Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • OK, so I want to talk today a little about human motivation.

    今天我想討論一下人類的激勵理論

  • What gets us to care and act, and be active.

    是什麼讓我們去在乎、行動和變得積極

  • And the starting point,

    首先

  • especially being in Chicago, close to the University of Chicago,

    特別是因為我們在芝加哥 離芝加哥大學很近

  • in the Economics Department of Chicago.

    在芝加哥大學的經濟系

  • I think it is worthwhile to think that our basic idea about human motivation

    我覺得值得思考 我們對人類動機的基本概念

  • is that we think about people like rats.

    就是我們認為人就像老鼠一樣

  • People don't like to work.

    人們不愛工作

  • If we were left to our own accord what we would be doing,

    如果我們能愛做什麼就做什麼

  • we would be on a beach somewhere sipping mojitos...

    我們會在某個沙灘喝調酒莫希托

  • And the ony reason we work is because we need to get money,

    我們工作的唯一原因是需要錢

  • so that we can eventually sit on the beach drinking mojitos.

    那樣才能無憂無慮地 坐在沙灘上喝莫希托

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But the basic motivation is to enjoy leisure and not work

    但最基本的動機是 不工作和享受休閒時光

  • and everything else is just a distraction in order so we can do that.

    其他的都只是為了能讓我們享受悠閒時光 所必須應付的煩心事物

  • And it is a fine model, but we should ask ourselves,

    那是個很好的基本假設 但我們應該問問自己

  • is this a correct depiction of human motivation

    那是對人類動機的正確描述嗎

  • is this really what gets us to act and to do things.

    那真的是讓我們行動 和做事情的動機嗎?

  • And one challenge you can think about is mountain climbing.

    其中一個反例便是登山

  • If you look at people who have climbed different mountains

    如果你看看那些曾經爬過很多山的人

  • and their depictions, and histories and stories

    和他們的敘述、經歷和故事

  • you would think this is the most miserable thing in the world.

    你會認為爬山是世界上最悲慘的事了

  • People are cold, and have frostbite

    他們很冷,還生了凍瘡

  • It's hard to breathe, it's difficult.

    呼吸困難,很費力

  • I climbed a little peak in the Himalayas many years ago

    幾年前,我在喜瑪拉雅爬了一座小山峰

  • and you would think that you would get to the top,

    你的想像是你會爬到頂

  • and sit there and enjoy the view.

    然後坐在那裡欣賞風景

  • No! It's cold, it's miserable, you're tired.

    不!山頂很冷,糟透了,你又很累

  • Just go down as fast as possible from that point on. (Laughter)

    從那時起只想趕快下山(笑聲)

  • And if you think about this behavior

    當你思考這個行為

  • and say to yourself, here is something that every moment seems like agony,

    你會告訴自己,這是一件讓你每時每刻 都痛苦的事

  • it just seems like a punishment

    看起來像個懲罰

  • and people go down, and all they want to do is go up again.

    但人們下山後,卻滿腦子只想著再上山

  • They want to recover first, but then they want to go up again.

    當然要先恢復體力,但他們想再上去

  • How does this view fit with our notion

    這個想法怎麼會符合

  • of people sitting on the beach drinking mojitos?

    人們坐在沙灘上喝莫希托的意圖呢?

  • It looks like people are either suckers for punishment.

    這看起來人們根本就是受虐狂

  • Right? We want to punish ourselves.

    對吧?我們想懲罰自己

  • Or, that what really motivates us is not relaxation,

    或者,真正激勵我們的 不是想要放鬆的念頭

  • it's not comfort, it's other things.

    不是舒適,是其他東西

  • It's about achievement, it's about conquering,

    是成就、是征服

  • it's about pursuing some goal, it's about arriving at some peak.

    是為了追求某些目標,是登上某座高峰

  • I actually became interested in this topic

    讓我開始對這個主題感興趣的

  • when one of my ex-students came to talk to me.

    是在我的老學生來找我的時候

  • His name was David, he left university a few years earlier

    他的名字叫大衛,幾年前離開了大學

  • and he became a consultant, or some banker on Wall Street.

    成為一名顧問,或是華爾街的銀行家

  • And he worked for a big bank

    他在一家大銀行工作

  • and he told me that for a few weeks he worked on a big presentation

    他告訴我他為了 準備一件併購案的簡報

  • for a merger that was going to happen.

