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  • When I was preparing for this talk, I went to search for a couple of quotes that I can share with you.

    我在準備今天演講的時候 去找了有沒有適合分享的名言佳句

  • Good news, I found three that I particularly liked.

    好消息是: 我找到了3個特別喜歡的

  • The first by Samuel Johnson, who said,

    第一個是賽繆爾˙詹森說的

  • When making your choice in life, do not forget to live.”

    「我們不停在生活中做出選擇,但不要忘了把握當下」

  • The second by Aeschylus, who reminded us that,

    第二個是埃斯庫羅斯(註: 希臘詩人及悲劇作家) 他提醒了我們

  • Happiness is a choice that requires effort.”

    「快樂是自己的選擇,加上額外的努力」

  • And the third is one by Groucho Marx who said,

    第三個是格魯喬˙馬克思(註: 美國喜劇演員、電影明星)說的

  • “I wouldn’t want to choose to belong to any club that would have me as a member.”

    「我不想選擇任何一個俱樂部,將自己侷限於他們的會員身分」

  • Now, bad news, I didn’t know which one of these quotes to choose and share with you.

    壞消息是: 我現在不知道該選哪個來分享了

  • The sweet anxiety of choice.

    選擇常常讓人愉悅又苦惱

  • In today’s times of post-industrial capitalism,

    在今天這個後工業資本主義的時代

  • choice, together with individual freedom and the idea of self-making,

    人們對與選擇掛勾的個人自由及自我塑造理念

  • has been elevated to an ideal.

    要求越來越高

  • Now, together with this, we also have a belief in endless progress.

    我們還深信未來會不斷進步

  • But the underside of this ideology has been an increase of anxiety,

    這種意識形態的缺點是它讓人們感到焦慮

  • feeling of guilt, feeling of being inadequate,

    感到罪惡、覺得自己有太多不足

  • feeling that we are failing in our choices.

    覺得自己可能做錯了選擇

  • Sadly, this ideology of individual choice has prevented us to think about social changes.

    遺憾的是 這種個人選擇的意識形態更讓我們忽視了社會變遷

  • It appears that this ideology was actually very efficient in pacifying us as political and social thinkers.

    不過這種思想對於政治家或社會思想家卻有安撫的作用

  • Instead of making social critique, we are more and more engaging in self-critique,

    相較於批判社會 我們更常批評指教自己

  • sometimes to the point of self-destruction.

    有時候甚至到了自我毀滅的程度

  • Now, how come that ideology of choice is still so powerful,

    那為什麼這種意識形態依然如此盛行呢?

  • even among people who have not many things to choose among?

    也仍然影響著沒有太多選擇的人?

  • How come that even people who are poor very much still identify with the idea of choice, the kind of rational idea of choice which we embrace?

    為什麼貧窮的人 也認同我們接受的「理性選擇」概念呢?

  • Now, the ideology of choice is very successful in sort of opening for us

    「選擇」其實成功為人們

  • a space to think about some imagined future.

    創造了對未來的想像空間

  • Let me give you an example.

    我舉個例子

  • My friend Manya, when she was a student at university in California,

    我朋友曼雅 當她還在加州讀大學時

  • was earning money by working for a car dealer.

    為汽車仲介工作 賺取零用錢

  • Now, Manya, when she encountered the typical customer,

    當客戶上門時

  • would debate with him about his life style, how much he wants to spend,

    她會問客戶的生活型態、預算、

  • how many children he has, what does he need the car for?

    有幾個小孩、買車的用途?

  • They would usually come to a good conclusion what would be a perfect car.

    最後通常能找到一台合適的車

  • Now, before Manya’s customer would go home and think things through,

    客戶回家好好考慮一番之前

  • she would say to him,

    曼雅會告訴他:

  • The car that you are buying now is perfect,

    「我們剛剛選的那台車很不錯

  • but in the few year’s time, when your kids will be already out of the house,

    但幾年後 當孩子長大離家

  • when you will have a little bit more money,

    你也有更多錢時

  • that other car will be ideal.

