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  • - He is an iconic figure in the history of African-American civil rights.

    (我們將能加速這一天的到來,上帝的所有兒女,黑人和白人,猶太教徒和非猶太教徒,耶穌教徒和天主教徒,都將攜手合唱一首古老的黑人靈歌:「自由終於降臨!終於降臨! 感謝全能的上帝,自由終於降臨!」) - 馬丁路德是美國黑人民權運動的指標性人物

  • Welcome to WatchMojo.com

    歡迎收看WatchMojo頻道

  • and today we'll be learning more about the life and accomplishments of Martin Luther King Jr.

    今天我們來談談馬丁路德的生平與成就

  • Born January 15th, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia, he was a skilled student,

    1929年1月15日生於喬治亞州亞特蘭大郡,馬丁路德在學業上成績優異

  • graduating from some of the most distinguished segregated schools in the South.

    並從美國南部種族歧視最嚴重的學校畢業

  • He was inspired to fight for civil rights by his father, Martin Luther King Sr.,

    馬丁路德受其父親影響,立志爭取公民權益

  • a Baptist minister who was also a leader in the battle for social equality.

    他的父親,馬丁路德一世為浸信會牧師,同時也是社會平權運動領袖

  • In June of 1953, King Jr. married Coretta Scott,

    1953年6月,馬丁路德與科麗塔•史考特結婚

  • who also became an important figure in the fight for civil rights.

    她也隨後成為民權運動中的重要人物

  • The next year, he became pastor of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.

    隔年,馬丁路德擔任德克斯特大街浸信會牧師 (阿拉巴馬州,蒙哥馬利市)

  • Already a prominent member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP,

    當時,他已經是美國有色人種促進會(NAACP)的重要成員

  • by December 1955 he took on a more high-profile role in the organization.

    1955年12月,馬丁路德儼然成為NAACP中備受矚目的角色

  • He led the charge in the Montgomery Bus Boycott,

    他領導蒙哥馬利巴士抵制運動

  • after African-American bus rider Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white man.

    起因於黑人婦女羅沙‧帕克斯,拒絕讓位給白人乘客而遭當局逮補的事件

  • The boycott lasted well over a year,

    抵制運動持續了一年多

  • and during that time King was personally targeted by firebombs to his home and was even arrested.

    這段期間,馬丁路德的住所成為炸彈攻擊的目標,甚至因此被政府拘留

  • Ultimately, the battle was won, and King became known as a great Black leader.

    抗爭終究獲得勝利,他因而成為家喻戶曉的偉大黑人領袖 (一年來與市區巴士的抗爭正式宣告終止,在此呼籲蒙哥馬利的黑人同胞們,明早將可重返無歧視的搭乘環境)

  • By 1957, King helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

    1957年,馬丁路德成立南方基督教領袖會議

  • This group used peaceful protest methods such as boycotts,

    以和平抗議的方式,例如抵制

  • sit-ins and marches to fight for civil rights.

    靜坐、遊行,來爭取公民權利

  • Unfortunately, these demonstrations did not always remain peaceful,

    不幸地,並非所有抗議行動都和平落幕

  • as standoffs with police sometimes turned violent.

    與警方對峙之下,抗議行動時常演變為暴力衝突

  • King was also adept at utilizing the media to bring the issues into the forefront of public consciousness.

    他也擅於運用媒體,喚醒大眾對於民權議題的重視

  • In the early 1960s, much of King's work took place in southern states like Georgia, Alabama and Florida.

    1960年初期,運動大多發起於美國南部,如喬治亞州、阿拉巴馬州、及弗羅里達州

  • He was also instrumental in the March on Washington, which took place on August 28th, 1963.

    他也推動了1963年8月28日發起的華盛頓大遊行

  • Despite a great deal of controversy surrounding the event,

    儘管這起遊行引發許多爭議

  • the march drew record numbers to the citys National Mall.

    卻也為華盛頓國家廣場的在場人數,創下最高紀錄

  • On the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, King made his most famous speech,

    馬丁路德在林肯紀念堂的台階上,發表了他最著名的演說

  • pleading for tolerance and equality.

    為寬容與平等請命 (我夢想有一天,我的四個孩子能在不以他們膚色,而以品格優劣來評斷他們的國度裡生活)

  • This event and King's words are credited with assisting in the passage of 1964's Civil Rights Act.

    本次事件及馬丁路德的演講,被世人歸功為推動1964年民權法案的通過

  • The next year, a failed march between Selma and Montgomery, Alabama erupted in violence.