    努力了好幾個禮拜

  • He worked evenings, he worked overtime to create this beautiful presentation

    他日夜工作,超時工作為了製作一份

  • with statistics and graph and description.

    有統計數字、相片與說明的漂亮簡報

  • He was really proud of his work, and he really enjoyed it.

    他為自己的成果感到驕傲 而且非常樂在其中

  • And then he sent it to his boss, and his boss said,

    然後他把文件寄給上司,他上司說:

  • "David, great job, the merger is cancelled."

    「大衛,做的好,但併購案取消了。」

  • And he was just devastated!

    他感到非常失落

  • And the interesting thing about this

    有趣的是

  • is that he said that from a functional perspective everything was great.

    他說從功能觀點來看,一切都非常好

  • Here he was, he did a good job, he enjoyed it while he was doing it,

    他做得很好,也很享受整個過程

  • his boss appreciated it, and he was certain

    他的老闆肯定他的付出

  • that he would get a raise when the time came

    而他也很確定時機到了他會被加薪

  • but at the same time he couldn't care now.

    然而現在他什麼也管不了

  • And he was working on another document now, and just couldn't care to the same degree.

    他正在做另一份文件 但就是沒有辦法像之前那麼認真

  • Now the question is, what happened to him? What is it?

    現在問題來了,他發生了什麼事? 到底是什麼?

  • Everything functional was OK, but something was missing.

    實際上一切都好,但卻似乎少了些什麼

  • So to look at this I decided to do a couple of little experiments.

    為了理解這一點,我決定做些小實驗

  • And the experiments we started with were about building Bionicles.

    我們做的第一個實驗 是有關組裝「生化戰士」

  • So, Bionicles are little Lego robots, with about forty pieces,

    「生化戰士」是小樂高積木機器人 大約由 40 片組成

  • and you're going to build them.

    而你需要組合它們

  • And we got people to come to the Student Center

    我們去了學生中心

  • and we said, "Hey, why don't you build Legos for money?"

    說:「嘿,你想不想組合樂高積木賺錢?」

  • You want to build the first one? You can get three dollars for it.

    你想要組合第一個機器人? 我們會付你 3 塊美金

  • After they finished the first one we asked, "Do you want to build another one?"

    當他們組合完第一個後 我們問:「你想組合第二個嗎?」

  • "This one you can get $2.70 for.

    「這次我們會付你 2.7 美元

  • When you've finished this one, do you want another one, for $2.40?"

    當你組好後,你想不想再組一個 能得到 2.4 元?」

  • $2.10

    然後 2.1 元

  • $1.80

    1.8 元

  • And so on at a a diminishing pay rate.

    像這樣金額越來越少

  • And people basically had to decide when they want to stop.

    而人們基本上必須 決定他們什麼時候想停止

  • At what time, the money they were getting

    在什麼時間點,他們所得到的錢

  • from building Legos was not worth their time.

    不值得他們花時間在組積木上

  • And we did this in one of two conditions.

    我們在兩個情況下做這個實驗

  • The first one was just the way I described to you now.

    第一個情況就是像剛剛說的

  • People build one Lego after another, after another, after another

    受測者先組一個機器人 然後再組另一個,再接著另一個

  • and when they finished building all these Legos

    當他們組好所有的樂高

  • when they finished building each of them,

    每組完一個

  • we took them, we put them under the desk

    我們就把機器人拿走,放在桌子底下

  • and we told them that when they finished the whole experiment

    然後告訴他們,當實驗結束後

  • we would take them, we would break them back,

    我們會把所有機器人都拆散

  • and we would put them back in the boxes for the next participant.

    放回盒子裡,給下一位試驗者用

  • This is what we call the 'meaningful' condition.

    我們稱這個為「有意義」的情況

  • Not a really big meaning, we are academics, but little meaning. (Laughter)

    不是多有意義啦,我們是學者嘛 但有一點點意義 (笑聲)

  • The second experiment, we called the Sisyphic condition.

    第二個實驗,我們稱之為「薛西佛斯」情境

  • And in this experiment people started building one Lego

    在這實驗中,試驗者先組一個機器人

  • and when they finished it we took it back from them

    當他們組好後,我們把機器人拿回來

  • and said: "Do you want to build another one?"

