字幕列表 影片播放 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 In a decaying society, Art, if it is truthful, 在一個衰敗中的社會 藝術如果是真誠的 must also reflect decay. 也必須反映衰敗 And unless it wants to break faith with its social function, 除非藝術想要背離其社會職責與功能 Art must show the world as changeable. 否則藝術一定要揭示出這個世界是可變的 And help to change it. 並且幫助改變世界 -Ernst Fischer 恩斯特·菲舍爾(奧地利 新聞工作者 作家 政治家) ... deadly riots over the government's plan 政府制定了避免貸款違約的計畫 to avoid defaulting on its loans ... 引發致命暴亂 is that the unemployment keeps rising 是失業率不斷 and it has to keep rising 且必然攀升 just because we have an excess supply of goods... 乃是貨品供過於求的必然結果 this is all borrowed money... 這都是借來的錢 and that debt is owned by banks in other countries... 而這些債務是其他國家的銀行所持有的 M-O-N-E-Y, in the form of a convenient personal loan... 錢 一種便利的個人貸款形式 ... a filter cigarette that delivers the taste... 帶濾嘴的香煙 味道更好 45 malt liquor... Are You Hot?!... 45°麥芽酒 你夠性感嗎?! is the US planning to bomb Iran?... 美國正在計劃轟炸伊朗? ...America is sponsoring terror attacks in Iran... 美國正資助在伊朗的恐怖襲擊 Now, my grandmother was a wonderful person. 我的祖母是個非常好的人 She taught me how to play the game Monopoly. 她教我怎樣去玩"大富翁" She understood that the name of the game is to acquire. 她知道遊戲的目的是去獲取 She would accumulate everything she could 她會去積累所能獲取的一切 and eventually, she became the master of the board. 並最後成為棋盤上的主宰者 And then she would always say the same thing to me. 之後她總會和我說同樣的話 She would look at me and she would say: 她會看著我 說: “One day, you'll learn to play the game.” "總有一天 你會明白怎麼玩好這個遊戲的" One summer, I played Monopoly almost every day, all day long. 有一個夏天 我幾乎每天從早到晚都在玩大富翁 And that summer, I learned to play the game. 而在那個夏天 我學會了玩這個遊戲 I came to understand the only way to win 我開始明白唯一獲勝的方法 is to make a total commitment to acquisition. 即心中只服膺於攫取這一念 I came to understand that money and possessions- 我逐漸開始明白金錢和私有財產 that's the way that you keep score. 是這個遊戲中唯一的得分手段 And by the end of that summer, I was more ruthless than my grandmother. 這樣 到了那年夏天結束之前 我已經比祖母更加殘忍無情 . . I was ready to bend the rules if I had to, to win that game. 如果有必要的話 我準備曲解規則 去贏得遊戲 And I sat down with her to play that fall. 那年秋天我又坐下來與她玩 I took everything she had. 我拿走了她的一切 I watched her give her last dollar and quit in utter defeat. 並看著她把最後一塊錢拿給我 徹底失敗 And then she had one more thing to teach me. 但她最後還有一件事要教給我 Then she said: 接著她說: “Now it all goes back in the box. "現在一切都要回到盒子裡 All those houses and hotels. 所有那些房子和酒店 All the railroads and utility companies... 所有那些鐵路和公共企業 All that property and all that wonderful money... 所有那些資產和美妙的金錢 Now it all goes back in the box. 現在一切都回到了盒子當中 None of it was really yours. 那些東西沒有一件真正屬於你 You got all heated up about it for a while. 你曾經為獲得了這一切 而興奮激動好一陣子 But it was around a long time before you sat down at the board 但當你在棋盤附近坐下之前 這遊戲早已被玩過很久了 and it will be here after you're gone: players come, players go. 而且遊戲會在你離開後持續下去 人來了又來 走了又走 Houses and cars... 房子和汽車 Titles and clothes... 頭銜以及時裝 Even your body.” 甚至連同你的身體" Because the fact is that everything I clutch and consume and hoard 因為事實是 一切我所攫取 消費 囤積的 is going to go back in the box and I'm going to lose it all. 