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  • Long before Descartes famously declared, "I think, therefore I am,"

    早在笛卡兒說出「我思,故我在」的名言前

  • and long after that,

    以及那之後許久

  • scientists and philosophers alike

    科學家和哲學家們

  • have puzzled over what they call the mind-body problem.

    都有一個他們稱之為「心物問題」

  • Is the mind some separate, non-material entity piloting a machine of flesh?

    到底心智是與肉體分離且非物質的一種存在嗎?

  • Or if it's just a particularly elusive part of our physical body,

    或者它是我們肉體中特別難以捉摸的一個部分?

  • how can it translate the input of our animal senses

    我們如何能將我們的動物性感官輸入的資訊轉譯

  • into the seemingly non-physical experiences that we call thoughts?

    成似乎非體感經驗的,我們稱之為想法的東西呢?

  • But though the answers have been debated endlessly,

    但儘管對於解答的爭論從未停止過

  • new research suggests that part of the problem lies

    新的研究指出部分的問題在於我們

  • in how we pose the question in the first place,

    如何在最初界定這個命題時就被決定了

  • assuming a distinction between our sensory perception and our ideas

    也就是假設我們的感覺感知和我們的想法中存在一個差異這個論述

  • that may not really be there.

    也許不是真實存在的

  • The traditional model of our mental function

    傳統的心智運作模型

  • has been that the senses provide separate data to our brain

    是說感覺器官各自提供資訊給我們的大腦

  • which are then translated into the appropriate mental phenomena:

    然後大腦轉譯成適當的心智現象:

  • visual images into trees, auditory experiences into bird songs, and so on.

    樹的視覺影像,鳥鳴的聽覺經驗,以及其他的等等

  • But occasionally, we have come across people

    但偶而,我們會遇到一些人

  • whose senses seem to mingle together, allowing them to hear colors,

    這些人的感官似乎糾結在一塊兒,讓他們能夠聽到顏色

  • or taste sounds.

    或者嘗到聲音等等

  • Until recently, the common understanding was that this phenomenon,

    直到最近,普遍對於這種現象的了解

  • called synesthesia,

    叫做「聯感」

  • was a direct connection between the parts of the brain

    是一個大腦中負責感知像是看見黃色的刺激的部份

  • responsible for sensory stimuli such as

    直接和

  • seeing the color yellow immediately upon hearing the tone of b flat.

    聽見降b大調的聽覺反應連結在一起

  • But newer studies have shown that synesthesia

    但從未有研究顯示「聯感」

  • is actually mediated through our understanding

    真的中介於我們的感官所接收到的形狀、顏色和聲音

  • of the shapes, colors and sounds that our senses apprehend.

    的了解過程。

  • In order for the cross-sensory experiences to occur,

    為了要體驗交叉感知經驗的存在

  • the higher level ideas and concepts that our minds associate

    在我們的心智處理更高層想法和概念時

  • with the sensory input must be activated.

    我們的對外界刺激的感官接收必須是很活躍的

  • For example, this shape can be seen as either the letter "s" or the number "5"

    舉例來說,這個形狀可以被當做字母"s"或者數字"5"

  • and synesthetes associate each with different colors or sounds

    而具有「聯感」的人連結儘管視覺上的刺激保持不變

  • based on how they interpret it

    仍然會依據他自己如何轉譯不同的顏色或聲音

  • despite the purely visual stimulus remaining identical.

    來做出連結和判斷

  • In another study, synesthetes created novel color associations

    在另一個研究中,具有「聯覺」的人

  • for unfamiliar letters after learning what the letters were.

    在學習這些字母的意義之後

  • So because it relies on a connection between ideas and senses,

    會對這些一開始不熟悉的字母創造新奇的顏色來做連結

  • this mental phenomenon underlying synesthesia

    對這個聯覺的心智創造的現象

  • is known as ideasthesia.

    我們稱之為 ideasthesia

  • Synesthesia only occurs in some people,

    儘管也許比之前我們認為的要普遍

  • although it may be more common than previously thought.

    「聯覺」的現象也只在部分的人身上出現

  • But ideasthesia itself is a fundamental part of our lives.

    但是ideasthesia本身就是我們生活中的基礎一部分

  • Virtually all of us recognize the color red as warm and blue as cold.

    幾乎我們所有人都會認為紅色是溫暖的顏色而藍色是冰冷的顏色

  • Many would agree that bright colors, italic letters and thin lines

    許多人可能會同意明亮的顏色,斜體字和細線

  • are high-pitched,

    可以歸類到高音調的類別

  • while earth tones are low-pitched.

    而泥土若有音調的話應該是屬於低音部的

  • And while many of these associations are acquired through cultural exposure,

    而當這些許多連結都與文化的浸潤度有關

  • others have been demonstrated even in infants and apes,

    其他連結甚至存在於嬰孩和猩猩之中

  • suggesting that at least some associations are inborn.

