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  • Albert Einstein played a key role in launching quantum mechanics to his theory of photoelectric effect.

    阿爾伯特˙愛因斯坦是把量子力學引進光電效應的關鍵人物

  • But remains deeply bothered by its philosophical implications.

    卻對其中隱含的達觀意義百思不得其解

  • And though most of us still still remember him for deriving e equal m c square.

    愛因斯坦以相對論(E=mc2)聞名世界

  • His last contribution to physics was actually a 1935 paper.

    但他和另外兩位年輕同事鮑里斯˙波多爾斯基、納森˙羅森在1935年合著的論文

  • Co-author with his young colleague - Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen.

    才是他在世時對物理學的最後一個貢獻

  • Regarded as an art philosophical foot note well into the 1980s.

    論文堪稱1980年代詮釋藝術哲學的代表之作

  • This EPR paper has recently become central to a new understanding of quantum physics.

    我們現在知道論文提到的怪異現象叫做「糾纏狀態」

  • With its description of a strange phenomenon now known as entangled states.

    進而對量子物理學有了新的認識

  • The paper begins by considering a source that splits out the pair of particles

    EPR開頭說一個母體分裂出兩個粒子

  • Each with two measurable properties.

    兩粒子各有兩個可測量的屬性

  • Each of these measurements has two possible results of equal probability.

    測量的結果有兩種可能性

  • Let’s say zero or one for the first probability and A or B for the second.

    假設第一種結果叫做0或1,第二種結果則稱為A或B

  • Once a measurements is performed, subsequent measurement of the same properties in the same particle will yelled the same result.

    第一種量測方法結束後 執行第二種量測方法 測量同個粒子的同個性質 會得到相同結果

  • The strange application of this scenario is not only the state of the single particle

    這實驗假設單一粒子測量前

  • Is indeterminate until it’s measured.

    狀態是不明確的

  • But that the measurement then determine the state

    測量決定了粒子狀態

  • What’s more the measurements affect each others.

    測量本身還會互相干擾

  • If you measure a particle as being in state one and followed it up with the second type of measurement

    例如: 測量後發現粒子的狀態是1 此時再用第二種標準測量

  • Youll have a fifty percent chance of getting either A or B.

    會得到A或B其中一個結果

  • But if you then repeat the first measurement,

    但重複第一種測量方法

  • Youll have a fifty percent chance of getting zero

    得到的結果卻不一定是1 雖然第一次測的結果是1

  • Even that the particle have already been measured one.

    你還是有50%的機會得到0

  • So switching the properties been measured scramble the original results.

    所以突然變換測量的屬性可能顛覆最初結果

  • Allowing for a new random value.

    產生任意新數值

  • Things get even stranger when you look at both particles.

    考慮兩個粒子時 就更奇怪了

  • Each of the particle will produce random results, but if you compare the two

    比較兩粒子隨機產生的結果

  • Youll find that theyre always perfect league correlated.

    會發現它們永遠相關聯、互補

  • For example, if both particle are measured at zero.

    假如兩粒子的測量結果都是0

  • The relationship will always hold.

    關係就會一直存在

  • The states of the two are entangled.

    兩者狀態互相影響

  • Measuring one will tell you the other with absolute certainty.

    測量其中一個 就能準確預測另一個

  • But this entanglement seems to defy Einstein’s famous theory of relativity

    但量子糾纏說 似乎違背了鼎鼎有名的相對論

  • Because there is nothing to limit the distance between particles.

    因為後者說 粒子間的距離不受控制

  • If you measure one in New York at noon, and the other in San Fransinco and then the second later

    舉例來說: 中午在紐約的測量 和稍後在舊金山的測量結果

  • They still give the exactly same result.

    兩者一樣

  • But if the measurement does the terminate value then this will require one particle sending some sort of signal to the other

    測量若真能決定某些數字 就代表粒子能以光速1300萬倍的速度

  • At thirteen million time the speed of light which according to relativity is impossible.

