Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • I live in Washington, D.C.,

    我住在華盛頓特區。

  • but I grew up in Sindhekela, a village in Orissa, in India.

    但我在「辛西克拉」長大,

  • My father was a government worker.

    這是印度奧里薩邦的一個村莊。

  • My mother could not read or write, but she

    我爸是公務員。

  • would say to me, "A king is worshipped only in his

    我媽不識字,

  • own kingdom. A poet is respected everywhere."

    但她告訴我:

  • So I wanted to be a poet when I grew up.

    「一個國王只受他的子民景仰,

  • But I almost didn't go to college

    但一名詩人會受眾人愛戴。」

  • until an aunt offered financial help.

    所以我長大就想當詩人。

  • I went to study in Sambalpur,

    但我本來上不了大學,

  • the largest town in the region,

    直到一個阿姨資助我的學費。

  • where, already in college, I saw a television for the first time.

    我在「桑巴坡」唸書,

  • I had dreams of going to the United States

    那是邦裡的最大城。

  • for higher studies.

    那時,已經要上大學的我,

  • When the opportunity came,

    生平第一次看電視。

  • I crossed two oceans, with borrowed money

    我當時還想去美國進修。

  • for airfare and only a $20 bill in my pocket.

    所以機會一來,

  • In the U.S., I worked in a research center,

    我就決定跨越兩大洋。

  • part-time, while taking graduate classes in economics.

    借錢買了機票,

  • And with the little I earned, I would

    口袋只剩一張 20 美元。

  • finance myself and then I would send

    到了美國,

  • money home to my brother and my father.

    我在研究中心打工,

  • My story is not unique.

    同時攻讀經濟研究所。

  • There are millions of people who migrate each year.

    雖然賺得不多,

  • With the help of the family, they cross oceans,

    但扣掉自己的開銷,

  • they cross deserts, they cross rivers, they cross mountains.

    我還寄錢回家給爸爸、弟弟。

  • They risk their lives to realize a dream,

    我不是特例。

  • and that dream is as simple as having a

    每年有幾百萬的移工

  • decent job somewhere so they can send money home

    靠著家人幫忙,

  • and help the family,

    橫渡海洋、穿越沙漠、

  • which has helped them before.

    渡過溪流、翻過高山。

  • There are 232 million international migrants in the world.

    他們用生命實現夢想,

  • These are people who live in a country

    一個單純卑微的夢:

  • other than their country of birth.

    找份正當的工作,

  • If there was a country made up of

    然後寄錢回家、幫忙分擔,

  • only international migrants,

    報答家人之前的幫忙。

  • that would be larger, in population,

    全球有 2 億 3200 萬的移民。

  • than Brazil.

    他們住在出生地之外的陌生國度。

  • That would be larger, in its size

    如果把所有移民

  • of the economy, than France.

    聚在一起變成一個國家,

  • Some 180 million of them, from poor countries,

    它的人口會比巴西還多。

  • send money home regularly.

    就經濟規模來說,

  • Those sums of money are called remittances.

    比法國還大。

  • Here is a fact that might surprise you:

    其中 1 億 8000 萬的弱勢國移民

  • 413 billion dollars, 413 billion dollars

    會固定寄錢回家鄉。

  • was the amount of remittances sent last year

    我們統稱這些錢為「僑匯」。

  • by migrants to developing countries.

    告訴你驚人的事實:

  • Migrants from developing countries,

    4130 億美元

  • money sent to developing countries

    是去年發展中國家移民

  • 413 billion dollars.

    寄回家的僑匯金額。

  • That's a remarkable number because

    發展中國家的移工

  • that is three times the size of

    把錢寄回發展中國家,

  • the total of development aid money.

    這金額高達 4130 億美元。

  • And yet, you and I,

    會說「高達」是因為,

  • my colleagues in Washington,

    這是已開發國家給予的

  • we endlessly debate and

    發展援助的三倍。

  • discuss about development aid,

    但是你和我,

  • while we ignore remittances as small change.

    還有我在華盛頓的同事,

  • True, people send 200 dollars per month,

    以往不斷地辯證、

  • on average. But, repeated month after month,

    討論發展援助,

  • by millions of people,

    卻忽略僑匯帶來的改變。

  • these sums of money add up to rivers of foreign currency.

    沒錯,每人平均每個月只寄 200 美元,

  • So India, last year, received 72 billion dollars, larger than

    但幾百萬人、月復一月地寄,

  • its IT exports.

    累積成一筆可觀的外匯。

  • In Egypt remittances are three times

    像印度去年,

  • the size of revenues from the Suez Canal.

