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  • In a decaying society, Art, if it is truthful,

    在一個衰敗中的社會 藝術如果是真誠的

  • must also reflect decay.

    也必須反映衰敗

  • And unless it wants to break faith with its social function,

    除非藝術想要背離其社會職責與功能

  • Art must show the world as changeable.

    否則藝術一定要揭示出這個世界是可變的

  • And help to change it.

    並且幫助改變世界

  • -Ernst Fischer

    恩斯特·菲舍爾(奧地利 新聞工作者 作家 政治家)

  • ... deadly riots over the government's plan

    政府制定了避免貸款違約的計畫

  • to avoid defaulting on its loans ...

    引發致命暴亂

  • is that the unemployment keeps rising

    是失業率不斷

  • and it has to keep rising

    且必然攀升

  • just because we have an excess supply of goods...

    乃是貨品供過於求的必然結果

  • this is all borrowed money...

    這都是借來的錢

  • and that debt is owned by banks in other countries...

    而這些債務是其他國家的銀行所持有的

  • M-O-N-E-Y, in the form of a convenient personal loan...

    錢 一種便利的個人貸款形式

  • ... a filter cigarette that delivers the taste...

    帶濾嘴的香煙 味道更好

  • 45 malt liquor... Are You Hot?!...

    45°麥芽酒 你夠性感嗎?!

  • is the US planning to bomb Iran?...

    美國正在計劃轟炸伊朗?

  • ...America is sponsoring terror attacks in Iran...

    美國正資助在伊朗的恐怖襲擊

  • Now, my grandmother was a wonderful person.

    我的祖母是個非常好的人

  • She taught me how to play the game Monopoly.

    她教我怎樣去玩"大富翁"

  • She understood that the name of the game is to acquire.

    她知道遊戲的目的是去獲取

  • She would accumulate everything she could

    她會去積累所能獲取的一切

  • and eventually, she became the master of the board.

    並最後成為棋盤上的主宰者

  • And then she would always say the same thing to me.

    之後她總會和我說同樣的話

  • She would look at me and she would say:

    她會看著我 說:

  • One day, you'll learn to play the game.”

    "總有一天 你會明白怎麼玩好這個遊戲的"

  • One summer, I played Monopoly almost every day, all day long.

    有一個夏天 我幾乎每天從早到晚都在玩大富翁

  • And that summer, I learned to play the game.

    而在那個夏天 我學會了玩這個遊戲

  • I came to understand the only way to win

    我開始明白唯一獲勝的方法

  • is to make a total commitment to acquisition.

    即心中只服膺於攫取這一念

  • I came to understand that money and possessions-

    我逐漸開始明白金錢和私有財產

  • that's the way that you keep score.

    是這個遊戲中唯一的得分手段

  • And by the end of that summer, I was more ruthless than my grandmother.

    這樣 到了那年夏天結束之前 我已經比祖母更加殘忍無情

  • .

    .

  • I was ready to bend the rules if I had to, to win that game.

    如果有必要的話 我準備曲解規則 去贏得遊戲

  • And I sat down with her to play that fall.

    那年秋天我又坐下來與她玩

  • I took everything she had.

    我拿走了她的一切

  • I watched her give her last dollar and quit in utter defeat.

    並看著她把最後一塊錢拿給我 徹底失敗

  • And then she had one more thing to teach me.

    但她最後還有一件事要教給我

  • Then she said:

    接著她說:

  • Now it all goes back in the box.

    "現在一切都要回到盒子裡

  • All those houses and hotels.

    所有那些房子和酒店

  • All the railroads and utility companies...

    所有那些鐵路和公共企業

  • All that property and all that wonderful money...

    所有那些資產和美妙的金錢

  • Now it all goes back in the box.

    現在一切都回到了盒子當中

  • None of it was really yours.

    那些東西沒有一件真正屬於你

  • You got all heated up about it for a while.

    你曾經為獲得了這一切 而興奮激動好一陣子

  • But it was around a long time before you sat down at the board

    但當你在棋盤附近坐下之前 這遊戲早已被玩過很久了

  • and it will be here after you're gone: players come, players go.

    而且遊戲會在你離開後持續下去 人來了又來 走了又走

  • Houses and cars...

    房子和汽車

  • Titles and clothes...

    頭銜以及時裝

  • Even your body.”

    甚至連同你的身體"

  • Because the fact is that everything I clutch and consume and hoard

    因為事實是 一切我所攫取 消費 囤積的

  • is going to go back in the box and I'm going to lose it all.

    都將回到盒子裡 而我也將會失去一切

  • So you have to ask yourself

    所以 你必須要問問自己

  • when you finally get the ultimate promotion

    當你最後獲得終極的晉陞

  • when you have made the ultimate purchase

    當你完成了終極的消費

  • when you buy the ultimate home

    當你購買了最高級的住宅

  • when you have stored up financial security

    當你囤積了所有的金融證券

  • and climbed the ladder of success

    並儘你所能攀登上

  • to the highest rung you can possibly climb it...

