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  • I speak seven languages.

    我會說七種語言

  • As soon as people find out about that,

    每個人聽到這個時

  • what I'm most often asked --

    通常都會來問我

  • other than for my phone number --

    不是問我的電話號碼

  • is: "How did you do it?

    而是 「你是怎麼做到的?」

  • How did you go about learning all these different languages?"

    你是怎麼學會這些不同的語言?

  • Well, today I'm going to share with you some answers.

    今天呢 我就要來分享你們想知道的答案

  • So my phone number is 212...

    我的電話號碼是212...

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑聲)

  • I'm just kidding.

    開個玩笑

  • See, I was raised as a polyglot.

    我被認為是會說多國語言的人

  • And by the time I turned 18,

    在我都還沒滿18歲之前

  • I could speak already four different languages.

    我就已經會說四種語言了

  • And then for the subsequent three years,

    隔了三年之後

  • I learned three additional languages.

    我又學會了三個新的語言

  • It's about those 3 years that I want to talk about.

    我現在就是要來分享那三年的學習

  • Because my language acquisition process

    原因在於我吸收語言的過程

  • was very different from that of my peers,

    和我的同儕學習的方式非常的不同

  • in that it was never of these stressful,

    我的學習方式並不是那種很有壓力的

  • strenuous, difficult, seemingly impossible tasks,

    絕不是苦讀 艱難 或者像在完成不可能的任務

  • but rather something enjoyable, fun, exciting.

    反而是非常樂在其中 有趣 又興奮的

  • I loved it, every single moment of it.

    我很享受學習的每分每秒

  • And I want to share with you

    我想要跟你們分享

  • why, what was it that made it so special.

    那個原因 是什麼樣特別的方式

  • See, I did have a head start,

    我確實是有贏在起跑點

  • in that I did have these four languages that I spoke ahead of time.

    我前面就已經有了會說四種語言的優勢

  • But there were also these 5 techniques,

    不過還是跟這五個技巧有關係

  • 5 skills if you will, that I use

    這五個技巧如果你知道了

  • that made the language learning process so much easier.

    我就是使用他們 讓我語言學習的過程變得簡單許多

  • And it's about those 5 techniques

    重點就在於這五個技巧

  • that I want to talk about.

    想在這邊跟你們分享

  • So let's dig right in.

    那就讓我們趕快進入重點

  • And for the first one,

    至於第一點

  • the first thing that we've got to do

    我們首先要做到的

  • is to take a very deep breath.

    就是深呼吸

  • And relax.

    然後放鬆

  • And the reason for this is because our entire lives,

    其中的原因就在於 在我們的生活中

  • we're taught how to do things right.

    我們被教導要怎麼把事情做對

  • From the moment we were born we're taught

    從出身那一刻起 就是一直是如此

  • what things we should do, things we shouldn't do,

    哪些事情我們該做 哪些事情我們不該做

  • and how to do things properly.

    以及如何正確的去做事

  • Well, when it comes to language learning,

    不過 當談到語言學習時

  • the golden rule of language learning,

    語言學習的黃金原則

  • the most important thing,

    最重要的東西

  • is to get things wrong,

    就是要學會做錯

  • to make mistakes,

    懂得犯錯

  • and that is the first rule.

    而這就是第一個技能

  • Let me explain to you why.

    容我來解釋一下

  • See, when we've known languages,

    當我們學會了語言之後

  • we know a whole collection of sounds

    我們便知道聲音的聚集

  • and a whole collection of structures,

    而整個聚集的結構

  • which combined make what I like to call

    這種結合方式讓我想要稱之為

  • -- and for the purpose of this presentation --

    -- 這也是這個演講的目的

  • our "'language database."

    我們的「語言資料庫」

  • And our language database will contain

    我們語言的資料庫包含著

  • all the sounds and structures that we know.

    所有我們學過的聲音以及結構

  • However, there is a whole family of sounds and structures

    但是 有還是很多的音群和架構

  • that are beyond our database.

    是超出了我們的語言資料庫的範圍

  • And for us to be able to embark on those and to be able to explore those,

    而我們該如何著手來探索這些

  • there is nothing within our database,

    不在我們語言資料庫當中的東西

  • nothing within our knowledge

    不在我們的知識範圍內

  • that will tell us when we're getting the structures right,

    也就是當我們想要把聲音的結構弄對的時候

  • nothing to tell us when that sound is precise.

    沒有東西能告訴我們怎樣裁示正確的讀音

  • Let's say we're going to explore this one specific sound.

    就讓我們來探索怎麼樣發特定的音

  • There is nothing in our database.

    用我們資料庫裡面沒有的東西

  • When we say it, we could say it perfectly,

    當我們說出口的時候 也許我們的讀音其實完全是正確的

  • but in our minds, it will sound like a mistake.