    然後問:「你想再組一個嗎?」

  • And if they wanted to build another one we handed them the second one,

    而如果他們想再組一個 我們就給他們第二個

  • but as they were working on the second one,

    但當他們在組第二個時

  • we were taking apart the first one in front of their eyes.

    我們在他們的眼前將第一個機器人拆掉

  • And then if they wanted to build a third one, we would give them that one back

    而如果他們想再組第三個 我們就給他們組第一個的零件

  • So it was a complete recycling.

    所以這是個完全循環

  • And we called this the Sisyphic condition, after Sisyphus,

    我們以薛西佛斯來命名這個情況

  • who pushed the same rock over the same hill over and over.

    他不停地在同一座山丘上推同一塊石頭

  • And we can ask ourselves how much of the demotivating

    因此我們自問

  • aspects of Sisyphus come from the fact

    究竟哪種情況 會令薛希佛斯比較沮喪呢?

  • that he pushed the same rock on the same hill

    是不停地將石頭推上同一座山丘呢

  • versus if it was a different hill every time.

    還是每天都把石頭推上不同的山丘?

  • So building something, having it destroyed

    也就是組裝好某個東西,然後看著它

  • in front of your eyes and building it again

    在你面前被摧毀 然後再組裝一次的這個過程

  • seems kind of an essential element for being unmotivated

    似乎是令人沮喪而失去動力的重要因素

  • and here is what we got.

    這是我們的發現

  • In a meaningful condition people build about eleven robots

    在「有意義」的情形下, 人們平均組裝大約 11 個機器人

  • and in the Sisyphus condition they build seven.

    而在薛希佛斯的情況下,平均只有七個

  • We also asked other people who did not participate

    我們也問沒有參與實驗的人

  • in the experiment to predict what would people do.

    來預測參與者對兩種不同情形的反應

  • How much more would people build in a 'meaningful' condition than in a 'Sisyphic' condition.

    在「有意義」的情況下 人們會比在薛希佛斯情況下多做幾組

  • And people predicted correctly but dramatically underestimated the effect.

    人們的預測是正確的 但卻大幅低估這些不同情況造成的影響

  • People thought that the difference would be about one robot

    大家預估這兩種情況之間 只會差一個機器人

  • but the difference was much, much larger.

    但是其實差很多

  • So we all understand that meaning is important

    所以我們都了解「意義」很重要

  • we just dramatically underestimate how important this is.

    我們只是過於低估它的影響力

  • And I will tell you that I recently went to give a talk at a big software company.

    我前不久去一家很大的軟體公司演講

  • And this was a company where a group of people

    這家公司裡,有一組員工

  • worked for two years designing a particular product,

    花了兩年的時間設計研發一個新產品

  • and they thought this was the best product for this company.

    並且認為這是對公司而言最好的產品

  • And after two years of working on it,

    就在他們投入了兩年的心血之後

  • the week before I came, the CEO cancelled he project

    在我去演講的前一週 他們的執行長取消了這個專案

  • and I've never seen a group of more demotivated people in my life.

    我從來沒有見過比他們更沮喪的一群人

  • And they all told me they felt like they were part of this Lego experiment.

    他們說感覺就像 樂高實驗的參與者一樣

  • They worked for a long time and something was just destroyed in front of them.

    他們辛苦做好一個東西 卻在他們面前被摧毀

  • And I think basically their boss had the same mistake as our prediction experiment

    我想他們的執行長,跟我們請來 預測實驗結果的人犯了一樣的錯誤

  • where he understood that meaning is probably a little bit important,

    也就是他大概了解「意義」的重要性

  • but just didn't understand how big it is

    但是卻不知道會造成多大的影響

  • and now he had a group of people who were completely demotivated, and so on.

    現在他有一群毫無鬥志的員工

  • Now, there was another interesting part of this experiment

    但是這個實驗還有另外一個有趣的一面

  • which is if you look at the correlation between

    就是如果你去看

  • how much people love Legos naturally and how much they persisted,

    人們對樂高的喜愛與他們在這實驗中 持續多久之間的關聯

  • you would expect that people who love Lego would build a lot

    你會很直覺的想說,很喜歡樂高的人 大概會做很多個

  • and people who don't love Lego would build a little;

    而不喜歡樂高的人只會做一點點

  • there would be some individual difference.

