Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Cloudy climate change. How clouds affect earth's temperature

    模糊的氣候變遷 雲層如何影響地球溫度

  • Earth's average surface temperature has warmed by point eight celsius since 1750

    地表平均氣溫從1750至今 增加了0.8度

  • when carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere have doubled

    大氣中二氧化碳的濃度增加了一倍

  • which is expected before the end of the twenty first century

    21世紀末才會發生的改變提早到來

  • Researchers project global temperature will have raisen by 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius

    研究員預測地球溫度會上升1.5度 變成4.5度

  • if the increase is near the low end 1.5 celsius

    如果預測的1.5度是最小值

  • then we're already half way there

    我們已經達到最小值的一半

  • we should be more able the adopt with some regions are becoming dryer and less productive

    如此一來 某些地方會更乾燥貧瘠

  • but others becoming warmer wetter and more productive

    另一些卻會更溫暖、潮濕、肥沃

  • on the other hand, a rise of 4.5 degree celsius would be similar in magnitude

    氣溫提高4.5度後 就相當於發生了

  • to the warming that's occur since the last glacier maximum, 22 thousand years ago

    兩千兩百萬年前末次冰盛期至今的暖化

  • when most of the north America was under ice sheet 2 kilometer's thick

    當時北美大半都覆蓋在2公里的冰層底下

  • so that would represent the dramatic change of climate

    這表示氣候經歷了急遽的變遷

  • so it's vitally important for scientists to predict the change in temperature

    精確預測溫度的波動刻不容緩

  • with as much precision as possible. so the society can plan for the future

    人們得及早替未來打算

  • the present range of uncertainty simply too large to be confident of how best to respond to climate change

    目前氣溫變化幅度太大 無法提出最佳相應措施

  • but this estima to 1.5 to 4.5 celsius for doubling the carbon dioxide hasn't change in 35 years

    但「二氧化碳增加一倍 氣溫上升1.5到4.5度」的估計 停滯了35年

  • why haven't we been able to narrow it down?

    為什麼無法再縮小範圍呢?

  • the answer is we don't yet understand aerosols in clouds well enough

    因為我們還不了解雲朵裡的浮質

  • but the new experimentists is tackling the problem

    不過已經有人開始做實驗了

  • in order to predict how the temperature will change. Scientist need to know some called earth climate sensitivity.

    為了預測溫度如何變化 科學家必須知道何謂「氣候敏感性」

  • the temperature change in response to radiative forcing

    也就是因應輻射強迫 產生的氣溫波動(ΔF為輻射強迫、ΔT為輻射強迫帶來的地表溫度改變)

  • A radiat forum set is a temperate imbalace between the energy receive from the sun

    輻射效應指的是地球吸收

  • and energy radiate back out to space like the imbalance cause by increase of green house gases

    和發散的輻射量不平衡 而會不平衡是由於溫室氣體增加了

  • to correct imbalance of warms up or cools down,

    藉由取得暖化和冷化之間的平衡

  • we can determine earth climate sensitivity from the experiment we've already performed in industrial age since 1750.

    就能從1750年工業時代做的實驗推知氣候敏感性

  • and then the uses number to determine how much more it will warm to varies projected radiated forcing in the twenty first century

    然後用相關數字推算21世紀的暖化程度 對輻射效應會有什麼影響

  • to do this, we need to know two things.

    要達成以上目的 得先知道兩件事

  • First, the global temperature rise since 1750.

    首先 1750年至今的地球溫度上升了

  • And second, the radiative forcing of the present day climate relative to the pre-industrial climate

    再來 今天的輻射強迫現象和前工業時期的氣候息息相關

  • for the radiative forcing we know that human activities has been increased green house gases in the atmosphere which warm the planet

    人類活動增加了大氣中的溫室氣體 讓地球變暖

  • but our activities have at the same time increase the amount of aerosols particles in clouds which have cooled the planet.

    但同時也增加了雲層裡的氣溶膠粒子(註: 固體或液體 藉吸收或發散輻射影響氣候) 讓地球降溫

  • Pre-industrial green house gas concentrations are well measured

    前工業時代的溫室氣體濃度很明確

  • From bubbles trap in ice course of tent in Greenland and Antarctic.

    藉著研究格陵蘭和南極冰塊中的泡泡結構

  • So the greenhouse gas forcings are precisely known.

    就能知道溫室氣體的影響

  • But we have no way of direct recongnition how cloudy it was in 1750.

    但畢竟不可能親眼看到1750年代的雲有多少

  • And that’s the main source of uncertainty in earth climate sensitivity.

    這就是地球氣候敏感性如此不確定的主因

  • To understand pre-industrial cloudy is we must use computer models

    想了解前工業社會的雲量狀況 就必須用電腦模型輔助

  • that reliably simulate the process is responsible for forming nuclei in clouds.