    但我們內心會告訴我們那個音是錯的

  • So you know that queasy feeling, that we feel that insecure thing,

    就是那種令人反胃的感覺 讓我們害怕犯錯而沒有安全感

  • when we feel like we're making or doing something wrong?

    當我們感覺到 會不會這次又犯錯了?

  • That is the trigger that you need to look for.

    這就是你必須注意的關鍵

  • Because that is the signal that tells you that you're going beyond your database

    因為這就是一個警訊 告訴你說你現在要發的音已經超出你的資料庫了

  • and that you're allowing yourself to explore the realm of the new language.

    然後你必須要從新的語言中尋找

  • Let me show you how this works in practice.

    現在我要讓你看看這整個實際過程

  • So let's say, we're going to go and learn the word "door" in Spanish.

    如果說我們要來學西班牙文的"door"

  • So, the word "door" in Spanish is "Puerta."

    這個單字在西文中是"Puerta"

  • So, for "Puerta" we've got a few sounds that exist in English.

    我們會從英文裡面現有的聲音來發"Puerta"

  • So, the "Pu," "e," and "ta."

    所以就會唸作 "P"跟"e"再加上"ta"

  • However, when it comes to the "r,"

    但是 現在"r"出現了

  • that sound is not in our database.

    這個聲音並不在我們的資料庫當中

  • The "RR."

    "RR"

  • The rolled "r" does not exist in the English sound database.

    這種卷舌的"r"並不存在英文的聲音資料庫裡

  • And it's a little bit on the outside.

    而且超乎了我們所能及的範圍

  • So, if we allowed ourselves

    不過 如果我們能讓自己

  • to bridge through our database, and to really break through

    在資料庫中建立連結 並做好突破的準備

  • and to make the mistake,

    然後嘗試犯錯

  • we could make sounds like the "RR."

    我們就可以發出"RR"這個聲音

  • But instead, what sometimes happens

    但相反的 有時候會發生一種狀況

  • is that we get the closest relative of it that is within the database,

    其實這個聲音是可以在資料庫中找到的

  • and that is the "ah-er" sound.

    而那個音就是"ah-er"

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑聲)

  • And that "ah-er" sound

    而這個"ah-er"的聲音

  • makes something that sounds like "pue-er-rta,"

    可以發出"pue-er-rta"的聲音

  • which doesn't mean a thing in Spanish,

    在西班牙語中並不代表任何意義

  • and actually doesn't sound too charming.

    老實說這聲音聽起來並不好聽

  • And it doesn't tell you too much.

    也無法提供給你太多東西

  • So, for the first technique,

    所以第一個方法就是

  • allow yourself to make that mistake,

    容許自己犯錯

  • so that sounds like "Puerta" can come out.

    就能發出"Puerta"這個聲音

  • And now let's go to the second one.

    現在看到第二個

  • For the second one,

    第二個字

  • I'm going to need some of your collaboration.

    我需要你們的合作

  • We're going to read these four beautiful words.

    我們要來讀讀看這四個美妙的字

  • And on the count of three.

    在我數到三個時候

  • So let's start with the first one, on the count of three: one, two, three.

    那現在就來試試看 在我數到三個時候 一、二、三

  • (Audience) Mao. (Sid) "Mao," perfect.

    (觀眾) Mao (演講者) Mao 完美

  • The second one: one, two, three. (Audience:) Coco.

    那現在第二個 一、二、三 (觀眾) Coco

  • (Sid) Perfect. Third one. One, two, three.

    (演講者) 完美 第三個 一、二、三

  • (Audience) Cocao. (Sid) Perfect.

    (觀眾) Cocao (演講者) 完美

  • And the fourth one. One, two, three.

    現在第四個 一、二、三

  • (Silence)

    (沉默)

  • Oh.

    喔~

  • Let me show you what happened when we did this.

    讓我來說明一下剛剛在唸的時候發生了什麼事

  • We get these four words

    我們看到這四個字

  • and we put them through a sort of American English filter.

    我們就用英文來過濾這些字

  • And we get something looks kind of like this.

    然後我們就找相似的東西

  • Which...And I'll tell you the results of that.

    那我來告訴你們結果如何

  • So for the first one "Mão,"

    第一個字"Mão"

  • which means "hand" in Portuguese,

    在葡萄牙語中是"hand"的意思

  • we put it through the filter, we get "Mao."

    我們把它過濾之後 得到"Mao"

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑聲)

  • For the second one we get "coco,"

    而第二個字我們得到"Coco"

  • which is "coconut" in Portuguese,

    在葡萄牙與中是"Coconut"的意思

  • or "cocô," which means "poop."

    或"cocô 是"poop"的意思

  • We put it through the filter, we get a warm cup of cocoa.