    個體之間會存在差異

  • And indeed there [were] individual differences

    而的確,個體之間是存在著差異

  • In a meaningful condition people who loved Legos built more

    在有意義的情況下,比較喜歡樂高的人 會組裝比較多組

  • and people who didn't love them didn't build as many.

    而不喜歡樂高的會組裝比較少

  • In the Sisyphic condition the correlation was zero,

    然而在薛希佛斯的情況下 喜愛樂高與持續度則毫無關聯

  • which tells me that we basically choked every inch of enjoyment

    這告訴我,在薛希佛斯的情況下 所有對樂高的熱愛

  • people had naturally from Legos.

    都被這種沮喪給扼殺了

  • People come with a natural appreciation for Legos, some people,

    有些人天生就喜歡樂高

  • and we were basically able to crush that...

    但是我們卻粉碎了他們的熱情

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So, the next experiment we wanted to find out

    所以在下一個實驗中,我們希望找出

  • what even smaller differences could make.

    更細微的差別是否也能造成同樣的效果

  • So we gave people a sheet of paper with a lot of letters on it and we said,

    我們給人們一張上面寫了很多字母的紙 然後跟他們說:

  • "Look for two letters next to each other that are the same,"

    「找出相鄰且相同的字。」

  • it was a random set and we did the same thing.

    紙上的字完全是隨機的 接著我們跟之前一樣

  • We paid them more for the first sheet, less for the next sheet, and so on.

    給他們一些錢來做第一張, 然後第二張少點錢,依此類推

  • And we had three conditions.

    然後我們有三種狀況

  • In the first condition, every time you gave me a sheet, if I was the experimenter,

    第一種狀況,每當你給我一張紙 如果我是實驗的主考官

  • I would ask you to write your name on the top, I would look at it like this.

    我會問你的名字,把它寫在那張紙的最上面, 然後像這樣看著它

  • I would say "Aha!" and I would put it on the pile.

    我會說:「嗯哼!」 然後我會把它放在旁邊的那一疊紙上

  • In the next condition you didn't have to write your name.

    第二種情況下你就不需要寫上你的名字

  • I would just take the sheet of paper and, without looking at it,

    我只會直接拿了那張紙,看也不看一眼

  • I would just put it on the big pile of paper;

    就把它放到旁邊的一大疊紙上面

  • no acknowledgement, just putting it down.

    完全沒有認同你的努力 只是把它放下去

  • In the third condition, if you gave me a sheet of paper,

    第三種狀況,當你給我那張紙

  • I immediately took it and shredded it. (Laughter)

    我立刻就把它放到碎紙機裡攪碎

  • And now the question is how much would people work in those three conditions.

    現在我們來看人們 在這三種不同情況下的表現

  • And what I'm going to show you here is what is the minimum

    我準備給你們看的是

  • amount of money people are willing to work for, right?

    人們願意繼續實驗的最低金額,對吧!

  • How long did it go, so low amounts of money mean that people enjoy it more.

    如果人們願意為越低的金額繼續這個實驗, 表示他們比較樂在其中

  • So we got the replication on the first result.

    我們得到跟第一個實驗相同的結果

  • In the acknowledged condition when you say,

    在努力有被認同的情況下,當你說:「嗯哼!」

  • "Aha!" people were willing to work up to $0.15 per page

    人們願意一直工作 直到工資只剩一頁 0.15 美金

  • really low wages.

    真低的工資

  • In the shredded condition they wanted twice as much money

    當你把那些紙直接攪碎 他們需要兩倍的價錢來做同樣的工作

  • and the question is, what happens in the ignored condition?

    那如果我們忽略他們呢?

  • Is the ignored condition like the shredded?

    是像直接攪碎一樣嗎?

  • Is it like the acknowledged? Is it somewhere in the middle?

    是像你認同他們的努力嗎?還是介於中間?

  • It turns out it was very similar to the shredded condition.

    結果我們發現,跟直接攪碎差不多

  • So if you really want to demotivate people shredding their work

    所以如果你真的想要讓人失去幹勁的話 就攪碎他們的工作

  • is really good for that. (Laughter)

    真的很有用(笑聲)

  • But it turns out that simply ignoring them

    另外,我們也發現,單純忽略其他人

  • gets you a big part of the way, in fact, almost... (Laughter)

    也可以有相當的效果,事實上,簡直…

  • So this was one part of motivation,

    所以這是人類激勵理論的一部分

  • it's about feeling meaning for what you are doing

    也就是,感覺到自己在做的事是有意義的

  • and acknowledged and so on, and we mostly did this

    被認同,等等…我們也常常用這些方法

  • by destroying people's motivation.