    成功之巔

  • and the thrill wears off

    之後興奮感會不斷消褪

  • - and it will wear off -

    而它確實會全部褪去

  • Then what?

    然後呢?

  • How far do you have to walk down that road

    你還要在這條道路上走多遠

  • before you see where it leads?

    才能看到它究竟引向何處?

  • Surely you understand

    顯然你應該明白

  • it will never be enough.

    這條路永遠走不到盡頭

  • So you have to ask yourself the question:

    所以 你必須要問自己一個問題:

  • What matters?

    什麼才是重要的?

  • They're Hot!

    她們很性感!

  • They're Rich!

    他們很富有!

  • And They're Spoiled!

    她們是被寵壞的!

  • America's #1 Show is Back!

    美國排名第一的節目又回來了!

  • Gentle Machine Productions Presents

    Gentle Machine Productions出品

  • A Peter Joseph Film

    導演:彼得.約瑟夫(時代精神運動發起人)

  • When I was a young man

    當我還是個

  • growing up in New York City

    在紐約成長的年輕人時

  • I refused to pledge allegiance to the flag.

    我曾拒絕向國旗宣誓效忠

  • Of course I was sent to the principal's office.

    當然 我被送到了校長辦公室

  • And he asked me, 'Why don't you want to pledge allegiance?

    然後校長問我:"你為何不願宣誓效忠呢?

  • Everybody does!'

    每個人都是這樣做的!"

  • I said, 'Everybody once believed the Earth was flat

    我回答:"每個人都曾經相信地球是平的呢

  • but that doesn't make it so.'

    但這樣的想法並不會使地球真的變平"

  • I explained that America owed everything it has

    我解釋說美國擁有的一切

  • to other cultures and other nations

    都得益於其他文化和其他國家

  • .

    .

  • and that I would rather pledge allegiance

    所以我寧願宣誓效忠於

  • to the Earth and everyone on it.

    地球及其全部居民

  • .

    .

  • Needless to say it wasn't long before I left school entirely

    不用多說 沒過多久 我就徹底離開了學校

  • .

    .

  • ...and I set up a lab in my bedroom.

    然後我就在臥室裡建立了一個實驗室

  • There I began to learn about science and nature.

    我開始在那裡自學有關科學與自然的知識

  • .

    .

  • I realized then that the universe is governed by laws

    隨後 我意識到宇宙受到客觀法則的規範

  • .

    .

  • and that the human being, along with society itself,

    而人類 連同社會本身

  • .

    .

  • was not exempt from these laws.

    也不能存在於這些客觀法則之外

  • Then came the crash of 1929

    之後1929年的經濟危機來臨

  • which began what we now call

    開始了我們現在稱之為

  • The Great Depression”.

    "大蕭條"的時期

  • I found it difficult to understand why millions

    我發覺很難理解為何成千上萬的人

  • were out of work, homeless, starving,

    失業 無家可歸 並且挨餓

  • while all the factories were sitting there;

    但是所有的工廠依舊在那裡

  • the resources were unchanged.

    而資源卻也沒有改變

  • It was then that I realized

    就在那時 我才明白

  • that the rules of the economic game

    經濟遊戲的規則本身

  • were inherently invalid.

    是漏洞百出的

  • Shortly after, came World War II

    隨後二戰很快爆發了

  • where various nations took turns

    各個戰爭中的國家

  • systematically destroying each other.

    輪流系統性地毀滅彼此

  • I later calculated that all the destruction

    我後來估算過 所有在那場戰爭中

  • and wasted resources spent on that war

    被破壞和浪費掉的資源加在一起

  • .

    .

  • could have easily provided for every

    本來可以輕易滿足

  • human need on the planet.

    地球上每個人的需求

  • Since that time,I have watched humanity

    自從那時起 我一直目睹人類

  • set the stage for its own extinction.

    設下自我毀滅的舞台

  • I have watched as the precious finite resources

    我一直眼睜睜地看著寶貴而有限的資源

  • are perpetually wasted and destroyed

    被不斷浪費 破壞掉

  • in the name of profit and free markets.

    以利益以及自由市場之名義

  • I have watched the social values of society

    我一直目睹社會的價值觀

  • be reduced into a base artificiality of materialism

    淪為虛偽鄙俗的物質主義

  • and mindless consumption.

    和愚眛盲目的消費觀

  • And I have watched as the monetary powers

    我看著金錢的力量

  • control the political structure

    逐漸掌控了那些號稱是

  • of supposedly free societies.

    自由社會的政治結構

  • I'm 94 years old now.

