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  • Good afternoon, everybody.

    大家午安

  • My passion is public speaking,

    我對演講很有熱情

  • and I just recently realized

    我最近才發現

  • that it's been 10 years that I'm involved in championship speaking

    我已經參與十年的冠軍演講比賽

  • and public speaking training.

    以及演講訓練大會

  • I can very vividly remember

    我依然可以清楚地記得

  • the very first time that I gave actually session on public speaking.

    第一次我參加一個 (以季為單位的) 公開演講

  • That was in May 2000, in Hamburg, Germany,

    那時是 2000 年的五月,在德國漢堡

  • and the slide that I used was this one.

    我用的幻燈片是這一個。

  • The excitement in the eyes of the audience

    台下觀眾都訝異地看著我

  • was almost as big as is yours now.

    眼睛瞪得跟你們一樣大。

  • I have to say that since then, I have learned a couple of lessons,

    從那之後我就學到一些教訓

  • but the main thing that I've learned is:

    我最主要學到的是

  • public speaking is not about theory,

    公開演講和理論無關,

  • is not about models and complex things.

    也不是典範或複雜的事情。

  • It's about doing. It's about practicing.

    而是關於實作,關於演練

  • So what I want to share with you today,

    所以我今天想分享給你的

  • are some of the lessons that I've learned when practicing public speaking.

    就是一些我曾經在公開演講學過的教訓

  • I'm going to do that by using what I call the 'speaker's code'.

    接下來我要使用一個我稱呼為 「演講密碼" 的報告」

  • Whenever I look at a presentation,

    當我開始報告

  • I look at the code:

    我會檢查這些密碼

  • Content. Organization. Delivery. Effect.

    包含內容、組織架構、表述方法、特效

  • Let's start with the first one. With content.

    我們首先看第一項:內容。

  • When you join a public speaking training or communication training,

    當你參加一個公開演講或是溝通的訓練

  • you will hear lots of rules.

    你會聽到很多規矩

  • One of them is a very famous rule:

    其中有名的一個法則

  • the 55 - 38 - 7 rule.

    就是 55-38-7 法則

  • It says, in terms of communication,

    這提到在一項溝通中

  • 55% is non verbal,

    百分之 55 都是非語言的表達

  • 38% is how we say it, how we intonate it,

    我們表達的方式和聲調佔百分之38,

  • and only 7% is what we say: content.

    只有百分之 7 才是所謂的「內容」。

  • I don't believe in this at all.

    我並沒有完全相信

  • For me, in a presentation, content is king.

    對我而言,在一個演講之中,內容才是王道。

  • Content is at the core of a presentation.

    內容是演講的核心

  • So I want to share with you a couple of thoughts.

    所以我要分享一些想法給你們。

  • You have to research your material,

    你必須要好好研究考察你的素材

  • of course you have to dig in, all of these things.

    當然你必須深入瞭解所有的事。

  • But before you take Power Point, Keynote,

    但是你在準備 PPT、Keynote 或是

  • anything, in your hands,

    手上任何東西之前,

  • get a pen and a piece of paper,

    先拿一枝筆跟一張紙,

  • and I would recommend you write down your objective.

    我建議你寫下你的目的

  • Write down, "At the end of this presentation I want..."

    寫下 "報告之後我希望..."

  • and then what is it that you want to achieve.

    然後就是你希望達到的成就

  • It sounds so obvious, but so many people don't do it.

    這看起來很明顯,可是很多人都沒有這樣做

  • In order to set a right objective,

    為了設定一個正確的目的

  • you have to think of another factor.

    你必須要顧慮到其他的因素

  • You have to think of your audience.

    你要為你的觀眾著想

  • Who are they? Why they are there?

    他們是誰? 為什麼他們在這裡?

  • What do they care? What do they know?

    他們關心的是甚麼? 他們本來就知道些甚麼?

  • What do they not know?