    模擬雲裡的形核過程

  • Now, to most people aerosols are the things to make your hair stick.

    在許多人眼中 氣溶膠就等於髮膠

  • But that’s only one type of aerosols.

    但髮膠只是氣溶膠的一種

  • Atmospheric aerosols are tiny liquid or solid particles suspended in the air.

    煙霧質常以微小的液體或固態形式懸浮於大氣中

  • There are either primary from dust sea spray salt, burning biomass

    第一種主要存在於灰塵、海水、餘燼裡

  • Or secondary formed by gas to particle conversion in the atmosphere

    第二種是氣體轉換成粒子的產物

  • Also known as particle nucleation.

    又稱為粒子核化

  • Aerosols are everywhere in the atmosphere. And they can block out the sun and polluted urban environments.

    大氣中充滿了煙霧質 它們會阻擋太陽光、汙染都市環境

  • Or bath distant mountain in blue pace.

    或讓遠處山峰染上藍霧

  • More importantly the cloud droplet cannot form without an aerosol particle seed.

    雲是由煙霧質分子組成的

  • So without aerosol particle, therell be no clouds.

    沒有煙霧質 就沒有雲

  • And without clouds, there will be no fresh water.

    沒有雲 就沒有淡水

  • The climate will be much hotter. And there will be no life.

    沒有淡水 天氣會越來越熱 生物就會隨之滅絕

  • So we owe our existence to aerosol particles.

    有煙霧質分子才有你我的存在

  • However, despite their importance how aerosol particles form in the atmosphere

    雖然煙霧質在大氣中的形成很重要

  • aren’t very effect on clouds and poorly understood.

    雲層隱含的意義、

  • Even the vapor is responsible for aerosol particle formation and not well established.

    蒸氣就能產生煙霧質的道理 卻沒什麼人知道

  • Because at present in only might mute amount near one molecule per million million molecules are there.

    現在大氣中的煙霧質極少 濃度是一萬億分之一

  • This lack of understanding is the main reason for the large uncertainty in climate sensitivity.

    缺乏的雲層認識 是無法掌握氣候敏感性的主因

  • And the corresponding wild range of future climate projections.

    連帶影響到氣候預測

  • However, an experiment under way is certain named surprisingly cloud has manage to build a steel vessel

    有個名為「驚人雲朵」的實驗正在進行中

  • That’s large enough and has low enough contamination that aerosol formation can

    他們用龐大的鋼鐵量筒 去掉裡頭雜質 在人為環境下

  • For the first time, be measured under tightly controlled atmosphere condition in the bar of tray.

    初次測量到了煙霧質的量

  • In the first five years of operation, cloud has identified the vapor

    研究的頭五年 科學家發現雲就是蒸氣

  • responsible for the aerosol formation in the atmosphere.

    可以影響大氣中煙霧質的構造

  • Which includes sulfuric acid, ammonia amines and biogenic vapours from trees.

    煙霧質包括: 硫酸、氨、胺、從樹而來的生物蒸氣

  • Using an eye and icing particle bean for the certain proton synchrotron

    使用質子同步加速器 以冰粒子的觀點來看

  • Cloud is also investigating if galactic cosmic rays enhance the formation of aerosols in clouds.

    雲層也可用來探索銀河宇宙線是否會鞏固雲裡的氣膠結構

  • This has been suggested as possible unaccounted natural climate forcing agent

    有人說宇宙射線可能是影響氣候的天然媒介

  • since the flux of cause midgrade raining down in the atmosphere.

    因為大氣層裡的豐沛雨量

  • There is with solar activity.

    會和太陽互相作用

  • So cloud is addressing two big questions:

    由「雲」可以衍伸出兩個問題:

  • Firstly, how cloudy was the pre-industrial climate?

    前工業時期有多少雲?

  • And hence, how much have clouds changed due to human activities?

    人類活動又對那些雲有什麼影響?

  • That knowledge will help sharpen climate projections in the 21st century.

    尋求這兩個解答 將能更精準預測本世紀的氣候變化

  • And simply, could the puzzling observation of solar climate variability in the pre-industrial

    觀察前工業時代氣候與太陽變化得到的複雜結果

  • be explained by an influence of galactic cosmic rays on the clouds?

    是否可用銀河宇宙線對雲層的影響來解釋?

  • Ambitious but realistic goals, when your heads in the clouds

    探究雲層 追求更加偉大、實際的目標

Cloudy climate change. How clouds affect earth's temperature

模糊的氣候變遷 雲層如何影響地球溫度

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED-Ed 氣候 大氣 雲層 氣溫 輻射

【TED-Ed】 雲朵氣候學:雲朵如何影響地球氣溫? Cloudy climate change: How clouds affect Earth's temperature - Jasper Kirkby

  • 5321 654
    Go Tutor 發佈於 2014 年 11 月 21 日
影片單字