都將回到盒子裡 而我也將會失去一切 So you have to ask yourself 所以 你必須要問問自己 when you finally get the ultimate promotion 當你最後獲得終極的晉陞 when you have made the ultimate purchase 當你完成了終極的消費 when you buy the ultimate home 當你購買了最高級的住宅 when you have stored up financial security 當你囤積了所有的金融證券 and climbed the ladder of success 並儘你所能攀登上 to the highest rung you can possibly climb it... 成功之巔 and the thrill wears off 之後興奮感會不斷消褪 - and it will wear off - 而它確實會全部褪去 Then what? 然後呢? How far do you have to walk down that road 你還要在這條道路上走多遠 before you see where it leads? 才能看到它究竟引向何處? Surely you understand 顯然你應該明白 it will never be enough. 這條路永遠走不到盡頭 So you have to ask yourself the question: 所以 你必須要問自己一個問題: What matters? 什麼才是重要的? They're Hot! 她們很性感! They're Rich! 他們很富有! And They're Spoiled! 她們是被寵壞的! America's #1 Show is Back! 美國排名第一的節目又回來了! Gentle Machine Productions Presents Gentle Machine Productions出品 A Peter Joseph Film 導演:彼得.約瑟夫(時代精神運動發起人) When I was a young man 當我還是個 growing up in New York City 在紐約成長的年輕人時 I refused to pledge allegiance to the flag. 我曾拒絕向國旗宣誓效忠 Of course I was sent to the principal's office. 當然 我被送到了校長辦公室 And he asked me, 'Why don't you want to pledge allegiance? 然後校長問我:"你為何不願宣誓效忠呢? Everybody does!' 每個人都是這樣做的!" I said, 'Everybody once believed the Earth was flat 我回答:"每個人都曾經相信地球是平的呢 but that doesn't make it so.' 但這樣的想法並不會使地球真的變平" I explained that America owed everything it has 我解釋說美國擁有的一切 to other cultures and other nations 都得益於其他文化和其他國家 . . and that I would rather pledge allegiance 所以我寧願宣誓效忠於 to the Earth and everyone on it. 地球及其全部居民 . . Needless to say it wasn't long before I left school entirely 不用多說 沒過多久 我就徹底離開了學校 . . ...and I set up a lab in my bedroom. 然後我就在臥室裡建立了一個實驗室 There I began to learn about science and nature. 我開始在那裡自學有關科學與自然的知識 . . I realized then that the universe is governed by laws 隨後 我意識到宇宙受到客觀法則的規範 . . and that the human being, along with society itself, 而人類 連同社會本身 . . was not exempt from these laws. 也不能存在於這些客觀法則之外 Then came the crash of 1929 之後1929年的經濟危機來臨 which began what we now call 開始了我們現在稱之為 “The Great Depression”. "大蕭條"的時期 I found it difficult to understand why millions 我發覺很難理解為何成千上萬的人 were out of work, homeless, starving, 失業 無家可歸 並且挨餓 while all the factories were sitting there; 但是所有的工廠依舊在那裡 the resources were unchanged. 而資源卻也沒有改變 It was then that I realized 就在那時 我才明白 that the rules of the economic game 經濟遊戲的規則本身 were inherently invalid. 是漏洞百出的 Shortly after, came World War II 隨後二戰很快爆發了 where various nations took turns 各個戰爭中的國家 systematically destroying each other. 輪流系統性地毀滅彼此 I later calculated that all the destruction 我後來估算過 所有在那場戰爭中 and wasted resources spent on that war 被破壞和浪費掉的資源加在一起 . . could have easily provided for every 本來可以輕易滿足 human need on the planet. 地球上每個人的需求 Since that time，I have watched humanity 自從那時起 我一直目睹人類 set the stage for its own extinction. 設下自我毀滅的舞台 I have watched as the precious finite resources 我一直眼睜睜地看著寶貴而有限的資源 are perpetually wasted and destroyed 被不斷浪費 破壞掉 in the name of profit and free markets. 以利益以及自由市場之名義 I have watched the social values of society 我一直目睹社會的價值觀 be reduced into a base artificiality of materialism 淪為虛偽鄙俗的物質主義 and mindless consumption. 和愚眛盲目的消費觀 And I have watched as the monetary powers 我看著金錢的力量 control the political structure 逐漸掌控了那些號稱是 of supposedly free societies. 自由社會的政治結構 I'm 94 years old now. 我現在94歲了 And I'm afraid my disposition is the same as it was 但恐怕我的態度還是 . . 75 years ago. 