    他們有甚麼還不知道?

  • Here I would like to zoom in a bit further.

    我們把焦點放遠一點

  • Because there's something about audiences that is less known.

    因為有些事觀眾不清楚

  • So let's assume you set your objective,

    所以假設你已經定好主題,

  • you did all your homework,

    事先做好功課,

  • you did great research,

    你花了很大的力氣研究考察

  • you practiced, practiced, practiced.

    你練習、練習再練習

  • Then you want that the audience looks a bit like this.

    然後你希望觀眾看起來像這樣

  • You want that they cheer, that they love, that they're fans of you.

    你希望他們開心,他們喜愛,他們成為你的粉絲

  • And then you go out.

    接著你亮相。

  • Then you go out on the podium,

    你在講台上亮相。

  • and I can tell you in 95% of the cases,

    我可以告訴你,百分之 95 的情況是

  • audiences will probably look a bit like this.

    觀眾會看起來像這樣

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • What do you do then?

    那這時你該怎麼辦?

  • Standard advice is, look at the people who smile.

    標準建議是,看著人群裡微笑的那些人。

  • In every audience there are some people who smile, who nod,

    在座的觀眾有些人微笑,有些人點頭

  • whatever you say,

    不管你怎麼講

  • they will go, yes, yes, that's brilliant.

    他們遲早會離開,是的,這想法很棒

  • But what about her? (Laughter)

    那她呢?(笑聲)

  • What do you do with her?

    你該拿她怎麼辦?

  • In order to deal with her, let me tell you a little story.

    為了處理她,我告訴你一個小故事。

  • Two years ago, I gave a session,

    兩年前,我參加了一場大會

  • I gave a session to 60 business school students

    底下有六十個商業學校的學生

  • on public speaking.

    一個公開演講

  • When I was roughly 20 minutes into my talk,

    當大約進入我談話的二十分鐘

  • all of a sudden I noticed that a bit in the back

    突然間,我發覺底下有些反應

  • they were two grumpy students.

    有兩個比較不耐煩的學生

  • The grumpy face on, who look at this, and then they start to talk with each other.

    不耐煩的表情,看起來像這樣,他們開始聊天。

  • I thought, "What's going on, what are they..."

    我想 "發生甚麼事,他們在.."

  • ...thoughts were going in my head,

    許多想法進到我的腦袋

  • "Hm, should I change my talk, should I change anything?"

    嗯,我應該改變我的講話方式,我應該改變任何事嗎?

  • Then I went on, was distracted. Another person was sitting there.

    然後我心煩意亂的繼續下去,其他人坐在那兒

  • More front row, young student.

    許多前排的年輕學生

  • He did the nods, you know,

    他們就是點頭,你了解的

  • when somebody starts to fall asleep.

    當有人開始打瞌睡,

  • I thought, "What's happening here?"

    我在想 「到底發生甚麼事了」

  • So I tried to make a break very very fast.

    我試著講快點,提早讓大家休息

  • So around about after 40 minutes we made a break,

    大約四十分鐘後我們就稍作停頓

  • students entered the room,

    學生進到房間

  • and then they came.

    然後他們過來

  • The nodder guy as well as the grumpy couple came over to me.

    那個點頭的同學以及不耐煩的那兩個人來找我

  • I was already starting to get prepared for the questions.

    我已經準備好要如何面對問題

  • And then they started, first the nod one.

    那個點頭的學生就開始問

  • He started, "You know, I noticed that you saw me fall asleep,

    你知道我注意到你看見我打瞌睡了

  • and I really have to apologize.

    我真的要跟你道歉

  • You now, we arrived yesterday Brussels, nice city,

    你知道我昨天前往 布魯塞爾 (比利時首都),一個蠻棒的首都

  • we just went out very long, and I'm extremely tired,

    我們在那裏待了非常的久,我相當的疲倦

  • and I just want to let you know, I like your talk."

