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  • On September 1st, 1953,

    在 1953 年 9 月 1 日

  • William Scoville used a hand crank and a cheap drill saw

    威廉·斯科維爾 (William Scoville) 以手動曲柄、便宜的鋸鑽

  • to bore into a young man's skull, cutting away vital pieces of his brain

    鑽入一個少年的頭顱 切去部份大腦關鍵區域

  • and sucking them out through a metal tube.

    並以金屬管吸出

  • But this wasn't a scene from a horror film or a gruesome police report.

    這不是恐怖片片段 或可怕的警察報告

  • Dr. Scoville was one of the most renowned neurosurgeons of his time,

    科維爾是當代最著名的 神經外科醫生之一

  • and the young man was Henry Molaison, the famous patient known as "H.M.",

    而那少年是亨利‧莫萊森 被稱為 H.M. 的名病患

  • whose case provided amazing insights into how our brains work.

    他的病例提供了 卓絕的大腦運作見解

  • As a boy, Henry had cracked his skull in an accident

    小時候,亨利的頭骨因意外破裂

  • and soon began having seizures, blacking out and losing control of bodily functions.

    不久後開始抽搐、昏厥、身體機能失控

  • After enduring years of frequent episodes, and even dropping out of high school,

    經歷了數年頻繁的發作 甚至在高中時輟學

  • the desperate young man had turned to Dr. Scoville,

    絕望的少年求治於斯柯維爾醫生

  • a daredevil known for risky surgeries.

    因高風險手術而聞名的膽大醫生

  • Partial lobotomies had been used for decades to treat mental patients

    以局部腦葉手術 治療精神病患已有幾十年

  • based on the notion that mental functions were strictly localized

    基於經神功能是局限於

  • to corresponding brain areas.

    相應腦區的想法

  • Having successfully used them to reduce seizures in psychotics,

    這手術成功的降低了 精神病患的抽搐

  • Scoville decided to remove H.M.'s hippocampus,

    斯科威爾決定切除 H.M. 的海馬體

  • a part of the limbic system that was associated with emotion

    這是與情緒有關的 大腦邊緣系統的一部份

  • but whose function was unknown.

    但其功能未知

  • At first glance, the operation had succeeded.

    起初,手術看似成功了

  • H.M.'s seizures virtually disappeared, with no change in personality,

    H.M. 的抽搐幾乎消失了 且沒性格改變

  • and his IQ even improved.

    他的智商甚至提高了

  • But there was one problem: His memory was shot.

    但有一問題 他的記憶喪失

  • Besides losing most of his memories from the previous decade,

    除了幾乎完全喪失 他前十年的記憶

  • H.M. was unable to form new ones, forgetting what day it was,

    H.M. 無法建立新的, 忘了日期、

  • repeating comments, and even eating multiple meals in a row.

    重複論談、 甚至連續吃了多餐

  • When Scoville informed another expert, Wilder Penfield, of the results,

    當斯科威爾將結果告知另一專家 懷爾德‧潘費德 (Wilder Penfield)

  • he sent a Ph.D student named Brenda Milner to study H.M. at his parents' home,

    他請博士生布朗黛‧密爾納 (Brenda Milner) 到 H.M. 父母的家研究 H.M.

  • where he now spent his days doing odd chores,

    H.M. 現在的生活是做些雜活

  • and watching classic movies for the first time, over and over.

    重複看經典影片

  • What she discovered through a series of tests and interviews

    從一系列的測試和面談

  • didn't just contribute greatly to the study of memory.

    密爾納的發現 不單對記憶研究有貢獻

  • It redefined what memory even meant.

    而重新定義了對記憶的認知

  • One of Milner's findings shed light on the obvious fact

    蜜爾納的發現 揭示了一項明顯事實

  • that although H.M. couldn't form new memories, he still retained information

    雖然 H.M. 無法建立新記憶 他能保留訊息的時間

  • long enough from moment to moment to finish a sentence or find the bathroom.

    足夠他完成一個句子 或找到廁所

  • When Milner gave him a random number,

    當密爾納給他一個隨機數

  • he managed to remember it for fifteen minutes

    他能以不斷的重複

  • by repeating it to himself constantly.

    記住這數字 15 分鐘

  • But only five minutes later, he forgot the test had even taken place.