    另一台車會更適合你

  • But what you are buying now is great.”

    但原本的最符合你現在所有需要」

  • Now, the majority of Manya’s customers who came back the next day bought that other car,

    大部分客戶都會隔天回來買下那另一台車

  • the car they did not need, the car that cost far too much money.

    那台他們現在不需要、也更貴的車

  • Now, Manya became so successful in selling cars that soon she moved on to selling airplanes.

    曼雅越賣越成功 她很快就改行去賣飛機了

  • And knowing so much about the psychology of people

    精準掌握人類心態

  • prepared her well for her current job, which is that of a psychoanalyst.

    讓她對現在的職業-心理分析師 更加得心應手

  • Now, why were Manya’s customers so irrational?

    為什麼曼雅的客戶如此不理智?

  • Manya’s success was that she was able to open in their heads an image of an idealized future,

    曼雅的成功秘訣就在於她為客戶編織了一個未來的美夢

  • an image of themselves when they are already more successful, freer.

    自己變得更成功、更自由自在的美夢

  • And for them, choose that other car was as if they are coming closer to this ideal

    對買主來說 選擇那另一台車 就表示離美夢又更近了點

  • in which it was as if Manya already saw them.

    離那個好像一定會實現的夢更近了點

  • Now, we rarely make really totally rational choices.

    我們很少做出百分之百理性的選擇

  • Choices are influenced by our unconscious, by our community.

    選擇會受到潛意識、所處的社會環境影響

  • Were often choosing by guessing, what would other people think about our choice?

    通常也都包含極多臆測成分-要是我選了這個 別人會怎麼想?

  • Also we are choosing by looking at what others are choosing.

    社會規範還有他人的選擇

  • Were also guessing what is socially acceptable choice.

    都會影響我們最後的決定

  • Now, because of this, we actually even after we have already chosen, like bought a car,

    正因為如此 我們才會在做出選擇後-比方說 已經買了車

  • endlessly read reviews about cars,

    卻還一直在瀏覽各廠牌車子的評價

  • as if we still want to convince ourselves that we made the right choice.

    好像想要說服自己買對了車

  • Now, choices are anxiety-provoking.

    選擇讓人產生焦躁不安的情緒

  • They are linked to risks, losses.

    因為它們背後隱藏的

  • They are highly unpredictable.

    是難以預料的風險、損失

  • Now, because of this, people have now more and more problems that they are not choosing anything.

    太多選擇反而帶來困擾 所以有些人開始一樣都不選

  • Not long ago, I was at a wedding reception.

    不久前 我在一個婚宴上

  • And I met a young, beautiful woman who immediately started telling me about her anxiety over choice.

    遇到一位年輕貌美的女士 她馬上開始向我抱怨她對於選擇的煩惱

  • She said to me, “I needed one month to decide which dress to wear.”

    她說: 「我需要一個月來決定到底穿哪件洋裝;

  • Then she said, “For weeks I was researching which hotel to stay for this one night.

    新婚之夜住的旅館 我也找了好幾個禮拜;

  • And now, I need to choose a sperm donor.”

    然後我現在又需要一個精子捐贈者」

  • I looked at this woman in shock.

    我非常驚訝

  • Sperm donor? What’s the rush?”

    「精子捐贈者?! 會不會太早了?」

  • She said, “I’m turning 40 at the end of this year,

    她說: 「我今年底就40了,

  • and I’ve been so bad in choosing men in my life.”

    卻總是遇不到對的人」

  • Now choice, because it’s linked to risks, is anxiety-provoking.

    因為選擇挾帶了風險 所以我們會擔心、會害怕

  • And it was already the famous Danish philosopherren Kierkegaard

    丹麥哲學家索倫˙奧貝˙齊克果也早就說過

  • who pointed out that anxiety is linked to the possibility of possibility.