    我現在94歲了

  • And I'm afraid my disposition is the same as it was

    但恐怕我的態度還是

  • .

    .

  • 75 years ago.

    與75年前一樣

  • This shit's got to go.

    這些狗屁鳥玩意該滾蛋了

  • [ ZEITGEIST ]

    [時代精神]

  • [ ZEITGEIST: MOVING FORWARD ]

    [時代精神:邁步向前]

  • [ Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful

    切勿懷疑 少數有思想

  • committed citizens can change the world.

    並且堅定不移的社會成員可以改變整個世界

  • Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. -Margaret Mead ]

    實際上 這也就是唯一曾經發生過的—-瑪格麗特·米德 (美國著名人類學家)

  • .

    .

  • [ Part 1: Human Nature ]

    [第1部分:人性]

  • So you're a scientist, and ...

    在成為一位科學家

  • somewhere along the way, hammered into your head

    道路上的某處 腦海中反覆思量的

  • is the inevitablenature versus nurture

    是"先天遺傳vs後天環境"這個不可避免的論證

  • and that's at least up there with Coke versus Pepsi

    就像可口可樂vs百事可樂

  • or Greeks versus Trojans.

    或希臘人vs特洛伊人

  • So, nature versus nurture: This, by now

    所以 先天遺傳vs後天環境

  • utterly over-simplifying view of

    這個現在已過度簡化的觀點

  • where influences are-

    其影響涵蓋了

  • influences on how a cell deals with

    小到一個細胞如何應對

  • an energy crisis up to

    能量短缺 大到

  • what makes us who we are on the most individualistic

    是什麼決定了我們個體

  • levels of personality.

    最獨特的人格

  • And what you've got is this complete false dichotomy

    而人們從中得出兩種完全錯誤的極端

  • built around nature as deterministic

    即先天自然的遺傳因素起根本性作用

  • at the very bottom of all the causality.

    決定了一切原因

  • Of 'life is DNA' and the 'code of codes'

    生命就是DNA(脫氧核糖核酸)

  • and the Holy Grail, and everything is driven by it.

    這個左右著一切的核心密碼和聖盃

  • At the other end is a much more social science perspective

    另一種偏向於社會科學的極端觀點是

  • .

    .

  • which is: We are 'social organisms'

    我們是"社會有機體"

  • and biology is for slime molds;

    而生物學是用來研究黏菌等微生物的

  • humans are free of biology.

    人類與生物學無關

  • And obviously both views are nonsense.

    但顯然這兩類觀點都是胡扯

  • What you see instead is that

    然而實際上

  • it is virtually impossible to understand how biology works

    脫離環境的背景脈絡 來理解生物學的

  • .

    .

  • outside of the context of environment.

    運作是不可能的

  • [ It's Genetic ]

    [這就是遺傳決定的]

  • One of the most crazy making yet widespread

    眾多說法中 最荒唐的的一種 然而也荼毒甚廣

  • .

    .

  • and potentially dangerous notions is:

    並暗藏危機的概念是:

  • Oh, that behavior is genetic.”

    "噢 這種行為是遺傳來的"

  • Now what does that mean? It means all sorts of subtle stuff if you

    這意味著什麼呢? 這可能隱微地包含了各種各樣的意味

  • .

    .

  • know modern biology, but for most people out there

    如果你瞭解一點現代生物學 然而大多數人只從中總結出一套

  • what it winds up meaning is:

    以訛傳訛成為:

  • a deterministic view of life,

    一種深植於生物學

  • one rooted in biology and genetics.

    及遺傳學的宿命論

  • Genes equal things that can't be changed.

    基因等同於不可改變的東西

  • Genes equal things that are

    基因等同於那些

  • inevitable and that you might as well

    不可避免的事情 而你不浪費資源

  • not waste resources trying to fix,

    試圖去修正也無妨

  • might as well not put societal energies into trying to improve

    不付出社會精力去改善也沒差

  • because it's inevitable and it's unchangeable.

    因為它是不可避免的 也是無法改變的

  • And that is sheer nonsense.

    那是十足的胡說八道

  • [ Disease ]

    [疾病]

  • It is widely thought that

    人們普遍認為

  • conditions like ADHD are genetically programmed,

    像小兒多動症這類狀況是由基因編碼決定的

  • conditions like schizophrenia are genetically programmed.

    精神分裂症這種情況也是如此

  • The truth is the opposite. Nothing is genetically programmed.

    但事實正好相反 沒有什麼是基因編碼決定的

  • .

    .

  • There are very rare diseases, a small handful,

    只有非常罕見的疾病 即一小部份

  • .

    .

  • extremely sparsely represented in the population,

    極其稀少的案例在人口之中的表現

  • that are truly genetically determined.

