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  • A, C, E, D, B, K.

    A, C, E, D, B, K

  • No, this isn't some random, out of order alphabet.

    不 這可不是隨便亂念的字母

  • These are vitamins,

    這是維他命

  • and just like letters build words,

    就像字母組成單字一樣

  • they're the building blocks that keep the body running.

    他們是維持身體運作的微小單位

  • Vitamins are organic compounds we need

    維他命是種有機化合物

  • to ingest in small amounts to keep functioning.

    人需要攝取少量維他命 以維持生理機能

  • They're the body's builders, defenders and maintenance workers,

    維他命是人體的建築工 保衛軍 及維修工

  • helping it to build muscle and bone,

    協助骨頭與肌肉的構成

  • make use of nutrients,

    營養素的消化

  • capture and use energy and heal wounds.

    收集並使用能量 及治癒傷口

  • If you need convincing about vitamin value,

    如果你想更體會維他命的價值

  • just consider the plight of olden day sailors

    就想想以前水手們遇到的困境吧

  • who had no access to vitamin-rich fresh produce.

    他們無法攝取富含維他命的新鮮農作物

  • They got scurvy.

    因此得了壞血病

  • But vitamin C, abundant in fruits and vegetables,

    蔬果裡含有豐富的維他命C

  • was the simple antidote to this disease.

    是治癒壞血病的良方

  • While bacteria, fungi and plants produce their own vitamins,

    細菌 蕈菇 植物 能自行生產維他命

  • our bodies can't.

    但我們人體不能

  • So we have to get them from other sources.

    所以得從其他地方攝取維他命

  • So how does the body get vitamins from out there into here?

    那麼 人體如何將維他命由體外 吸收進體內呢?

  • That's depended on the form these compounds take.

    這得取決於這些化合物的型態

  • Vitamins come in two types,

    維他命有兩種

  • lipid-soluble and water-soluble.

    脂溶性 與 水溶性

  • And the difference between them determines how the body transports and stores vitamin

    這種不同 決定維他命如何被人體運輸及儲存

  • and gets rid of the excess.

    及避免過度攝取

  • The water-solubles are vitamin C and B Complex vitamins

    維他命C及B群 屬於水溶性維他命

  • that are made up of 8 different types that each do something unique.

    維他命B群有8種 每種都有特定功能

  • These are dissolved in the watery parts of fruits, vegetables and grains,

    蔬果穀物中的水分 就含有這兩種維他命

  • meaning their passage through the body is relatively straightforward.

    因此 他們進入人體的途徑相對較直接

  • Once inside the system, these foods are digested

    只要一進入體內 食物被消化

  • and the vitamins within them are taken up directly by the bloodstream.

    食物裡頭的維他命就能直接進入血液中

  • Because blood plasma is water-based,

    因為血漿的主要成分是水

  • water-soluble vitamin C and B have their transport cut out for them

    水溶性維他命C及B群 有自己的運輸管道

  • and can move around freely within the body.

    可以在體內自由移動

  • For lipid-soluble vitamins, dissolved in fat

    而脂溶性維他命呢

  • and found in foods like dairy, butter and oils,

    則是存在於奶製品 奶油 油類等食物裡頭

  • this trip into the blood is a little more adventurous.

    他們進入血液的旅途就比較艱辛了

  • These vitamins make it through the stomach and the intestine,

    脂溶性維他命需要通過腸胃

  • where an acidic substance called bile flows in from the liver,

    腸胃裡頭流動著肝臟分泌的酸性物質-膽汁

  • breaking up the fat and preparing it for absorption through the intestinal wall.

    分解油脂 讓腸壁能順利吸收

  • Because fat-soluble vitamins can't make use of the blood's watery nature,

    脂溶性維他命無法利用血液裡頭的水

  • they need something else to move them around,

    需要其他介質幫忙 才能在體內移動

  • and that comes from proteins that attach to the vitamins and act like couriers,

    蛋白質就像是他們的司機

  • transporting fat-solubles into the blood and around the body.