    這種恐慌感和極度的不確定性息息相關

  • Now, we think today that we can prevent these risks.

    我們認為在這個時代 風險已經可以避免

  • We have endless market analysis,

    接二連三的市場分析

  • projections of the future earnings.

    人民未來所得的預測

  • Even with market, which is about chance, randomness, we think we can predict rationally where it’s going.

    即使是市場這種充滿機率、變動的東西 我們也還是覺得可以準確預測它的走向

  • Now, chance is actually becoming very traumatic.

    事實上 「機率」可能導致嚴重的後果

  • Last year, my friend Bernard Harcourt at the University of Chicago organized an event,

    去年我朋友柏納˙哈克在芝加哥大學籌畫了一個活動

  • a conference on the idea of chance.

    是一場探討「偶然與機會」的座談

  • He and I were together on the panel, and just before delivering our papers,

    我們一起上台去 開始之前

  • we didn’t know each other’s papers, we decided to take chance seriously.

    兩人都不知道對方稿子的內容 但我們決定冒個險

  • So we informed our audience that what they will just now hear will be a random paper,

    我們跟底下的人說 他們將會聽到兩份內容參雜在一起、

  • a mixture of the two papers, which we didn’t know what you know, each was writing.

    完全沒組織過的稿子

  • Now, we delivered the conference in such a way.

    我們用以下的方式進行-

  • Bernard read his first paragraph.

    伯納念他手上稿子的第一段

  • I read my first paragraph.

    然後我念我手上稿子的第一段

  • Bernard read his second paragraph, I read my second paragraph,

    伯納念他的第二段 然後我念我的第二段

  • in this way towards the end of our papers.

    就這樣一直到最後一段

  • Now, you will be surprised that a majority of our audience

    你可能會很驚訝 大部分聽眾

  • did not think that what they’d just listened was a complete random paper.

    都不覺得演講沒組織

  • They couldn’t believe that speaking from the position of authority

    他們無法相信具有專業、權威的

  • like two professors we were, we would take you know, chance seriously.

    兩個教授居然會把演講稿混著用

  • They thought we prepared the paper together

    聽眾以為我們一起準備了演講稿

  • and was just joking that it’s random.

    說混著用只是在開玩笑

  • Now, we live in times with a lot of information, big data,

    這是個資訊、數據、關於人體臟器知識

  • a lot of knowledge about the insides of our body.

    都大爆炸的時代

  • We decoded our genome.

    我們甚至解碼基因

  • We know about our brains more than before.

    對腦內運作達到前所未有的了解

  • But surprisingly, people are more and more turning a blind eye in front of this knowledge.

    但人們對這些知識卻選擇視而不見

  • Ignorance and denial are on the rise.

    愚昧和自欺欺人現象越來越嚴重

  • Now, in regard to current economic crisis,

    眼前的經濟危機

  • we think that we will just wake up again and everything will be the same as before,

    沒人當一回事 大家都覺得情況會自動好轉、自動回到之前的狀態

  • and no political or social changes are needed.

    不需要任何政治或社會變革

  • In regard to ecological crisis, we think nothing needs to be done just now,

    至於生態危機 我們也認為還不用積極去處理、面對

  • or others need to act before us.

    或認為其他人應該先有所行動

  • Or even when ecological crisis already happens, like the catastrophe in Fukushima,

    甚至當生態危機已經發生 例如福島核災

  • often we have people living in the same environment with the same amount of information

    了解核災可怕的居民還是住在那裏

  • and half of them will be anxious about radiation and half of them will ignore it.

    一半煩惱輻射問題 一半裝作沒那回事

  • Now, psychoanalysts know very well that people surprisingly don’t have passion for knowledge,

    心理分析學家很清楚人們並不渴求知識

  • but passion for ignorance.

    卻對無知有著難解的狂熱

  • Now, what does that mean?