    隔年,塞爾瑪市及蒙哥馬利市之間的另一起遊行,因爆發流血衝突而失敗

  • The day was nicknamed Bloody Sunday, and is considered a decisive moment in the history of civil rights.

    這一天也被稱為「血色星期天」,並被視為民權史上決定性的一刻

  • Though he was not involved, King organized another march on March 25th,

    上述事件馬丁路德雖未參與,他隨即於同年3月25日發動另一起遊行抗議

  • and he delivered another important speech on the steps of the state capitol.

    並且在議會大廈發表另一場重要演說 (期盼的這天要等多久?不久,因為沒有謊言能永垂不朽;期盼的這天要等多久?不久,因為努力耕耘會有收獲)

  • In 1966, King and his counterparts tried to steer the movement into the north of the country,

    1966年,馬丁路德及夥伴試圖將民權運動往美國北方發展

  • starting with Chicago.

    並以芝加哥作為起點

  • He moved to the slums of the city to show support for those in poverty,

    他搬到芝加哥的貧民窟,以表達對於貧困民眾的支持

  • and continued to hold marches despite a terrible public reaction.

    儘管大眾強烈的反對聲浪,他仍不斷發動遊行抗議

  • By 1967, King had shifted his focus by vocally opposing the Vietnam War.

    1967年,馬丁路德將重心轉為聲明反對越戰

  • King suggested funds spent on the war would be better used on social programs

    他認為與其將資金投入戰爭,不如用來健全社會制度

  • and on balancing economic inequalities.

    及改善經濟不平等 (那些勸服我以爭取民權為重的人,我有別的看法,對抗黑人在公共場所受歧視的這條路,我走得太長遠艱辛,以致於分化了我的道德關懷)

  • This evolution in his beliefs lost him support among whites,

    馬丁路德立場的轉變,使其失去白人的支持

  • including President Johnson.

    包含總統林登詹森

  • 1968 saw King help coordinate the 'Poor People's Campaign,'

    1968年,馬丁路德參與推動「窮人運動」

  • to further his agenda against financial disparity.

    以使對抗財政不平等的計畫更臻完善

  • This drive was not supported by some prominent members of the Civil Rights Movement,

    某些民權運動主要成員,卻不支持此一運動

  • as they feared its goals were too much to overcome.

    他們擔心目標過於理想而難以實現

  • To further this campaign, King traveled to Memphis, Tennessee

    為了推動窮人運動,馬丁路德來到田納西州的孟菲斯市

  • to show support for striking black public workers.

    展現他對黑人公務員罷工的支持

  • There, on April 3rd, he gave the last speech of his career:

    4月3日,他於此地發表生涯中的最後一場寓意深遠的演說

  • his prophetic 'I’ve Been to the Mountaintop' address.

    「我已登上山頂」 (我也許無法與你們一起到達,但今晚我要你們知道,生而為人,我們總有一天會到達那應許之地)

  • The next night, on April 4th, 1968,

    隔日,1968年4月4日夜晚

  • King was standing on the balcony of his motel when he was shot and killed.

    馬丁路德在旅館陽台上遭槍擊身亡

  • As the country mourned, violent riots erupted across the nation.

    舉國哀悼的同時,全國爆發武力暴動

  • James Earl Ray was later convicted of the murder,

    事後證實兇手為詹姆士厄爾雷

  • though conspiracy theories remain as to who was behind the assassination.

    但仍有陰謀論者懷疑真兇另有其人

  • King has been recognized for his work a number of times,

    馬丁路德的志業獲得社會廣大認可

  • including a Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

    包括1964的諾貝爾和平獎

  • Today, King's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement are immeasurable,

    如今,馬丁路德之於民權運動的貢獻仍無法估量

  • and his legacy lives on as one of equality and tolerance.

    而他留下平等寬容的文化遺產,將永存於世 (今晚我很欣喜,我什麼都不擔心、什麼人都不怕!我的雙眼已看見主歸來的榮光)

  • Subtitles by the Amara.org community

    字幕由Amara.org社群提供

- He is an iconic figure in the history of African-American civil rights.

(我們將能加速這一天的到來,上帝的所有兒女,黑人和白人,猶太教徒和非猶太教徒,耶穌教徒和天主教徒,都將攜手合唱一首古老的黑人靈歌:「自由終於降臨!終於降臨! 感謝全能的上帝,自由終於降臨!」) - 馬丁路德是美國黑人民權運動的指標性人物

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B1 中級 中文 WatchMojo 民權 運動 黑人 抗議 平等

馬丁-路德-金:生與死 (Martin Luther King Jr: Life and Death)

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    Diane Lin 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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