    我們把它過濾之後 就得到了一杯溫熱的可可

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑聲)

  • And for the fourth one,

    至於第四個

  • we have "huo,"

    意思是"huo"

  • which means "fire" in Chinese.

    也就是中文裡面的"fire"

  • And we get --

    我們可以看到

  • if you're feeling really creative, maybe a dude doing karate...

    如果說你非常有創意 也許會看到一個人在做空手道

  • (Laughter)

    (觀眾笑聲)

  • But anyway,

    不過總之

  • These are...They don't tell you much about how these things are pronounced.

    這些字並沒有提供太多讓你能夠發音的訊息

  • And if you think it's only one way,

    如果你覺得只有一種途徑

  • only if you're going from English to a different language,

    就只有從英文到另外一個語言

  • think about non-native speakers.

    想想非母語人士

  • And try to explain to someone

    試著要解釋給他們聽

  • that this [though] is pronounced "though,"

    像是though讀做"though"

  • and that this [thought] is pronounced "thought."

    而thought就唸做"thought"

  • And even though they look almost identical,

    他們看起來非常的相像

  • they have nothing to do with one another.

    但事實上兩者卻毫無關係

  • Or try to explain to them that

    或者也可以說

  • this [enough] is "enough"

    enough讀做"enough"

  • and this [enuf] is just simply wrong.

    而這個enuf很明白就是錯的

  • See, there is nothing useful about using that foreign alphabet,

    所以說 把外語的字母系統

  • when you're trying to learn a language.

    用在語言學習上 是不實用的

  • Why? Because it will give you wrong signals.

    為什麼? 因為他會給你錯誤的訊息

  • So what is the second technique?

    那麼第二個方法是什麼呢?

  • Scrap it.

    就是丟棄

  • Scrap the foreign alphabet.

    丟棄外國語言的字母系統

  • Let me give you an alternative of how you can go about this.

    我來告訴你一個如何不用外語的字母系統的方法

  • This is a Brazilian currency,

    這個是巴西的錢幣

  • and it spelled like this.

    拼法是這樣

  • So on the count of three, can we all say the name of the currency. 1, 2, 3.

    那當我喊到三個時候 請大家把硬幣用巴西語說出來 一 二 三

  • (Audience) Real.

    (觀眾) Real

  • (Sid) We have some people who know the spelling.

    (演講者) 有些人知道他怎麼拼

  • Yeah, "re-al," for the most part.

    就是 "re-al"

  • And as useful as this might seem, it doesn't tell you a single thing.

    而且乍看之下看起來很好用 其實它完全沒有告訴你任何東西

  • And when you're speaking Portuguese, "re-al" means nothing.

    如果你要用葡牙牙語說"re-al" 這並不太表任何意思

  • Let me give you an alternative.

    讓我來告訴你該怎麼辦

  • See, in Portuguese, the way that you say "real" is "heou."

    在葡萄牙文中 "real"就讀作"heou"

  • So let me teach you how to say it.

    讓我來教你該怎麼說

  • So on the count of three, let's say "he."

    那數到三的時候一起說 "he"

  • So it's "hey" without the "y" sound.

    是"hey"然後"y"的音不發

  • So, one, two, three -- "he."

    來 一二三 "he"

  • (Audience) HE. (Sid) Perfect.

    (觀眾) HE (演講者) 完美

  • And now let's say "ou."

    那現在說 "ou"

  • It's like "ouch", but without the "ch" sound,

    就像"ouch"然後不要發"ch"的音

  • so it's "ou." One, two, three,

    來 "ou" 一 二 三

  • (Audience) OU. (Sid) Perfect.

    (觀眾) OU (演講者) 完美

  • So, "HE."

    來 "HE"

  • (Audience) HE.

    (觀眾) HE

  • (Sid) "OU."

    (演講者) OU

  • (Audience:) OU.

    (觀眾) OU

  • (Sid) "HE." (Audience:) HE.

    (演講者) HE (觀眾) HE

  • (Sid) "OU." (Audience:) OU.

    (演講者) OU (觀眾) OU

  • (Sid) "HE-OU," HEOU.

    (演講者) HE-OU "HEOU"

  • (Audience) HE-OU. (Sid) Perfect.

    (觀眾) HE-OU (演講者) 完美

  • Now you all sound like passionate Brazilian capitalists.

    現在你們的口氣就像熱情的巴西資本主義家

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So why would we go and use something that looks like this,

    那為什麼我們要做出這樣的事情

  • that looks "real"

    像是"real"

  • when instead you can use something

    當你可以用某個東西

  • that looks like this and gives you so much more information

    能提供給你更多的訊息

  • about how to say something in a foreign language.