    這是什麼意思呢?

  • Let’s say when we are facing a life-threatening illness,

    舉例來說 面對危及性命的疾病

  • a lot of people don’t want to know that.

    許多人並不想知道事實

  • They rather prefer denying the illness, which is why it’s not so wise to inform them if they don’t ask.

    他們傾向於否認自己生了病 這也是為什麼不主動戳破比較明智的原因

  • Surprisingly, research shows that sometimes people who deny their illness live longer than those who are rationally choosing the best treatment.

    研究結果出人意料-有時否認病情的 比那些接受事實和治療的患者活得更久

  • Now, this ignorance, however, is not very helpful on the level of the social.

    但這種視而不見 以社會的角度來看 並沒有助益

  • When were ignorant about where we are heading,

    當我們對未來方向毫無頭緒

  • you know, a lot of social damage can be caused.

    就可能產生許多社會成本

  • Now, on top of facing ignorance, were also facing today some kind of obviousness.

    除了無知 我們還被「眼前的表象」蒙蔽

  • Now, it was French philosopher Louis Althusser who pointed out

    法國哲人路易˙皮埃爾˙阿爾都塞曾說過

  • that ideology functions in such a way that it creates a veil of obviousness.

    人們只看到意識形態的表層

  • Before we kind of do any social critique,

    批判社會之前

  • it’s necessary really to lift that veil of obviousness

    必須先揭開膚淺又明顯的表象

  • and to think through a little bit differently.

    用不一樣的視角思考

  • If we go back to this ideology of individual, rational choice we often embrace,

    回來看廣受認可的「個人之理性選擇」概念

  • it’s necessary precisely here to lift this obviousness

    掀開那「顯而易見的表象」

  • and to think a little bit differently.

    再用不同的角度思考 兩個是一樣的道理

  • Now for me, a question often is,

    一直以來 我心中都有個疑問

  • why we still embrace this idea of a self-made man on which capitalism relied from its beginning?

    為何今天人們還是覺得選擇能塑造個人 而不知道一切的起源其實都是資本主義?

  • Why we think that we are really such masters of our lives

    為什麼我們會覺得自己有厲害到

  • that we can rationally make the best ideal choices,

    可以做出最理性、最理想的抉擇

  • that we don’t accept losses and risks?

    而拒絕蒙受損失或承擔風險?

  • And for me, it’s very shocking to see sometime very poor people,

    看到很多非常貧窮的人

  • for example, not supporting the idea of the rich being taxed more.

    不支持政府對富人增稅 讓我很詫異

  • Quite often here they still identify with a certain kind of a lottery mentality.

    他們常常都抱著類似中樂透的心態

  • Okay, maybe they don’t think that they will make it in the future,

    也許這輩子已沒機會成為富翁

  • but maybe they think, my son might become the next Bill Gates.

    但自己的兒子可能會是下一個蓋茲

  • And who would want to tax one’s son?

    誰希望自己的兒子被課比別人更多的稅?

  • Or, a question for me is also, you know why would people who have no health insurance not embrace universal healthcare?

    另一個問題是 為什麼沒有健保的人會不支持該制度的普及呢?

  • Sometimes they don’t embrace it, again identifying with the idea of choice, but they have nothing to choose from.

    有時候是因為 他們覺得自己是「選擇」不支持 但其實他們根本沒得選

  • Now, Margaret Thatcher famously said,

    柴契爾夫人說過一句聞名世界的話

  • that there is nothing like a society.

    沒有任何事物可與「社會」比擬

  • Society doesn’t exist.

    「社會」根本不存在

  • It is only individuals and their families.

    存在的只有「個人」和「家庭」

  • Sadly, this ideology still functions very well,

    很不幸的 依然有人支持那種論調

  • which is why people who are poor might feel ashamed for their poverty.