    我只是想讓你知道,我非常喜歡你的演講

  • And then the grumpy group started,

    接著輪到這兩個不耐煩的學生,

  • "Actually, during your talk we were discussing,

    事實上,當你在演講的時候我們在討論

  • can we use that for a social organization that we do?

    我們是否也可以在社交組織上實際執行?

  • Can you maybe share some material?"

    可以請您分享一些資訊嗎?

  • At that moment, I had a revelation, when it comes to audiences.

    在那個當下,我有一個來自觀眾群的啟發

  • I had all my thoughts for nothing.

    我的想法根本不重要

  • The key tip I have for you, is:

    你們的想法才是關鍵

  • do not try to 'mind read' your audience.

    不要嘗試擅自解讀你的觀眾

  • There are nodders in every audience,

    觀眾裡一定有人打瞌睡,

  • many grumpy people in every audience.

    觀眾裡一定有人不耐煩。

  • People tell me I'm a very grumpy listener.

    觀眾告訴我:我是一個不耐煩的聽眾。

  • But that doesn't mean I don't like the talk,

    但那不代表我不喜歡這個演講,

  • it just means I'm reflecting.

    我只是有些想法。

  • So what I recommend to you,

    所以我建議你們

  • don't try to mind read during your talk your audience.

    你不要在演講的時候去解讀你的觀眾。

  • Get some feedback afterwards,

    稍後你會得到回饋,

  • but during the talk, just go on.

    但是演講中,就一直講下去

  • Then some thoughts on organization.

    接著把想法組織起來。

  • It has been said a great talk has a great opening, a great ending,

    他們說偉大的演講都有偉大的開場,跟強而有力的結尾

  • and hopefully not too much in between these two.

    中間的內容不是那麼重要

  • That is good advice when it comes to organization.

    這對一些組織是個好建議

  • Tell them what you're going to tell them,

    告訴他們你所要表達的

  • tell them what you've told them.

    告訴他們你已經說過的。

  • But I think there's something missing.

    但我覺得這其中有些不對勁的地方

  • Roughly one year ago, I had to give a session on public speaking

    大約一年前,我在一個大會作公開演講

  • at a conference, good conference, 100 managers roughly over there.

    在一個會議,很棒的會議,大約有一百位經理與會。

  • One hour before my talk, we had a break,

    我演講的前一個小時,是一段休憩的時間

  • good coffee break,

    很好的休憩時光

  • so I was having a coffee,

    我喝了一杯咖啡

  • standing there chatting, and then it happened.

    站在那邊聊天,然後事情就這樣發生了。

  • Somebody crashed into me,

    有個人撞到我,

  • and the coffee spilled all over my shirt.

    而且潑得我身上襯衫全是咖啡。

  • One hour before the session.

    就在大會前一個小時

  • Question: What do you do then?

    問題是你會怎麼辦呢?

  • I had lots of thoughts going on.

    我腦袋閃過很多想法

  • Buy a new shirt?

    買一件新襯衫?

  • Not happening.

    不可能。

  • Reserve shirt? I didn't have any.

    備用襯衫,我沒有

  • Ask somebody for a new shirt?

    跟別人要一件新的?

  • Didn't really work out, nobody my size was over there.

    不可行,在座沒人的尺寸跟我一樣

  • Then I thought, maybe I should enter like this,

    後來我想,我應該進去的時候就保持這個樣子

  • and just give my talk a bit like this during all the time.

    就讓我一直保持這個樣子演講

  • Maybe that would work.

    或許這樣可行

  • No.

  • In the end I started my talk like this, with the stain.

    最後我開始演講時就像這樣,伴隨著污漬

  • But my question to you, what do you think would have happened,

    但是我要問你們,你覺得會發生甚麼事

  • if I would have started,

    假設我開始演講

  • "Good day, ladies and gentlemen,

    先生女士大家好

  • let me talk about presentation skills today."