    告訴你怎麼用外語說出某些東西

  • And that puts us in a really good spot

    我們已經把自己擺在最好的位子了

  • because at this point we allowed ourselves

    因為我們在這時候允許了自己

  • to break through our database and to make mistakes,

    去突破自己的資料庫 然後去犯錯

  • to go into that uncharted territory of a new language.

    踏入這個新語言的未知領域

  • And then, we figured out how to take notations

    突破了 我們就能學到掌握意思的方法

  • in a way that the information is actually meaningful.

    讓我們能得到資訊中的真正意涵

  • But then how can we test it?

    但是那我們要怎麼測試到底正不正確?

  • And that's where technique number 3 comes in.

    這就是第三個方法要出現了

  • Technique number 3 is about finding a stickler.

    第三個方法就是找到一個挑剔的人

  • So finding someone who's detail-oriented

    找一個喜歡鑽牛角尖人

  • and won't let you get away with the mistakes.

    而且他不允許你犯錯

  • And more than finding someone who is really that person,

    而比起找到那個挑剔的人

  • the guru for the language,

    所謂的語言達人 更為重要的是

  • it's more about establishing the right sort of relationship.

    建立起一個好的關係

  • Relationship with someone,

    和語言達人的關係

  • where they will correct you. They'll feel comfortable correcting you

    讓他們可以糾正你 讓他們可以很自在的指正你

  • and making sure that you're getting to that spot you wanted in a language.

    然後讓你學會更正確的使用新的語言

  • But at the same time,

    而在同一時間

  • someone who will encourage you

    他們可以鼓勵你

  • to get things wrong and to make those mistakes in the first place.

    讓你勇於在第一次嘗試時去犯錯

  • And sticklers could be your teacher,

    這些挑剔的人可以是你的老師

  • it could be your tutor, it could be your friend,

    可以是你的家教 可以是你的朋友

  • it could be someone on Skype or Craigslist; it doesn't matter.

    可以是透過通訊網路認識的人 都沒有關係

  • You can find sticklers all over the place,

    在所有地方你都能找到這樣挑剔的人

  • and with technology, it becomes a lot easier find them.

    而且加上科技發達 要找到他們可以說更為容易

  • And then it's time to practice.

    接著就是需要練習

  • And for practicing, we've got the fourth technique.

    怎麼樣練習 我們要學會第四項技能

  • See, I always thought I had this thing

    我一直覺得這一件事情

  • that was a little bit of "Sid craziness" that I did,

    有一點點 「錫德發狂」

  • and then I realized how useful it was.

    做了以後我才發現這麼的好用

  • I always did what I like to call "Shower Conversations."

    我常常做這件事情 我把它成為「澡間對話」

  • And shower conversations are exactly what they sound like.

    澡間對話其實就如其名

  • When I was learning a new language,

    當我學一個新語言時

  • I would stay in the shower for a few minutes.

    我會在洗澡時待個幾分鐘

  • And I would remember having all these discussions;

    我還記得一些討論的東西

  • I remember when I was learning Chinese,

    在我學中文的時候

  • and I would haggle and try to get two yuan more,

    我會討價還價多爭兩文錢

  • to get that wonderful dumpling, and getting the discount;

    來買好吃的水餃 然後試著殺價

  • or I would go to Roma

    或是 我會到羅馬去

  • and I'd ask for directions to the best "piazza."

    然後問別人最好的市集該怎麼走

  • It was amazing.

    真是非常棒

  • And the beautiful thing about the shower conversation

    其中澡間對話最棒的是

  • is that it allows you to find wherever you have a gap in your knowledge,

    你可以發現自己在使用語言時缺乏哪些知識

  • because you're having a conversation on both ends.

    因為你同時扮演著一個對話中的兩個人

  • For example, it's easy to ask for directions, how about receiving them?

    舉例來說 問路很簡單 但要怎麼要聽得懂別人的指示

  • Or even better, giving directions.

    更好的話 試著講出方向

  • Well, the shower conversation forces you to have both side of the conversation.

    澡間對話可以讓你一人分飾兩角

  • And you don't need to have them in the shower.

    而且這不只限於洗澡時

  • The wonderful thing about as well as is that you can have them anywhere.

    最棒的是我們在任何一個地方都可以這麼做

  • So you can have them in the shower, in your apartment,

    你可以在洗澡的地方 自己的公寓

  • walking down in the streets, in the subway,

    走在大街上 地下鐵裡

  • and seriously, if you're in the subway,

    而且講真的 如果你搭地鐵

  • speaking to yourself in a foreign language in New York,

    在紐約地鐵對自己說外語

  • you'll fit right in.

    那你可以適應得很好

  • You're fine.

    絕對沒問題

  • And it's great,

    非常的好

  • because it doesn't... you don't depend on anything or anyone to get your practice,

    因為這不會... 你不需要靠外力才能練習

  • and I did this for years.

    我已了這麼做了好幾年