    遞送脂溶性維他命進入血液 到達人體各處

  • So, this difference between water- or fat-soluble vitamins determines how they get into the blood,

    因此 脂溶性和水溶性維他命的不同 在於進入血液的途徑

  • but also how they're stored or rejected from the body.

    還有如何被人體儲存及排除

  • The system's ability to circulate water-soluble vitamins in the bloodstream so easily

    水溶性維他命能藉著血液 輕鬆地在體內循環

  • means that most of them can be passed out equally easily via the kidneys.

    所以 大部分都能輕易被腎臟排出

  • Because of that, most water-soluble vitamins need to be replenished on a daily basis through the food we eat

    所以 大部分的水溶性維他命 需要每天固定攝取

  • But fat-soluble vitamins have staying power,

    但脂溶性維他命有能力留在體內

  • because they can be packed into the liver and in fat cells.

    因為他們能儲存在肝臟或脂肪細胞裡面

  • The body treats these parts like a pantry,

    這些部位就像人體內的儲藏室

  • storing the vitamins there and rationing them out when needed,

    將維他命存放在裡面 需要時就提領出來

  • meaning we shouldn't overload on this type of vitamin,

    所以呢 我們不應該過度攝取脂溶性維他命

  • because the body is generally well stocked

    因為 基本上 體內已經有足夠存糧了

  • Once we figured the logistics of transport and storage,

    既然我們已經懂了維他命的運輸及儲存狀況

  • the vitamins are left to do the work they came here to do in the first place.

    再來就是了解他們能為人體做些甚麼

  • Some, like many of the B Complex vitamins,

    有些維他命 像是大部分的B群

  • make up coenzymes,

    能製造輔酵素

  • whose job it is to help enzymes release the energy from food.

    幫助酵素分解食物 獲得能量

  • Other B vitamins then help the body to use that energy.

    剩下的B群則是幫助人體使用這些能量

  • From vitamin C, you get the ability to fight infection and make collagen,

    維他命C能增加抵抗力 並產生膠原蛋白

  • a kind of tissue that forms bones and teeth, and heals wounds.

    可以形成骨頭 牙齒 及癒合傷口

  • Vitamin A helps make white blood cells, key in the body's defense,

    維他命A幫助白血球形成 是保護人體的關鍵

  • helps shape bones and improves vision

    還能幫助骨骼強壯 改善視力

  • by keeping the cells of the eye in check.

    維護眼球細胞

  • Vitamin D gathers calcium and phosphorous so we can make bones,

    維他命D能聚集鈣和磷 因此骨骼才能生長

  • and vitamin E works as an antioxidant,

    維他命E則是抗氧化劑

  • getting rid of elements in the body that can damage cells.

    保衛體內細胞 避免受到損害

  • Finally, from vitamin K, we score the ability to clot blood,

    最後 維他命K則被派來幫助血液凝結

  • since it helps make the proteins that do this job.

    它能幫忙製造負責凝血的蛋白質

  • Without this vitamin variety,

    沒有這些維他命的話

  • humans face deficiencies that cause a range of problems

    人類就會缺乏營養 面臨各種麻煩

  • like fatigue, nerve damage, heart disorders

    像是疲勞 神經受損 心臟病

  • or diseases like rickets and scurvy.

    或是軟骨症 壞血病等等疾病

  • On the other hand, too much of any vitamin can cause toxicity in the body.

    另一方面 過度攝取任一種維他命 都會對人體有害

  • So there goes the myth that loading yourself with supplements is a great idea.

    所以 攝取越多營養越好 其實是種迷思

  • In reality, it's all about getting the balance right and hitting that vitamin jackpot.

    重點是 維持營養均衡 不多不少剛剛好!

A, C, E, D, B, K.

A, C, E, D, B, K

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 維他命 人體 攝取 血液 儲存

【TED-Ed】來認識一下維他命吧!How do vitamins work? - Ginnie Trinh Nguyen

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    Go Tutor 發佈於 2014 年 11 月 26 日
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