    今天讓我們來談論關於報告技巧

  • Almost everybody of you would have thought,

    幾乎每個人會這樣想

  • "What's up with the stain?"

    那個污漬是怎麼回事?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Luckily, in that moment what I call the 'elephant rule'

    幸運的是,在那當下,那個被我稱為「大象法則」

  • came to my mind.

    在我腦中靈光一閃。

  • Sometime ago I listened to a great speech

    以前我聽過一場精采的演講,

  • by a person named Randy Pausch.

    主講者是藍迪波許。

  • Randy Pausch was a professor with cancer,

    藍迪波許教授當時患有癌症,

  • and he gave a so-called 'Last Lecture'.

    那就是所謂的「最後一堂課」

  • He mentioned something that sticks to my mind.

    他提到說有些事物縈繞我心

  • He mentioned something very very profound. He said,

    他提到有些事非常深奧。他說:

  • "When there's an elephant in the room, introduce it."

    「當房間裡有一隻大象,介紹牠。」

  • In his part, that was the cancer.

    以他的角度來看,這是一個癌症

  • For me, what I did then, is saying what happened.

    對我而言,我那時做的,就代表發生了甚麼事。

  • I just told the story to the audience.

    我就直接把這故事告訴觀眾

  • What happened with the coffee, and that was it.

    為什麼會有咖啡,這個污漬是甚麼

  • This is what I would recommend.

    這就是我所建議的

  • So many speakers just go on and leave the stuff that happened there.

    許多演講者不過是自顧自地演講,然後把事實棄之不顧。

  • If you have any elephant in your room, in your audience, or wherever it is,

    假設有任何一隻大象在你的房間,在你的觀眾之中,無論牠在哪裡

  • introduce it.

    介紹它吧!

  • There's a vice-president missing, name it.

    這是副總裁的失誤,為他命名吧

  • Microphone not working, name it.

    麥克風壞了,提一下它吧

  • Things falling off the sky during a talk,

    滿天都是是可以演講的事

  • name it and address it.

    提起它並點綴它

  • And then, only then, go on.

    然後,就這樣,去吧

  • So introduce that elephant.

    所以介紹那隻大象

  • Then we come to the next area, that's the delivery.

    接下來我們進到下一個領域,如何表達

  • Delivery, one of my favorite areas to look at.

    表達是我最喜歡觀察的一部分

  • And there are so many things to look at in terms of delivery.

    關於表達有很多事項要注意

  • People are craving for rule

    人們都渴望有規則

  • I would say, there are a couple of things that can go wrong

    我想說,很多事都會出錯

  • in terms of delivery.

    在表達的環節中

  • Just for example, many of you will have sessions,

    舉個例子,你們大部分中都有參加過大會

  • small sessions, 20 people sitting there,

    小型的研討會,20 個人坐在那裏

  • and there's a presenter over there who has the pen in the hand.

    有個演講者在那,手中拿著筆。

  • You know that, when some people start with the pen in the hand,

    你知道的,當有人一邊玩弄手中的筆,一邊開始,

  • that is probably not the best thing you can do in that moment.

    這樣會很殺風景。

  • Then, in general, there're other dangerous objects.

    一般來說,這是最危險的事

  • I see many of you wear the badges.

    我看到你們很多人戴著名牌。

  • I see many speakers in the training start to play around

    我看到很多演講者在訓練時一直在甩

  • with their badges,

    他們的牌子,

  • or necklaces.

    或是項鍊

  • Or, also a favorite thing,

    或是喜歡的小東西,

  • some speakers start playing around with things in their pockets.

    有些演講者玩口袋裡的物品。

  • Like this one here, with the key.

    就像這一個,玩著鑰匙

  • Key recommendation I would have for you:

    我要給你們建議

  • empty all of your pockets, get rid of all dangerous things.

    清空你的口袋,擺脫所有危險的事物

  • I do that every time when I give a talk,

    我每次演講都這麼做,

  • and that was for demonstration purposes here.

