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  • It's only been the last few hundreds years or so

    近幾百年來

  • that Western civilization has been putting art in museums,

    西方文明世界開始將藝術品放入博物館收藏。

  • at least museums resembling

    最起碼是在類似博物館

  • the public institutions we know today.

    這種我們現今所知的公眾組織展出。

  • Before this, for most, art served other purposes.

    在這之前,多數而言,藝術以其他目的存在。

  • What we call fine art today

    我們現在所稱的「美術」

  • was, in fact, primarily how people experienced

    事實上,主要是人們對於

  • an aesthetic dimension of religion.

    宗教審美的體驗。

  • Paintings, sculpture, textiles and illuminations

    繪畫、雕塑、紡織品和燈飾

  • were the media of their time,

    都是當時的媒介。

  • supplying vivid imagery

    提供生動的想像

  • to accompany the stories of the day.

    伴隨當時的故事。

  • In this sense, Western art

    這樣的概念下,其實西方藝術

  • shared a utilitarian purpose

    和世上其他文化

  • with other cultures around the world,

    有共同的功利性目的。

  • some of whose languages incidentally have no word for art.

    某些語言並沒有詞彙可以稱呼「藝術」

  • So how do we define what we call art?

    所以我們該如何定義所謂的「藝術」?

  • Generally speaking, what we're talking about here

    普遍來講,我們所指的是

  • is work that visually communicates

    視覺傳達凌駕於語言之上

  • meaning beyond language,

    所代表的意義。

  • either through representation

    不是透過象徵

  • or the arrangement of visual elements in space.

    不然就是視覺元素的空間組合。

  • Evidence of this power of iconography,

    意象力量的證據

  • or ability of images to convey meaning,

    或是圖畫意象傳達的能力

  • can be found in abundance.

    這些元素都很豐富。

  • if we look at art from

    如果我們藉由世界的主要信仰歷史

  • the histories of our major world religions.

    一窺藝術的發展。

  • Almost all have, at one time or another in their history,

    幾乎所有的宗教,都曾經或一度

  • gone through some sort of aniconic phase.

    經歷過某種反對偶像的階段。

  • Aniconism prohibits any visual depiction of the divine.

    無偶像論禁止描繪任何神祉。

  • This is done in order to avoid idolatry,

    這麼做是為了避免偶像崇拜

  • or confusion between the representation of divinity and divinity itself.

    或避免造成神與畫像之間的混淆。

  • Keeping it real, so to speak,

    其實來講

  • in the relationship between the individual and the divine.

    是為了保持人與神之間關係的真實性。

  • However, this can be a challenge to maintain,

    然而,要維持並不簡單

  • given that the urge to visually represent and interpret

    考量到人們慣於以視覺傳達、詮釋

  • the world around us.

    周遭的世界。

  • is a compulsion difficult to suppress.

    這是很難壓抑的本能。

  • For example, even today,

    例如,即使到今天

  • where the depiction of Allah or the Prophet Muhammad is prohibited,

    雖然禁止描繪真主或穆罕默德的模樣

  • an abstract celebration of the divine

    卻有抽象的方式可以傳達。

  • can still be found in arabesque patterns of Islamic textile design,

    現今仍存在於阿拉伯式的伊斯蘭紡織品。

  • with masterful flourishes of brushwork

    以不凡的筆觸

  • and Arabic calligraphy,

    和阿拉伯文書法

  • where the words of the prophet

    將先知所言

  • assume a dual role as both literature and visual art.

    同時以文學及視覺藝術呈現。

  • Likewise, in art from the early periods

    同樣的,基督教和佛教的

  • of Christianity and Buddhism,

    早期發展中

  • the divine presence of the Christ and the Buddha

    耶穌與佛祖的存在

  • do not appear in human form

    並不是人的型態

  • but are represented by symbols.

    而是以符號來象徵。

  • In each case,

    在這個情況下

  • iconographic reference is employed

    引用圖像

  • as a form of reverence.

    是一種崇敬。

  • Anthropomorphic representation,

    擬人化

  • or depiction in human form,

    或人像描繪

  • eventually became widespread in these religions.

    最終在這些宗教中廣為流傳。

  • Only centuries later,

    幾世紀後

  • under the influence of the cultural traditions surrounding them.

    在他們周遭的文化傳統影響下才變普遍。

  • Historically speaking,

    歷史上來講

  • the public appreciation of visual art

    大眾欣賞視覺藝術

  • in terms other than traditional, religious or social function

    有別於傳統上宗教或社交功能

  • is a relatively new concept.

    是相對新的概念。

  • Today, we fetishize the fetish, so to speak.

    現今,我們可以說是盲目崇拜偶像

  • We go to museums to see art from the ages,

    從古至今我們到博物館欣賞藝術

  • but our experience of it there

    但我們從中得到的體驗

  • is drastically removed from the context

    與作品本身要傳達的意象

  • in which it was originally intended to be seen.

    相距甚遠。

  • It might be said that the modern viewer

    或許可以說是現代的觀賞者

  • lacks the richness of engagement

    欠缺深度參與

  • that she has with contemporary art,

    當代藝術。

  • which has been created relevant to her time

    當代的創作

  • and speaks her cultural language.

    可以訴說她的文化背景。

  • It might also be said that the history of what we call art

    也可以說歷史上我們所稱的藝術

  • is a conversation that continues on,

    就是一個持續進行的對話。

  • as our contemporary present passes into what will be

    就像我們當代的藝術

  • some future generation's classical past.

    在未來將成為經典。

  • It's a conversation that reflects

    這場對話會反映出

  • the ideologies, mythologies, belief systems and taboos

    思想、神話、信仰系統和禁忌

  • and so much more of the world in which it was made.

    還有很多世界上的藝術元素。

  • But this is not to say that work from another age

    但在另一個時代的作品

  • made to serve a particular function in that time

    在當時有特定的功能

  • is dead or has nothing to offer the modern viewer.

    卻對現代觀賞者而言毫無意義。

  • Even though in a museum setting

    即使博物館

  • works of art from different places and times

    陳列來自不同時代地區的作品

  • are presented alongside each other,

    會把它們擺在一起展示

  • isolated from their original settings,

    脫離原本的擺設。

  • their juxtaposition has benefits.

    他們的陳設方式是有好處的。

  • Exhibits are organized by curators,

    展品是由館員規劃

  • or people who've made a career

    或由專業人士

  • out of their ability to recontextualize or remix

    重建新情境或混合

  • cultural artifacts in a collective presentation.

    文化藝術品集體展出。

  • As viewers, we're then able to consider the art

    身為觀賞者,這樣我們就能夠

  • in terms of a common theme that might not be apparent

    藉由共同主題發現無法從單一作品中

  • in a particular work

    鑑賞的藝術特點。

  • until you see it alongside another,

    而因為並列展出

  • and new meanings can be derived and reflected upon.

    觀眾就可以從中得到新的啟發。

  • If we're so inclined,

    如果有意願

  • we might even start to see every work of art

    我們甚至可以開始將每個作品

  • as a complementary part of some undefined, unified whole

    視為當代一部分未定義的

  • of past human experience,

    人類過去的整體經驗。

  • a trail that leads right to our doorstep

    一條延向我們門前的路徑

  • and continues on with us,

    這條路徑一直陪著我們

  • open to anyone who wants to explore it.

    也向任何想探索的人敞開。

It's only been the last few hundreds years or so

近幾百年來

字幕與單字

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 藝術 傳達 宗教 視覺 意象

【TED-Ed】宗教藝術簡史 (A brief history of religion in art - TED-Ed)

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    稲葉白兎 發佈於 2014 年 11 月 30 日
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