    那就是為何窮人會對赤貧感到羞愧

  • We might endlessly feel guilty that we are not making the right choices and that’s why we didn’t succeed.

    我們可能一輩子都被罪惡感纏擾-因為我一直做錯選擇 才會老是失敗

  • We are anxious that we are not good enough.

    害怕自己不夠好

  • That’s why we work very hard, long hours at the workplace

    所以日以繼夜的努力工作

  • and equally long hours on remaking ourselves.

    一次又一次 不斷重塑自己

  • Now, when we are anxious over choices,

    怕自己選擇會帶來傷害

  • sometimes we easily give our power of choice away.

    我們有時候會很輕易把選擇的權力拱手讓人

  • We identify with the guru who tells us what to do, self-help therapists,

    我們想要一個智慧導師告訴我們該做什麼; 自我診療師

  • or we embrace a totalitarian leader who appears to have no doubts about choices, who sort of knows.

    或者某個極權主義領導者 一個就是知道該選什麼、絕不會出差錯的人

  • Now, often people ask me,

    人們常問我

  • What did you learn by studying choice?”

    「妳研究『選擇』都學到了些什麼?」

  • And there is an important message that I did learn.

    我確實有個很重大的領悟:

  • When thinking about choices, I stopped taking choices too seriously, personally.

    不再過分檢視每一個選項

  • First, I realized a lot of choice I make is not rational.

    我了解自己的抉擇並非完全客觀、公正

  • It’s linked to my unconscious, my guesses of what others are choosing,

    下意識、別人的選擇

  • or what is a socially embraced choice.

    和社會觀感都會影響我的決定

  • I also embrace the idea that we should go beyond thinking about individual choices,

    我也認為人們應該跳脫「思索個人選擇」這個框框

  • that it’s very important to rethink social choices,

    開始反省可能對社會產生影響的選擇

  • since this ideology of individual choice has pacified us.

    我們滿足於「個人選擇」的意識形態

  • It really prevented us to think about social change.

    因此忽略了社會變遷

  • We spend so much time choosing things for ourselves and barely reflect on communal choices we can make.

    我們花了這麼多時間為自己挑這選那 卻從沒想過可以做什麼讓社會更好

  • Now, we should not forget that choice is always linked to change.

    一定不要忘記選擇必然會帶來變動

  • We can make individual changes, but we can make social changes.

    我們可以改變自己 當然也可以改變社會

  • We can choose to have more wolves.

    我們可以選擇復育更多狼

  • We can choose to change our environment to have more bees.

    我們可以打造一個更適合蜜蜂居住的環境

  • We can choose to have different rating agencies.

    我們可以建立不同的信用評等機構

  • We can choose to control corporations instead of allowing corporations controlling us.

    我們可以選擇主導公司企業 而不是被它奴役

  • We have a possibility to make changes.

    我們有改變事物的潛能

  • Now, I started with a quote from Samuel Johnson,

    我以賽繆爾˙詹森的名言開場

  • who said that when we make choice in life, we shouldn’t forget to live.

    他說「在生活中選擇的同時 不要忘了把握當下」

  • Finally, you can see I did have a choice to choose one of the three quotes with which I wanted to start my lecture.

    現在你知道 我確實能從三個當中 選出一個作為開場白

  • I did have a choice, such as nations, as people,

    我擁有選擇 但每個國家、每位人民

  • we have choices too to rethink in what kind of society we want to live in the future.

    也都一樣 他們可以選擇「未來想活在什麼樣面貌的社會裡」

  • Thank you.

    謝謝

When I was preparing for this talk, I went to search for a couple of quotes that I can share with you.

我在準備今天演講的時候 去找了有沒有適合分享的名言佳句

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED 選擇 社會 客戶 意識 理性

【TED】Renata Salecl: 我們對選擇的固執 (Renata Salecl: Our unhealthy obsession with choice)

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    Go Tutor 發佈於 2014 年 10 月 12 日
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