became a permanent building.

    所以這個建築變成了永久性建築

  • Then I wonder, what is a permanent and what is a temporary building?

    在這之後我開始好奇,什麼是永久性而什麼是臨時性的建築呢?

  • Even a building made in paper

    即使是紙做的建築物

  • can be permanent as long as people love it.

    只要人們喜歡,也能成為永久性的建築,

  • Even a building made of concrete

    即使是混凝土蓋的房子

  • can easily collapse by an earthquake.

    也會輕易地被地震摧毀

  • If a building is built by a developer in order to make money,

    如果開發商為了賺錢而蓋了一棟建築物

  • other developers buy the land, they destroy it and put a new one.

    然後其他開發商買下這塊地,拆掉它再蓋一棟新的

  • So, it's very temporary.

    這不過是很短暫的

  • So, that is a difference.

    這就是差別所在

  • If a building is built even in paper, if people love it, it becomes permanent.

    即使建築物是紙做的,如果人們喜歡它,它就能長久

  • Even a concrete building can be very temporary,

    就算是混凝土建築壽命也可能很短

  • if that is made to make money.

    如果那房子只是用來賺錢的

  • In 1999, in Turkey, there's the big earthquake,

    1999年,土耳其大地震

  • I went there to use the local material to build a shelter.

    我在那裡利用在當地的材料建造避難所

  • 2001, in West India, I also built a shelter.

    2001年,印度西部,我們也建了避難所

  • In 2004, in Sri Lanka, after the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami,

    2004年,斯里蘭卡,在蘇門答臘地震和海嘯發生後,

  • I rebuilt Islamic fishermen's villages.

    我重建了伊斯蘭漁民的村子

  • And in 2008, in Chengdu, Sichuan area in China,

    然後2008年,在中國四川地區成都,

  • nearly 70 000 people were killed,

    將近7萬人罹難

  • and also especially many of the schools were destroyed

    尤其有許多學校毀於一旦

  • because of the corruption between the authority and the contractor.

    肇因於當局勾結承包商貪汙腐敗

  • I was asked to rebuild the temporary [school].

    我被找去重建臨時校舍

  • I brought my Japanese students to work with the Chinese students.

    我帶日本學生過去和中國學生一起工作

  • In one month, we completed 9 classrooms over 500 square meters.

    一個月內,我們完成9間教室,面積超過500平方公尺

  • It's still used, even after the current earthquake in China.

    即使經歷地震,那些在中國的校舍至今仍在使用,

  • In 2009, in Italy, L'Aquila, also they had a big earthquake.

    2009年,在義大利拉奎拉也發生大地震

  • And this is a very interesting photo:

    這張照片很有趣

  • former Prime Minister Berlusconi

    (義大利)前總理貝盧斯科尼

  • and Japanese former former former former Prime Minister Mr. Aso -

    和日本的前前前前內閣總理麻生先生

  • you know, because we have to change the prime minister ever year.

    你知道的,因為我們每年都要換內閣總理

  • And that...umm (Laughter)

    所以呢....(笑聲)

  • And they are very kind, holding my model.

    他們很親切,拿著我的模型

  • I proposed a big rebuilding, a temporary music hall,

    我提了一個大型的重建案,一個臨時音樂廳

  • because L'Aquila is very famous for music

    因為拉奎拉以音樂聞名

  • and all the concert halls were destroyed, so musicians were moving out.

    然而所有的音樂廳都被摧毀了,所以音樂家們只能流落在外

  • So I proposed to the mayor,

    所以我向市長提案

  • I'd like to rebuild the temporary auditorium.

    我想重建一座臨時會堂

  • He said, "As long as you bring your money, you can do it."

    他說 :「只要你自己帶資金來,就蓋吧。」

  • And I was very lucky.

    我真幸運

  • Mr. Berlusconi brought G8 summit,

    貝盧斯科尼總理在此舉辦G8高峰會

  • and our former prime minister came,

    我們的前總裡也出席了

  • so they helped us to collect money,

    他們幫忙集資

  • and I got half a million euros from the Japanese government

    我們還得到日本政府贊助五十萬歐元

  • to rebuild this temporary auditorium.

    來重建這座臨時會堂

  • I have to remember every year there is an earthquake somewhere.