    才是真正由基因決定的

  • Most complex conditions

    大部分複雜的情況中

  • might have a predisposition that has a genetic component,

    可能會有遺傳因素的傾向

  • but a predisposition is not the same as a predetermination.

    但一個傾向與一個預定並不相同

  • The whole search for the source of diseases in the genome

    在整個基因組之中搜索疾病之源

  • was doomed to failure before anybody even thought of it,

    是注定失敗的 甚至在任何人想到這點之前

  • because most diseases are not genetically predetermined.

    因為大部分的疾病不是由基因預先決定的

  • Heart disease, cancer, strokes,

    心臟病 癌症 中風

  • rheumatoid conditions, autoimmune conditions in general,

    風濕 一般的自身免疫性疾病

  • mental health conditions, addictions-

    心理健康問題 上癮

  • none of them are genetically determined.

    沒有一樣是由基因決定的

  • Breast cancer, for example. Out of 100 women with breast cancer

    比如乳腺癌 每100個女性患者中

  • only seven will carry the breast cancer genes.

    只有7個攜帶乳腺癌基因

  • 93 do not.

    另外93人不帶

  • And out of 100 women who do have the genes

    而100個有乳腺癌基因的女士

  • not all of them will get cancer.

    並非都會罹患乳腺癌

  • [ Behavior ]

    [行為]

  • Genes are not just things that make us behave in

    基因並不能無視環境影響

  • a particular way regardless of our environment.

    而決定我們特定的行為方式

  • Genes give us different ways of responding to our environment.

    基因給予我們回應環境的各種不同方式

  • And in fact it looks as if some of the early

    而事實貌似是 一些早期的

  • childhood influences and the kind of child rearing,

    童年影響和育兒的方式

  • affect gene expression:

    影響著基因的表現

  • actually turning on or off different genes

    實際上激發或者關閉不同的基因

  • to put you on a different developmental track

    讓你走上不同的成長軌跡

  • which may suit the kind of world you've got to deal with.

    可能使你適合你要去應付的世界

  • So for example,

    例如

  • a study done in Montreal with suicide victims

    一項完成於蒙特利爾 針對自殺身亡者的研究

  • looked at autopsies of the brains of these people.

    檢視了這些人的大腦解剖體

  • And it turned out that if a suicide victim

    結果發現 如果一個自殺者

  • (these are usually young adults)

    (他們通常是年輕人)

  • had been abused as children, the abuse actually

    在童年時期受過虐待 虐待行為實際上

  • caused a genetic change in the brain

    會在大腦中引起一個基因變化

  • that was absent in the brains of people who had not been abused.

    這種改變在未受過虐待的人們腦中是沒有的

  • That's an epigenetic effect.

    這是一個表觀遺傳效應

  • Epimeans on top of, so that

    "表觀"的意思是"在什麼之上"

  • the epigenetic influence is what happens

    所以表觀遺傳的影響

  • environmentally to either activate or deactivate certain genes.

    是根據環境因素而激發或關閉特定的基因

  • In New Zealand, there was a study

    在紐西蘭 有一項研究

  • that was done in a town called Dunedin,

    在一個叫"達尼丁"的小鎮完成了

  • in which a few thousand individuals

    在那裡研究著 幾千位

  • were studied from birth into their 20s.

    從分娩開始到20多歲的個體

  • What they found was that they could identify

    他們發現可以識別基因突變

  • a genetic mutation- an abnormal gene-

    一種異常的基因

  • which did have some relation to

    確實與

  • the predisposition to commit violence,

    暴力傾向有關

  • but only if the individual had also

    但只有當該個體在童年

  • been subjected to severe child abuse.

    也受到嚴重虐待時 突變才會發生

  • In other words, children with this abnormal gene

    換言之 有這種異常基因的孩子

  • would be no more likely to be violent than anybody else,

    與其它人相比不會更加殘暴

  • and in fact, they actually had a lower rate of violence

    而且事實上 與有著正常基因的人們相比

  • than people with normal genes

    他們實施暴力的機率更低

  • as long as they weren't abused as children.

    只要他們在童年沒受過虐待

  • Great additional example of the ways

    另一個極佳的例子 說明了

  • in which genes are notbe all - end all.”

    基因不是"最重要的本質"

  • A fancy technique where you can

    有一種巧妙的技術 讓你能夠

  • take a specific gene out of a mouse,

    從老鼠身上移除掉一種特別的基因

  • that mouse and its descendants will not have that gene.

    而那隻老鼠以及它的後代將不會有這種基因

  • You haveknocked outthat gene.

    你"解決掉"了那個基因

  • So there's this one gene that encodes for a protein

    有一種基因指導合成與學習和記憶

  • that has something to do with learning and memory.

    有關的蛋白質

  • And with this fabulous demonstration youknock outthat gene

    在這個極好的演示論證中 你"解決掉"那種基因

  • .

    .