與75年前一樣 This shit's got to go. 這些狗屁鳥玩意該滾蛋了 [ ZEITGEIST ] [時代精神] [ ZEITGEIST: MOVING FORWARD ] [時代精神:邁步向前] [ Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful 切勿懷疑 少數有思想 committed citizens can change the world. 並且堅定不移的社會成員可以改變整個世界 Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. -Margaret Mead ] 實際上 這也就是唯一曾經發生過的—－瑪格麗特·米德 (美國著名人類學家) . . [ Part 1: Human Nature ] [第1部分:人性] So you're a scientist, and ... 在成為一位科學家 somewhere along the way, hammered into your head 道路上的某處 腦海中反覆思量的 is the inevitable “nature versus nurture” 是"先天遺傳vs後天環境"這個不可避免的論證 and that's at least up there with Coke versus Pepsi 就像可口可樂vs百事可樂 or Greeks versus Trojans. 或希臘人vs特洛伊人 So, nature versus nurture: This, by now 所以 先天遺傳vs後天環境 utterly over-simplifying view of 這個現在已過度簡化的觀點 where influences are- 其影響涵蓋了 influences on how a cell deals with 小到一個細胞如何應對 an energy crisis up to 能量短缺 大到 what makes us who we are on the most individualistic 是什麼決定了我們個體 levels of personality. 最獨特的人格 And what you've got is this complete false dichotomy 而人們從中得出兩種完全錯誤的極端 built around nature as deterministic 即先天自然的遺傳因素起根本性作用 at the very bottom of all the causality. 決定了一切原因 Of 'life is DNA' and the 'code of codes' 生命就是DNA(脫氧核糖核酸) and the Holy Grail, and everything is driven by it. 這個左右著一切的核心密碼和聖盃 At the other end is a much more social science perspective 另一種偏向於社會科學的極端觀點是 . . which is: We are 'social organisms' 我們是"社會有機體" and biology is for slime molds; 而生物學是用來研究黏菌等微生物的 humans are free of biology. 人類與生物學無關 And obviously both views are nonsense. 但顯然這兩類觀點都是胡扯 What you see instead is that 然而實際上 it is virtually impossible to understand how biology works 脫離環境的背景脈絡 來理解生物學的 . . outside of the context of environment. 運作是不可能的 [ It's Genetic ] [這就是遺傳決定的] One of the most crazy making yet widespread 眾多說法中 最荒唐的的一種 然而也荼毒甚廣 . . and potentially dangerous notions is: 並暗藏危機的概念是: “Oh, that behavior is genetic.” "噢 這種行為是遺傳來的" Now what does that mean? It means all sorts of subtle stuff if you 這意味著什麼呢? 這可能隱微地包含了各種各樣的意味 . . know modern biology, but for most people out there 如果你瞭解一點現代生物學 然而大多數人只從中總結出一套 what it winds up meaning is: 以訛傳訛成為: a deterministic view of life, 一種深植於生物學 one rooted in biology and genetics. 及遺傳學的宿命論 Genes equal things that can't be changed. 基因等同於不可改變的東西 Genes equal things that are 基因等同於那些 inevitable and that you might as well 不可避免的事情 而你不浪費資源 not waste resources trying to fix, 試圖去修正也無妨 might as well not put societal energies into trying to improve 不付出社會精力去改善也沒差 because it's inevitable and it's unchangeable. 因為它是不可避免的 也是無法改變的 And that is sheer nonsense. 那是十足的胡說八道 [ Disease ] [疾病] It is widely thought that 人們普遍認為 conditions like ADHD are genetically programmed, 像小兒多動症這類狀況是由基因編碼決定的 conditions like schizophrenia are genetically programmed. 精神分裂症這種情況也是如此 The truth is the opposite. Nothing is genetically programmed. 但事實正好相反 沒有什麼是基因編碼決定的 . . There are very rare diseases, a small handful, 只有非常罕見的疾病 即一小部份 . . extremely sparsely represented in the population, 極其稀少的案例在人口之中的表現 that are truly genetically determined. 才是真正由基因決定的 Most complex conditions 大部分複雜的情況中 might have a predisposition that has a genetic component, 可能會有遺傳因素的傾向 but a predisposition is not the same as a predetermination. 