    我必須記得每一年哪裡又發生地震

  • Year 2010 in Haiti, there was a big earthquake,

    2010年,海地大地震

  • but it's impossible to fly over,

    但沒有飛機直飛那裡

  • so I went to Santo Domingo, next-door country,

    所以我飛到聖多明哥(多明尼加首都),海地的鄰居

  • to drive six hours to get to Haiti

    開了六小時的車到海地

  • with the local students in Santo Domingo

    帶著聖多明哥當地的學生

  • to build 50 units of shelter out of local paper tubes.

    一起建造50個避難所單元,採用當地的紙管

  • This is what happened in Japan two years ago, in northern Japan.

    這就是兩年前在日本,日本北部,發生的事,

  • After the earthquake and tsunami,

    地震和海嘯之後

  • people had to be evacuated in a big room like a gymnasium.

    人們必須撤離到一個寬敞的地方,像是體育館

  • But look at this. There's no privacy.

    但看看這裡,完全沒有隱私

  • People suffer mentally and physically.

    人們遭受精神和生理的苦難

  • So we went there to build partitions

    所以我們過去幫忙蓋隔間

  • with all the student volunteers with paper tubes,

    全是學生志工用紙管材料蓋的

  • just a very simple shelter out of the tube frame and the curtain.

    只是簡易避難所,用紙管和簾子做成的

  • However, some of the facility authority

    然而,有些官方機構

  • doesn't want us to do it, because, they said,

    不希望我們這麼做,因為呢,他們說

  • simply, it's become more difficult to control them.

    很顯然,這樣比較難掌控災民

  • But it's really necessary to do it.

    但我們極需這麼做

  • Then, also it was the fact

    接下來,另一件事實是

  • over 500 kilometer coast line was damaged by tsunami.

    超過500公里的海岸線遭到海嘯破壞

  • They don't have enough flat area to build

    沒有足夠的平地可供建設

  • standard government single-story housing like this one.

    標準的政府單層組合屋,就像這個

  • Look at this. Even civil government is doing

    看看這個,即使是政府

  • such poor construction of the temporary housing,

    蓋這樣簡陋的臨時組合屋

  • so dense and so messy

    如此稠密和凌亂

  • because there is no storage, nothing, water is leaking,

    因為沒有儲藏空間,完全沒有,還一直漏水

  • so I thought, we have to make multi-story building

    所以我想,我們必須要蓋多層樓的房子

  • because there's no land and also it's not very comfortable.

    因為沒有土地了而且非常不舒適

  • So I proposed to the mayor while I was making partitions.

    所以當我們蓋那些隔間的時候,我向市長提出這個想法,

  • Finally I met a very nice mayor in Onagawa village in Miyagi.

    最後在宮城縣女川町,我遇到非常友善的市長,

  • He asked me to build three-story housing on baseball [fields].

    他讓我們在棒球場上建造三層樓的房子

  • I used the shipping container

    我們用海運貨櫃

  • and also the students helped us

    而且有學生們幫忙大家

  • to make all the building furniture

    製作這所有的家具

  • to make them comfortable,

    讓他們住得舒服

  • within the budget of the government

    在政府的預算內

  • but also the area of the house is exactly the same,

    而房屋面積仍然維持一樣

  • but much more comfortable.

    但舒服多了

  • Many of the people want to stay here forever.

    大部分的人想永久地住下來

  • I was very happy to hear that.

    我聽到這個消息很高興

  • Now I am working in New Zealand, Christchurch.

    現在,我在紐西蘭基督城工作

  • About 20 days before the Japanese earthquake happened,

    大約在日本大地震發生的20天前

  • also they had a big earthquake,

    那裡也發生一場大地震

  • and many Japanese students were also killed,

    不少日本裔的學生因而喪命

  • and the most important cathedral of the city,

    而城市裡最重要的大教堂

  • the symbol of Christchurch, was totally destroyed.

    基督城的象徵地標被破壞殆盡

  • And I was asked to come to rebuild the temporary cathedral.

    而我被找去重建一座臨時教堂

  • So this is under construction.

    所以這個正在施工中

  • And I'd like to keep building the monuments

    我很樂意讓建築永垂不朽

  • that are beloved by people.

    那些被人們所愛的建築

  • Thank you very much.

    非常謝謝大家

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝 (掌聲)

  • Thank you very much. (Applause)

    非常謝謝 (掌聲)