    來摧毀人們的幹勁

  • Let's think for a second about the other part,

    我們來看看關於激勵人們的另一個部分

  • that is how we can get people to be more motivated.

    也就是如何讓人們更有幹勁

  • How we can get people to do more

    怎麼讓人們付出更多

  • and, the idea came to me here after going to IKEA

    某天我去 IKEA 之後有了個想法

  • so I don't know about you, but I like IKEA but every time I get this furniture,

    我不知道你怎麼樣,我喜歡 IKEA 但是每一次我收到他們的傢俱的時候

  • I find myself that it takes me much longer than I expected to build this

    我發現組裝它們遠比我想像中的更花時間

  • and the instructions seem confusing.

    說明書又如此令人困惑

  • I often do a step and then have to backtrack

    我常常做了某個步驟 然後又得回到前一步

  • and when I have to guess something I think I guess wrong more than 50% of the time.

    如果我用猜的,一半以上的時候我都猜錯

  • Lots of these things, and the thought is:

    就是很多像這樣的事情讓我想:

  • Is it that a result of this? Do I love my furniture more?

    是因為這樣子,所以我更喜歡我的傢俱了嗎?

  • The fact that I have to build them, that I create them,

    因為我必須要去組裝,創造它們

  • does that create a particular attachment between me and my furniture?

    是不是讓我跟這些傢俱之間產生了感情呢?

  • I call this the IKEA effect

    我稱這個為「IKEA 效應」

  • And some evidence for this exists from cake mixes.

    我在市售的蛋糕材料包上也找到一些證據

  • So when cake mixes came up in the fifties

    當這些材料包在 50 年代問世的時候

  • to the surprise of the people who made up the cake mixes

    生產者很驚訝地發現

  • they were not very popular

    它們並不怎麼受歡迎

  • and the question is, why?

    可是為什麼?

  • Pie crusts were popular, cookies were popular

    派皮很受歡迎,餅乾也很受歡迎

  • all kinds of other ready mixes were popular, but not cakes.

    所有的材料包都很受歡迎,除了蛋糕之外

  • And one of the theories was maybe people didn't have to do much for these cakes

    其中一個理論是,也許人們覺得要做的事太少

  • maybe if you take a mix and add some water

    也許如果你只拿水加到現成材料裡

  • put it in the oven and then make it

    放到烤箱就好的話

  • and someone says, "What a great cake!," you just can't feel good about it.

    當有人說:「好棒的蛋糕噢!」的時候 你就沒有什麼成就感

  • Maybe it was the fact that it didn't require

    也許正是因為

  • as much work that made cake mixes not as appealing.

    它讓作蛋糕變得太容易了,讓它失去了吸引力

  • This was known as the 'egg theory.'

    這也有一個別稱叫「雞蛋理論」

  • And what they did to test it was, they took the eggs out of the cake mix.

    他們採取的方法是,將雞蛋從那材料中去除

  • All of a sudden the cake mix was the same,

    突然之間,那材料包還是一樣

  • you just had to add eggs and some milk to it.

    但是你必須要自己 把蛋還有一些牛奶加進去

  • What happened now? Cake mixes became much more popular.

    結果呢?做蛋糕的材料包變得更受歡迎了

  • Somehow having to put work into something makes it more appealing.

    正因為它需要做的人付出一點努力 而使它變得更吸引人

  • We decided to try this out,

    我們決定來做個實驗

  • so we gave people instructions to do origami

    我們給他們一些折紙的說明

  • on the top you have the --

    在上面我們有

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • -- on the top you have a list of what all the signs mean

    在上面我們有一個列表, 寫著每個符號代表的意義

  • and then you have a list of instruction of how to do origami

    接著你有一個如何折紙的說明

  • that is not that easy to do

    這沒有這麼容易

  • and we asked people to do it.

    然後我們找人來做

  • And what happened? People created stuff

    結果呢?他們的成品

  • that didn't really look like what it was supposed to,

    和原本預期的東西不同