    當然現在是為了示範。

  • Then there's of course the stand.

    當然就是站在這裡

  • Some speakers stand there, five hundred slides,

    有一些演講者站在這裡,五百個段落

  • they will not move, for the whole talk.

    演講中,他們不會移動

  • But then there's also something, what I would call the 'speaker's dance'.

    但有些,我稱為「演講者起舞」。

  • Some start a bit more slow,

    有些慢慢開始,

  • they go from back, forth, back and forth.

    他們走到後面、往前、往後又往前

  • Up until what I would call the 'speaker's disco fox'.

    又往上跳,我稱這為 「演講者是迪斯可狐狸」

  • You know, going always back, forth, back, forth.

    你知道,這樣總是往後往前、往後往前

  • Up until what I would call the 'tiger dance'.

    又往上跳,我上為 「老虎舞」

  • Motivational speakers very often do this.

    一直動不停的演講者非常喜歡這樣作

  • They go from back to forth, from back to forth,

    他們從後面到前面,從後面到前面

  • like a tiger in a cage. Right?

    就像一隻關在籠子裡的老虎,對吧?

  • Typically, the audience would say, after 10 seconds,

    通常十秒後觀眾會說:

  • "Stop, that gets us on nerves."

    「停下吧!這讓我們好緊張。」

  • What does work for me there, walk with purpose.

    對我來說,行走是要有目的的

  • Come natural stand, and then, maybe, if you change your thought,

    站姿自然,然後,如果你要改變想法,

  • yes, then you can move around a bit and then walk.

    是的,你可以稍微移動走走。

  • So, obviously, these were some of the things that one should not do.

    所以,顯然,這是一些我們不該做的事

  • But let's explore a bit further the top of your body language.

    但是讓我們一起更進一步發掘最重要的肢體語言

  • Let's look at him.

    讓我們看看他

  • Now he stands there, starts his talk, moves around a bit,

    他現在站在那兒,開始他的言論,移動一點點

  • hands in the pocket, oh, oh, very bad!

    手放在口袋,喔,喔,非常的糟糕

  • Whoa! Second hand in the pocket. What's going on?

    喔 然後手放在口袋,到底是怎樣?

  • Then he realizes, take out, take out.

    然後他發覺,拿開,拿開

  • So we're all focused on the hands in the pocket.

    所以我們都只注意在口袋裡的手。

  • But frankly, I tell you,

    但坦白說,我告訴你們

  • if we would listen to the sound,

    假設我們想聽這個聲音

  • and would listen to the whole speech,

    並且想聽完整個演講

  • we might not even have noticed it.

    我們可能甚至不會注意它

  • And that gets me to the problem of body language laws.

    肢體語言的規矩讓我有些困擾

  • I tell you another law that is going on.

    我告訴你另外的規矩是這樣

  • Like, I read once, in terms of eye contact,

    就好比,我有一次讀過,眼神交會,

  • one should finish a sentence with one person,

    演講者應該看著一個人完成一個句子

  • after twelve seconds.

    在 12 秒之後。

  • Whenever I actually do that

    無論何時我那樣做

  • and actually talk longer than 5 seconds to one person at a time,

    我對一個人一次說話超過五秒

  • that person feels rather...? Annoyed, exactly.

    這個人就覺得非常...?事實上令人心煩。

  • What works for me, is 1 to 2 seconds at a time,

    對我而言,一次一到兩秒

  • and then move on.

    然後移開視線。

  • So 1 to 2 seconds, that's enough.

    所以一到兩秒就夠了。

  • Like, "Uh, looking at me. But that's enough, please go on."

    就好比,哦,看著我,但是那樣就夠了,請繼續

  • It already shows that some of these laws don't work.

    這些表達法則有些已經不可行了

  • I would challenge you and tell you,

    我要挑戰你們並告訴你們