    就收到 720 億美元僑匯,

  • In Tajikistan, remittances are 42 percent of GDP.

    比其 IT 產業的出口還要多。

  • And in poorer countries, smaller countries, fragile countries,

    在埃及,僑匯相當於

  • conflict-afflicted countries, remittances are a lifeline,

    蘇伊士運河的 3 倍收入。

  • as in Somalia or in Haiti.

    在塔吉克,僑匯佔 GDP 的 42%。

  • No wonder these flows have huge

    在更窮的、更小、更脆弱、

  • impacts on economies and on poor people.

    受戰亂摧殘的國家,僑匯是命脈,

  • Remittances, unlike private investment money,

    像是索馬利亞或海地。

  • they don't flow back at the first

    怪不得這股錢潮

  • sign of trouble in the country.

    對經濟和窮人有這麼大的影響。

  • They actually act like an insurance.

    僑匯和私人投資不一樣,

  • When the family is in trouble,

    它不會因為國家發生問題

  • facing hardship, facing hard times,

    就停止流入;

  • remittances increase, they act like an insurance.

    反而比較像保險。

  • Migrants send more money then.

    如果家裡有困難,

  • Unlike development aid money,

    碰到瓶頸、遇到難關,

  • that must go through official agencies,

    僑匯還會增加,像保險一樣;

  • through governments, remittances

    移民寄更多錢回家。

  • directly reach the poor,

    跟發展援助不一樣,

  • reach the family,

    它不必透過公家單位、政府。

  • and often with business advice.

    僑匯直接送到窮人手中、

  • So in Nepal, the share of poor

    送到家戶手中,

  • people was 42 percent in 1995,

    通常移工還教家人怎麼運用。

  • the share of poor people in the population.

    在尼泊爾,

  • By 2005, a decade later, at a

    1995 年窮人佔 42%,

  • time of political crisis, economic crisis,

    是窮人在總人口的比例。

  • the share of poor people went down to 31 percent.

    10 年後的 2005 年,

  • That decline in poverty, most of it,

    當政治、經濟危機四起,

  • about half of it, is believed to be

    窮人比例降到 31%。

  • because of remittances from India,

    貧窮比例下降,很大一部份,

  • another poor country.

    至少一半以上歸功於

  • In El Salvador, the school dropout

    來自印度或其他地方的僑匯。

  • rate among children is lower

    在薩爾瓦多,

  • in families that receive remittances.

    收到僑匯的家庭,

  • In Mexico and Sri Lanka,

    學童輟學率比較低。

  • the birth weight of children is higher

    在墨西哥和斯里蘭卡,

  • among families that receive remittances.

    收到僑匯的家庭,

  • Remittances are dollars wrapped with care.

    嬰兒出生體重比較高。

  • Migrants send money home for food,

    僑匯飽含著關懷。

  • for buying necessities, for building houses,

    移工想讓家人買食物、

  • for funding education, for funding

    買生活必需品、蓋房子,

  • healthcare for the elderly, for business

    讓小孩子受教育、

  • investments for friends and family.

    讓老人家看醫生、

  • Migrants send even more money home

    投資家人朋友做生意。

  • for special occasions like a surgery

    移工會為特殊情況寄更多錢回家,

  • or a wedding. And migrants also send

    例如手術或婚禮。

  • money, perhaps far too many times,

    移工還會在更多時候,

  • for unexpected funerals that

    為突如其來的葬禮寄錢回家,

  • they cannot attend.

    彌補他們缺席的遺憾。

  • Much as these flows do all that good,

    僑匯能帶來以上的效益,

  • there are barriers to these

    但僑匯還是會受到限制,

  • flows of remittances, these

    限制這 4000 億美元的流動。

  • 400 billion dollars of remittances.

    其中最主要的,

  • Foremost among them is

    是昂貴的寄送費用。

  • the exorbitant cost of sending money home.

    轉匯公司訂出高價

  • Money transfer companies structure

    去壓榨窮人。

  • their fees to milk the poor.

    他們會說:「交易低於 500 美元,

  • They will say, "Up to 500 dollars

    如果要寄的話,固定收 30 美元。」

  • if you want to send, we will charge you

    如果你就是窮,只有 200 美元要寄,

  • 30 dollars fixed."

    你就要付 30 塊的手續費。

  • If you are poor and if you have only 200 dollars to send,

    全球平均的轉匯費用是 8%。

  • you have to pay that $30 fee.

    也就是如果你寄 100 塊,

  • The global average cost of sending

    遠鄉的家人只會收到 92 塊。

  • money is eight percent.