    但僅 5 分鐘後 他就忘了被測試過

  • Neuroscientists had though of memory as monolithic,

    神經科學家原以為記憶是單石性的

  • all of it essentially the same and stored throughout the brain.

    全本質相同, 儲存於整個大腦

  • Milner's results were not only the first clue for the now familiar distinction

    蜜爾納的研究結果 並不是如今

  • between short-term and long-term memory,

    短期和長期記憶之間 區別的第一線索

  • but show that each uses different brain regions.

    但顯示它們儲存於不同腦區域

  • We now know that memory formation involves several steps.

    如今我們知道 記憶的形成有幾個步驟

  • After immediate sensory data is temporarily transcribed by neurons in the cortex,

    感覺訊息暫時在 大腦皮質神經元轉錄後

  • it travels to the hippocampus,

    轉至海馬體

  • where special proteins work to strengthen the cortical synaptic connections.

    那有特殊蛋白質 加強皮質突觸連接

  • If the experience was strong enough,

    如果是夠強烈的經歷

  • or we recall it periodically in the first few days,

    或在經歷後幾天間斷回憶

  • the hippocampus then transfers the memory back to the cortex for permanent storage.

    海馬體則將記憶 轉回皮質做長期儲存

  • H.M.'s mind could form the initial impressions,

    H.M. 的腦裡能形成初步印象

  • but without a hippocampus to perform this memory consolidation,

    但沒海馬體執行記憶內存

  • they eroded, like messages scrawled in sand.

    記憶受侵蝕,猶如寫在沙上的訊息

  • But this was not the only memory distinction Milner found.

    但密爾納發現記憶區別不只如此

  • In a now famous experiment, she asked H.M. to trace a third star

    在一個現在著名的實驗中, 她請 H.M.

  • in the narrow space between the outlines of two concentric ones

    在兩個同心的星星 輪廓之間狹小空間中

  • while he could only see his paper and pencil through a mirror.

    看著鏡子描繪出第三個星星

  • Like anyone else performing such an awkward task for the first time,

    就如其他人, 首次做這有難度的作業

  • he did horribly.

    他做得很糟

  • But surprisingly, he improved over repeated trials,

    但出乎意料的, 在反覆試驗後,他進步了

  • even though he had no memory of previous attempts.

    雖然他並無先前嘗試的記憶

  • His unconscious motor centers remembered what the conscious mind had forgotten.

    他無意識的運動中樞記得 被有意識神志遺忘的

  • What Milner had discovered was that the declarative memory of names, dates and facts

    蜜爾納所發現的是 姓名、日期、事實等陳述性記憶

  • is different from the procedural memory of riding a bicycle or signing your name.

    有別於如何騎腳踏車、 簽名等的程序性記憶

  • And we now know that procedural memory

    現今我們知道程序性記憶

  • relies more on the basal ganglia and cerebellum,

    大都依賴基底核與小腦

  • structures that were intact in H.M.'s brain.

    這些結構在 H.M. 腦中是完整的

  • This distinction between "knowing that" and "knowing how"

    從此「知道」和「知道如何」的區別

  • has underpinned all memory research since.

    成為記憶研究的根本

  • H.M. died at the age of 82 after a mostly peaceful life in a nursing home.

    H.M. 的人生大都平靜的 在養老院度過,享年 82 歲

  • Over the years, he had been examined by more than 100 neuroscientists,

    多年來, 他被超過 100 名神經學家研究過

  • making his the most studied mind in history.

    是歷史上經歷最廣泛研究的大腦

  • Upon his death, his brain was preserved and scanned

    他死後, 在有 40 萬人觀看的現場直播中

  • before being cut into over 2000 individual slices

    他的大腦被保存、掃描、

  • and photographed to form a digital map down to the level of individual neurons,

    切成了 2,000 多個切片

  • all in a live broadcast watched by 400,000 people.

    拍攝成有單神經元解析度的電子腦地圖

  • Though H.M. spent most of his life forgetting things,

    雖然 H.M. 的一生幾乎是在遺忘中度過

  • he and his contributions to our understanding of memory

    但他對理解記憶的貢獻

  • will be remembered for generations to come.

    將會永世的被記住

On September 1st, 1953,

在 1953 年 9 月 1 日

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 記憶 大腦 皮質 抽搐 手術

【TED-Ed】當你移除海馬體時會發生什麼?- Sam Kean (【TED-Ed】What happens when you remove the hippocampus? - Sam Kean)

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