    也暗示著至少某些連結的能力是天生的

  • When asked to choose between two possible names for these shapes,

    當被要求在這幾個不同形狀之間選擇兩個可能的名字

  • people from entirely different cultural and language backgrounds

    不同文化和語言背景的人就會做出完全不同的選擇

  • overwhelmingly agree that "kiki" is the spiky star,

    以壓倒性的票數同意"kiki"是刺刺的星星形狀

  • while "bouba" is the rounded blob,

    而"bouba"是圓鈍的blob

  • both because of the sounds themselves and the shapes our mouths make

    都由於我們對這些字的發音以及發音時嘴巴的形狀

  • to produce them.

    有關係

  • And this leads to even more associations

    而因此有更多因為語意網而生成的

  • within a rich semantic network.

    連結出現

  • Kiki is described as nervous and clever,

    kiki被認為用來描述緊張和聰明

  • while bouba is perceived as lazy and slow.

    而bouba被看做懶惰和緩慢

  • What all of this suggests is that our everyday experiences

    這些全部都在暗示一件事情

  • of colors, sounds and other stimuli do not live on separate sensory islands

    我們對於顏色、聲音和其他刺激的日常生活經驗

  • but are organized in a network of associations

    並不是在一個彼此不連接的「感覺島」上運作

  • similar to our language network.

    而是像我們的語言網路一樣形成網絡連結的組織

  • This is what enables us to understand metaphors

    這讓我們能夠了解寓意

  • even though they make no logical sense,

    即使這些並不具有邏輯感

  • such as the comparison of snow to a white blanket,

    就像是白色的毛毯比喻成白雪

  • based on the shared sensations of softness and lightness.

    基於我們共通的對雪的感受是帶著柔軟和白亮,就如白色毛毯一樣

  • Ideasthesia may even be crucial to art,

    由於藝術依靠的勢將概念話的想法與情緒的具象結合

  • which relies on a synthesis of the conceptual and the emotional.

    所以ideasthesia也許對於其發展是舉足輕重的

  • In great art, idea and aesthesia enhance each other,

    在偉大的藝術中,想法和覺受相互輝映

  • whether it's song lyrics combining perfectly with a melody,

    無論是歌詞和完美、美妙的旋律的結合

  • the thematic content of a painting

    主題性強烈的畫作

  • heightened by its use of colors and brushstrokes,

    被用色和筆觸畫龍點睛

  • or the well constructed plot of a novel

    或者細密交織的小說

  • conveyed through perfectly crafted sentences.

    由完美無暇的詞句傳達出來

  • Most importantly, the network of associations formed by ideasethesia

    最重要地,由ideasethesia形成的網絡連結

  • may not only be similar to our linguistic network

    也許不僅僅是和我們的語言網絡類似的系統

  • but may, in fact, be an integral part of it.

    而也許,事實上,是它整體的其中一部分

  • Rather than the traditional view,

    不同於傳統的觀點

  • where our senses first capture a collection of colors and shapes,

    即我們的感官首先捕捉一組顏色和形狀

  • or some vibrations in the air,

    或者一些空氣中的震動

  • and our mind then classifies them as a tree or a siren,

    而後我們的心智將那些訊息分類界定為樹或者是警笛聲響

  • ideasthesia suggests that the two processes occur simultaneously.

    ideasthesia 暗指這兩個過程其實是同時發生地

  • Our sensory perceptions are shaped by our conceptual understanding of the world.

    我們的感覺覺知由我們對世界的概念性了解而勾勒出來

  • and the two are so connected that one cannot exist without the other.

    而這兩者是如此緊密連結以致於任何一個都無法獨立於世

  • If this model suggested by ideasthesia is accurate,

    若ideasthesia暗指的這個模型是正確的

  • it may have major implications for some of the biggest

    這也許會對於某些圍繞著研究心智的最大的科學和哲學議題

  • scientific and philosophical issues surrounding the study of mind.

    帶來許多見解、啟示

  • Without a preexisting concept of self,

    若少了預設存在自我的這個概念

  • Descartes would not have had an "I" to attribute the thinking to.

    笛卡兒可能無法擁有「我」來貢獻對於其他事物的思考

  • And without a preexisting network of interrelated and distinct concepts,

    而少若了對於不同和彼此關連的概念網絡的預設存在

  • our sensory experience of the world would be an undifferentiated mass

    我們對世界的感覺經驗可能會是個無法分別的混沌

  • rather than the discrete objects we actually apprehend.

    而不是一群我們能夠理解接受的離散物體

  • For science, the task is to find where this network lies,

    對於科學家,找出這些網絡在哪是主要的課題

  • how it is formed, and how it interacts with external stimuli.

    找出它如何形成,且找出它如何對外部刺激做出反應

  • For philosophy, the challenge is to rethink

    對於哲學家,挑戰在於重新思索

  • what this new model of consciousness means for our understanding of our selves

    什麼是我們用來了解我們自己的新的意識模型方法

  • and our relation to the world around us.

    和我們與周遭世界的關係

Long before Descartes famously declared, "I think, therefore I am,"

早在笛卡兒說出「我思,故我在」的名言前

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 心智 顏色 感官 形狀 聯覺

【TED-Ed】意念:意念的感覺如何?- Danko Nikolić (【TED-Ed】Ideasthesia: How do ideas feel? - Danko Nikolić)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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