但一個傾向與一個預定並不相同 The whole search for the source of diseases in the genome 在整個基因組之中搜索疾病之源 was doomed to failure before anybody even thought of it, 是注定失敗的 甚至在任何人想到這點之前 because most diseases are not genetically predetermined. 因為大部分的疾病不是由基因預先決定的 Heart disease, cancer, strokes, 心臟病 癌症 中風 rheumatoid conditions, autoimmune conditions in general, 風濕 一般的自身免疫性疾病 mental health conditions, addictions- 心理健康問題 上癮 none of them are genetically determined. 沒有一樣是由基因決定的 Breast cancer, for example. Out of 100 women with breast cancer 比如乳腺癌 每100個女性患者中 only seven will carry the breast cancer genes. 只有7個攜帶乳腺癌基因 93 do not. 另外93人不帶 And out of 100 women who do have the genes 而100個有乳腺癌基因的女士 not all of them will get cancer. 並非都會罹患乳腺癌 [ Behavior ] [行為] Genes are not just things that make us behave in 基因並不能無視環境影響 a particular way regardless of our environment. 而決定我們特定的行為方式 Genes give us different ways of responding to our environment. 基因給予我們回應環境的各種不同方式 And in fact it looks as if some of the early 而事實貌似是 一些早期的 childhood influences and the kind of child rearing, 童年影響和育兒的方式 affect gene expression: 影響著基因的表現 actually turning on or off different genes 實際上激發或者關閉不同的基因 to put you on a different developmental track 讓你走上不同的成長軌跡 which may suit the kind of world you've got to deal with. 可能使你適合你要去應付的世界 So for example, 例如 a study done in Montreal with suicide victims 一項完成於蒙特利爾 針對自殺身亡者的研究 looked at autopsies of the brains of these people. 檢視了這些人的大腦解剖體 And it turned out that if a suicide victim 結果發現 如果一個自殺者 (these are usually young adults) (他們通常是年輕人) had been abused as children, the abuse actually 在童年時期受過虐待 虐待行為實際上 caused a genetic change in the brain 會在大腦中引起一個基因變化 that was absent in the brains of people who had not been abused. 這種改變在未受過虐待的人們腦中是沒有的 That's an epigenetic effect. 這是一個表觀遺傳效應 “Epi” means on top of, so that "表觀"的意思是"在什麼之上" the epigenetic influence is what happens 所以表觀遺傳的影響 environmentally to either activate or deactivate certain genes. 是根據環境因素而激發或關閉特定的基因 In New Zealand, there was a study 在紐西蘭 有一項研究 that was done in a town called Dunedin, 在一個叫"達尼丁"的小鎮完成了 in which a few thousand individuals 在那裡研究著 幾千位 were studied from birth into their 20s. 從分娩開始到20多歲的個體 What they found was that they could identify 他們發現可以識別基因突變 a genetic mutation- an abnormal gene- 一種異常的基因 which did have some relation to 確實與 the predisposition to commit violence, 暴力傾向有關 but only if the individual had also 但只有當該個體在童年 been subjected to severe child abuse. 也受到嚴重虐待時 突變才會發生 In other words, children with this abnormal gene 換言之 有這種異常基因的孩子 would be no more likely to be violent than anybody else, 與其它人相比不會更加殘暴 and in fact, they actually had a lower rate of violence 而且事實上 與有著正常基因的人們相比 than people with normal genes 他們實施暴力的機率更低 as long as they weren't abused as children. 只要他們在童年沒受過虐待 Great additional example of the ways 另一個極佳的例子 說明了 in which genes are not “be all - end all.” 基因不是"最重要的本質" A fancy technique where you can 有一種巧妙的技術 讓你能夠 take a specific gene out of a mouse, 從老鼠身上移除掉一種特別的基因 that mouse and its descendants will not have that gene. 而那隻老鼠以及它的後代將不會有這種基因 You have ”knocked out” that gene. 你"解決掉"了那個基因 So there's this one gene that encodes for a protein 有一種基因指導合成與學習和記憶 that has something to do with learning and memory. 有關的蛋白質 And with this fabulous demonstration you “knock out” that gene 在這個極好的演示論證中 你"解決掉"那種基因 . .