    傳達某種信號給別的粒子 在相對論裡 這是不可能的事

  • For this reason, Einstein dismiss entanglement asspuckhafte ferwirklung

    因此愛因斯坦認定量子糾纏是「spuckhafte ferwirklung」

  • Orspooky action at a distance

    也就是「鬼魅般的超距作用」

  • He decided that the quantum mechanics must be incomplete a mere approximation of a deeper reality.

    他說量子力學無法解釋的 只有那粗略評估出的深奧現實

  • In which all particles have pre-determine states that are hidden from us.

    所有粒子都處於特定的狀態 只是我們沒注意到

  • So porter of orthodox quantum theory led by Neil Bohr maintain that quantum state really are fundamentally indeterminate

    尼爾斯˙波爾是傳統量子力論的擁護者 他始終認為粒子原來沒有特定性質

  • And entanglement allows the states of one particle to depend on that the distance partner

    而量子糾纏說允許這顆粒子受到那顆粒子的影響

  • For thirty years, physics remained at in past until John Bell

    30年來 物理學家也都深信不疑 直到約翰˙貝爾發現

  • Figured it out that the key to testing the EPR argument was to look in cases involving different measurements on the two particles

    探討EPR論調的關鍵是「用兩種方法測量兩個粒子」

  • The local hidden variable theories favored by Einstein Podolsky and Rosen

    愛因斯坦和另兩人偏好的隱變量理論

  • Strictly limited how often you can get results like 1A or B0

    局限了得到1A或B0結果的機率

  • Because the outcome would have to be defined in advance

    因為該理論把結果都先設定好了

  • Bell showed that the purely quantum approach where the state is truly indeterminate until measured has different limits

    貝爾說之前的量子力學假設粒子的狀態要測量後才能得知 這樣有諸多限制

  • And predicts measurement results that are impossible in the pre-determine scenario

    如果粒子本身有特定性質 那假設結果就沒有意義

  • Once Bell had worked out how to test the EPR argument physicists went out and did it.

    貝爾發現驗證EPR論點的方法後 物理學家紛紛跟進

  • Beginning with John Clauster in the seventies and Alain Aspect in the early 80s

    70年代打頭陣的約翰˙克勞澤(註: 美國物理學家)、80年代初期的阿蘭˙阿斯佩(註: 法國物理學家)

  • Dozens of experiments has tested the EPR prediction and all have found the same thing

    許多人都實驗了論文中的假設 結果如出一轍

  • Quantum mechanics is correct.

    量子力學正確

  • The correlations between the indeterminate states of entangle particles are real

    糾纏的兩粒子之間那未確定狀態的關聯 也正確

  • And cannot be explained by any deeper variable

    但無法應用在艱深的變數上

  • The EPR paper turned out to be wrong but brilliantly sell

    EPR論文有紕漏 卻曾為許多人稱頌

  • By leading physicists to think deeply about the foundations of quantum physics

    領頭的物理學家們藉由思考量子物理學的基礎

  • It led to further elaborations of the theory and help launch research into subjects like quantum information

    讓理論更完善 也開啟了量子資訊之類的研究

  • Now a thriving field with the potential to develop computers of unparallel power

    現在這領域日漸茁壯 將來可能開發出能力無與倫比的電腦

  • Unfortunately, the random of measure results prevent science fiction scenario like using entangle particles

    不幸的是 測量結果的隨機性證明了科幻小說中

  • To send messages faster than light.

    「糾纏粒子可超越光速傳遞訊息」的情節安排是個錯誤

  • So relativities is save for now but the quantum universe is far stranger than Einstein wanted to believe

    相對論的地位目前還不可動搖 但量子宇宙可比愛因斯坦想的還要複雜太多了

Albert Einstein played a key role in launching quantum mechanics to his theory of photoelectric effect.

阿爾伯特˙愛因斯坦是把量子力學引進光電效應的關鍵人物

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 粒子 量子 糾纏 愛因斯坦 狀態

【TED-Ed】愛因斯坦聰明的錯誤:「纏結現象」 Einstein's brilliant mistake: Entangled states - Chad Orzel

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    Go Tutor 發佈於 2014 年 11 月 17 日
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