    如果是寄到非洲,

  • That means you send 100 dollars,

    收費更高,12%。

  • the family on the other side receives only

    非洲國家間互寄

  • 92 dollars.

    收費還要再高,

  • To send money to Africa,

    達 20% 以上。

  • the cost is even higher:

    比如說從貝南寄到奈及利亞。

  • 12 percent.

    如果是委內瑞拉,

  • To send money within Africa,

    因為外幣交易管制,

  • the cost is even higher:

    寄 100 塊然後夠幸運的話,

  • over 20 percent.

    你的家人可能還能收到 10 塊。

  • For example, sending money from Benin to Nigeria.

    理所當然,沒人用官方管道

  • And then there is the case of Venezuela, where,

    寄錢到委內瑞拉。

  • because of exchange controls,

    都是偷偷裝皮箱運進去。

  • you send 100 dollars and you

    只要官方收費高,

  • are lucky if the family on the other side

    大家就走後門。

  • receives even 10 dollars.

    更糟的是,

  • Of course, nobody sends money to Venezuela

    很多開發中國家其實

  • through the official channel.

    明文禁止私自匯錢到國外。

  • It all goes in suitcases.

    很多富裕國家也明文禁止

  • Whereever costs are high,

    把錢匯到特定國家。

  • money goes underground.

    所以真的別無選擇嗎?

  • And what is worse,

    沒有更好、更便宜的方式轉匯?

  • many developing countries actually

    有。

  • have a blanket ban on sending money

    肯亞的 M-Pesa 公司讓大家

  • out of the country.

    無論匯出或匯入,

  • Many rich nations also have a

    每筆交易固定收 60 分。

  • blanket ban on sending money to specific countries.

    美國聯準會和墨西哥合作,

  • So, is it that there are no options,

    讓貨幣服務企業

  • no better options, cheaper options, to send money?

    轉匯到墨西哥可以用

  • There are.

    每筆交易固定收 67 分的費用。

  • M-Pesa in Kenya enables people to send money

    然而,這些更快、更便宜、更好的方式,

  • and receive money at a fixed cost of only

    還是沒辦法普及到全球。

  • 60 cents per transaction.

    因為難免有洗錢的嫌疑。

  • U.S. Fed started a program with Mexico

    儘管沒什麼資料可以證明,

  • to enable money service businesses

    任何關聯、顯著的關聯,

  • to send money to Mexico

    說明洗錢和這些小額僑匯有關。

  • for a fixed cost of only 67 cents per transaction.

    現在很多跨國銀行

  • And yet, these faster, cheaper, better options

    留意到貨幣服務戶頭這塊業務,

  • can't be applied internationally

    特別是在索馬利亞。

  • because of the fear of money laundering,

    索馬利亞的人均收入

  • even though there is little data

    是每年 250 美元。

  • to support any connection, any significant

    一年才 250 美元喔!

  • connection between money laundering

    每個月匯入的平均僑匯

  • and these small remittance transactions.

    遠遠超過那個數字。

  • Many international banks now

    僑匯是索馬利亞的命脈。

  • are wary of hosting bank accounts

    但這就是一個例子:

  • of money service businesses, especially

    人前說要幫助他們,

  • those serving Somalia.

    人後卻用管制的大刀,

  • Somalia, a country where the

    切斷經濟活動的動脈。

  • per capita income is only 250 dollars per year.

    或是像我這種鄉下來的窮人,

  • Monthly remittances, on average, to Somalia

    在小村子,

  • is larger than that amount.

    能領到錢的地方只有郵局。

  • Remittances are the lifeblood of Somalia.

    世界上大多數政府,

  • And yet, this is an example of

    都會允許郵局

  • the right hand giving a lot of aid,

    和轉匯公司有專屬合作關係。

  • while the left hand is cutting the lifeblood

    所以若我想寄錢給鄉下的爸爸,

  • to that economy, through regulations.

    我只能去找那間轉匯公司,

  • Then there is the case of poor people from villages, like me.

    就算它收費很高。

  • In the villages, the only place where you can

    我沒得選。

  • get money is through the post office.

    這必須要改變。

  • Most of the governments in the world

    所以國際組織和

  • have allowed their post offices to have

    社會企業要怎麼做,

  • exclusive partnerships with money transfer companies.

    才能改善這個現象呢?

  • So, if I have to send money to my

    首先,

  • father in the village, I must send money

    放鬆千元以下的小額僑匯管制。

  • through that particular money transfer company,

    政府應該要認知到

  • even if the cost is high.

