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  • If I say, "Venice," do you imagine yourself gliding down the Grand Canal,

    如果我說「威尼斯」 你會不會想到自己在大運河順流而下

  • serenaded by a gondolier?


  • There's no doubt that the gondola is a symbol of Venice, Italy,

    毫無疑問,貢多拉 是義大利威尼斯的象徵

  • but how did this curious banana-shaped black boat get its distinctive look?

    但是這個奇怪的香蕉形黑船 怎麼演變成這種獨特的外觀?

  • The origins of the Venetian gondola are lost to history,


  • but by the 1500s, some 10,000 gondolas transported dignitaries, merchants, and goods

    但直至 16 世紀,約一萬艘的 貢多拉載著政要、商賈及貨物

  • through the city's canals.


  • In fact, Venice teemed with many types of handmade boats,

    事實上,威尼斯充滿著 各式各樣的手工船

  • from utilitarian rafts to the Doge's own ostentatious gilded barge.

    從實用的木筏 到總督御用闊氣的鍍金駁船都有

  • Like a modern day taxi system, gondolas were leased to boatmen who made the rounds of the city's ferry stations.

    就像現代的計程車系統 船夫租賃貢多拉行遍城內的各個渡口

  • Passengers paid a fare to be carried from one side of the Grand Canal to the other,

    乘客要付一筆船費 從大運河的一邊到另一邊

  • as well as to other points around the city.


  • But gondoliers soon developed a bad rap.


  • Historical documents describe numerous infractions involving boatmen, including cursing, gambling, extorting passengerseven occasional acts of violence.

    歷史文件描述了多種 牽涉船夫的違法事件包括詛咒、賭博、敲詐乘客甚至偶爾還有暴力事件發生

  • To minimize the unpredictability of canal travel,


  • Venetian citizens who could afford it, purchased their own gondolas,

    負擔得起的威尼斯人 都買了自己的貢多拉

  • just as a celebrity might use a private car and driver today.


  • These wealthy Venetians hired two private gondoliers to ferry them around the city and maintain their boats.

    這些有錢的威尼斯人雇用兩名 私人船夫載著他們在城內穿梭並維修他們的船

  • The gondolas soon became a status symbol, much like an expensive car,

    貢多拉很快就成為一種地位的象徵 就像昂貴的汽車

  • with custom fittings, carved and gilded ornamentation,


  • and seasonal fabrics, like silk and velvet.


  • However, the majority of gondolas seen today are black


  • because in 1562, Venetian authorities decreed that all but ceremonial gondolas be painted black in order to avoid sinfully extravagant displays.

    因為在 1562 年,威尼斯當局下令除了慶典用船 所有的貢多拉都要漆成黑色以避免不道德的過度奢華

  • Apparently, Venetian authorities did not believe in "pimping their rides."

    很明顯,威尼斯當局並不相信 「愛船大改造」這玩意!

  • Still, some wealthy Venetians chose to pay the fines

    儘管如此,一些有錢的威尼斯人 還是選擇付罰款

  • in order to maintain their ornamental gondolas,


  • a small price to keep up appearances.


  • The distinctive look of the gondola developed over many centuries.

    貢多拉特殊的外觀 經過多個世紀演變而來

  • Each gondola was constructed in a family boatyard called a 'squero.'

    每一艘貢多拉都由家庭式的 小船廠造出,稱為「斯奎諾」

  • From their fathers and grandfathers, sons learned how to select and season

    兒子們從父親和祖父那裡 學到如何選擇及乾燥木料

  • pieces of beech, cherry, elm, fir, larch, lime, mahogany, oak, and walnut.

    如櫸木、櫻木、榆木、杉木、落葉松 椴木、桃木、橡木及胡桃木

  • The gondola makers began with a wooden template


  • that may have been hammered into the workshop floor generations earlier.

    早在幾世代前就已製好 放入車間地板上

  • From this basic form, they attached fore and aft sterns,

    從這個基本型 他們再加上船艏及船艉

  • then formed the longitudinal planks and ribs that made up the frame


  • of a boat designed to glide through shallow, narrow canals.


  • A gondola has no straight lines or edges.


  • Its familiar profile was achieved through an impressive fire and water process that involved warping the boards with torches made of marsh reeds set ablaze.

    熟悉的船體側面要經由一段 令人驚嘆的水火處理來達成這包括以燃燒的蘆葦火炬翹曲木板

  • However, the majority of the 500 hours that went into building a gondola


  • involved the final stages:


  • preparing surfaces and applying successive coats of waterproof varnish.


  • The varnish was a family recipe, as closely guarded as one for risotto

    防水漆是祖傳秘方 就像義大利燉飯食譜

  • or a homemade sauce.


  • Yet even with the woodwork finished, the gondola was still not complete.

    但即使完成了木工 貢多拉仍然只是半成品

  • Specialized artisans supplied their gondola-making colleagues


  • with elaborate covered passenger compartments,


  • upholstery, and ornaments of steel and brass.


  • Oar makers became integral partners to the gondola makers.

    槳的製造者是貢多拉製造商 不可或缺的夥伴

  • The Venetian oarlock, or 'fórcola,' began as a simple wooden fork,

    威尼斯槳架,或稱「弗考拉」 最初只是一個簡單的木製叉狀物

  • but evolved into a high-precision tool that allowed a gondolier


  • to guide the oar into many positions.


  • By the late 1800s,


  • gondola makers began to make the left side of the gondola wider than the right

    貢多拉製造者開始將貢多拉左側 做得比右側寬一點

  • as a counter balance to the force created by a single gondolier.


  • This modification allowed rowers to steer from the right side only,


  • and without lifting the oar from the water.


  • While these modifications improved gondola travel,


  • they were not enough to keep pace with motorized boats.


  • Today, only about 400 gondolas glide through the waterways of Venice,

    今天,只剩約四百艘貢多拉 還在威尼斯的水道上滑行

  • and each year, fewer authentic gondolas are turned out by hand.


  • But along the alleys, street signs contain words in Venetian dialect


  • for the locations of old boatyards, oar makers, and ferry stations,

    指示著老船廠、槳製造商 及渡輪站的地點

  • imprinting the memory of the boat-building trades


  • that once kept life in the most serene republic gliding along at a steady clip.


If I say, "Venice," do you imagine yourself gliding down the Grand Canal,

如果我說「威尼斯」 你會不會想到自己在大運河順流而下


影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

C1 高級 中文 TED-Ed 威尼斯 水道 製造 製造商 乘客

【TED-Ed】腐敗、財富與美。威尼斯貢多拉的歷史--勞拉-莫雷利。 (【TED-Ed】Corruption, wealth and beauty: The history of the Venetian gondola - Laura Morelli)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日