    小額僑匯不是洗錢。

  • I cannot go to a cheaper option.

    其次,

  • This has to go.

    政府應該要取消

  • So, what can international organizations and

    郵局和特定業者的壟斷合作。

  • social entrepreneurs do to reduce the cost

    如此一來,

  • of sending money home?

    郵局和其他大銀行的合作網路

  • First, relax regulations on small remittances under 1,000 dollars.

    才更能服務貧窮人口。

  • Governments should recognize that

    事實上,應該增加競爭,

  • small remittances are not money laundering.

    創造更多合作可能,

  • Second, governments should abolish exclusive partnerships

    才能讓成本下降,

  • between their post office and the money transfer company.

    就像現在的電信業服務。

  • For that matter, between the post office

    大家都親身體驗到了。

  • and any national banking system that

    第三點,大型非營利慈善機構

  • has a large network that serves the poor.

    應該在非營利的基礎上,

  • In fact, they should promote competition,

    設立僑匯平台。

  • open up the partnership so that

    創立非營利的僑匯平台,

  • we will bring down costs like we did,

    幫忙轉匯公司。

  • like they did, in the telecommunications industry.

    才能以較低的費用提供服務,

  • You have seen what has happened there.

    同時也符合各國間複雜的規定。

  • Third, large nonprofit philanthropic organizations

    已開發國家也應該

  • should create a remittance platform

    設立減少轉匯費用的目標:

  • on a nonprofit basis.

    從現在的 8% 到 1%。

  • They should create a nonprofit

    如果能降到 1%,

  • remittance platform to serve the money transfer

    每年就能多出 300 億美元。

  • companies so that they can send money at a low cost,

    300 億美元比他們每年

  • while complying with all the complex

    給非洲的雙邊援助還要多。

  • regulations all over the world.

    至少相等甚至超過

  • The development community should

    全球最大的金援國,

  • set a goal of reducing remittance costs

    美國政府的援助預算。

  • to one percent from the current eight percent.

    事實上不只多 300 億,

  • If we reduce costs to one percent,

    因為僑匯的管道

  • that would release a saving of 30 billion dollars per year.

    也會用做援助、貿易和投資用途。

  • Thirty billion dollars, that's larger than the entire

    另一個影響

  • bilateral aid budget going to Africa per year.

    僑匯送達家戶的主要障礙,

  • That is larger than, or almost similar to,

    是為數眾多、高昂、非法的

  • the total aid budget of the United States government,

    仲介代辦費,

  • the largest donor on the planet.

    移工會付錢給仲介,

  • Actually, the savings would be larger

    讓他們幫忙介紹工作。

  • than that 30 billion because remittance channels

    我幾年前在杜拜,

  • are also used for aid, trade and investment purposes.

    探視一個移工營。

  • Another major impediment to the

    晚上 8 點,裡面又暗又熱又濕。

  • flow of remittances reaching the family

    工人們才剛卸下

  • is the large and exorbitant

    一整天工作的勞頓。

  • and illegal cost of recruitment,

    我和一個孟加拉來的

  • fees that migrants pay, migrant workers

    建築工人聊天。

  • pay to laborers who found them the job.

    他來工作就打算要寄錢回家。

  • I was in Dubai a few years ago.

    他已經一連寄好幾個月了,

  • I visited a camp for workers.

    然後大部分的錢

  • It was 8 in the evening, dark, hot, humid.

    都付給帶他來杜拜和

  • Workers were coming back from

    幫他找工作的仲介。

  • their grueling day of work,

    我腦海中可以想像,

  • and I struck a conversation

    他每個月等著錢的妻子。

  • with a Bangladeshi construction worker.

    當錢寄到家,

  • He was preoccupied that he is sending

    她拿著領到的錢交給仲介,

  • money home, he has been

    然後孩子在旁邊目睹一切。

  • sending money home for a few months now,

    這必須停止。

  • and the money is mostly going

    不只是孟加拉來的建築工人,

  • to the recruitment agent, to the labor agent

    是對所有工人。

  • who found him that job.

    有數百萬的移工正面臨這種處境。

  • And in my mind, I could picture

    孟加拉來的建築工人,

  • the wife waiting for

    每人平均要付 4000 美元仲介費,

  • the monthly remittance.

    但他一年只賺 2000 美元。

  • The remittance arrives.

    意思就是生命中有兩三年,

  • She takes the money and hands

    基本上就是寄錢回家,

  • it over to the recruitment agent,

    直接付給仲介。

  • while the children are looking on.

    家人連錢的影子都看不到。

  • This has