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  • SALMAN KHAN: The Khan Academy is most known

    薩爾曼可汗:可汗學院最出名的

  • for its collection of videos.

    就是大量的影片

  • So before I go any farther, let me

    在深入介紹之前 容我先

  • show you a little bit of a montage.

    讓大家看一些片段

  • [VIDEO PLAYBACK]

    [影片播放]

  • So the hypotenuse is now going to be five.

    現在斜邊是5

  • This animal's fossils are only found

    動物化石在

  • in this area of South America, nice, clean band

    南美洲這個漂亮乾淨的帶狀區

  • here, and in this part of Africa.

    以及一部分的非洲被發現

  • We could integrate over the surface,

    我們能計算面積

  • and the notation usually is a capital sigma.

    而通常用大寫的sigma符號

  • National Assembly, they create the committee

    國家議會成立了公共安全委員會

  • of public safety, which sounds like a very nice committee.

    聽起來是個相當不錯的委員會

  • Notice this is an aldehyde, and it's an alcohol.

    注意 這是醛 這是醇

  • Start differentiating into effector and memory cells.

    開始分化成效應與記憶細胞

  • A galaxy, hey, there's another galaxy.

    這裡一個銀河系 那裡一個銀河系

  • Oh look, there's another galaxy.

    看 那裡又一個銀河系

  • And for dollars is their 30 million plus the $20 million

    用美金計價就是他們的3千萬加上

  • from the American manufacturer.

    從美國生產廠商取得的2千萬

  • If this does not blow your mind, then you have no emotion.

    如果這沒有讓你受到衝擊 你是個無情的人

  • [END VIDEO PLAYBACK]

    [影片播放完畢]

  • SALMAN KHAN: We now have on the order of 2,200 videos

    薩爾曼可汗:我們現在有2200支循序漸進的影片

  • covering everything from basic arithmetic all

    包含所有事物 從基礎算術

  • the way to vector calculus and some of the stuff

    到向量微積分 以及一些

  • that you saw up there.

    剛剛在上面看到的

  • We have a million students a month using the site,

    每個月有上百萬學生使用這個網站

  • watching on the order of 100,000 to 200,000 videos a day.

    一天有100,000到200,000支影片被觀看

  • But what we're going to talk about in this

    不過我們要講的是

  • is how we're going to the next level.

    我們的下一個階段要怎麼做

  • But before I do that, I want to talk a little bit about how

    在那之前 先講一下

  • I got started.

    我開始網站的故事

  • And some of you all might know, about five years ago,

    有些人可能知道 五年前

  • I was an analyst at a hedge fund.

    我是個避險基金分析師

  • And I was in Boston.

    那時候我住在波士頓

  • And I was tutoring my cousins in New Orleans remotely.

    我幫紐奧良的表弟們遠端上課

  • And I started putting the first YouTube videos up, really just

    我放上第一支YouTube影片

  • as a nice to have, just kind of a supplement, for my cousins,

    只是想幫表弟做個輔助教材

  • something that might give them a refresher, or something.

    讓他們能振作精神之類的

  • And as soon as I put those first YouTube videos up,

    就在放上影片之後

  • something interesting happened.

    有趣的事發生了

  • Actually, a bunch of interesting things happened.

    事實上發生了很多有趣的事

  • The first was the feedback from my cousins.

    第一個是我表弟們的回應

  • They told me that they preferred me on YouTube than in person.

    他們說比起我教他們 他們比較愛看影片裡的我

  • [LAUGHTER]

    [笑聲]

  • And once you get over the backhanded nature of that,

    在克服這些挖苦之後

  • there was actually something very profound there.

    有件事其實相當意義深遠

  • They were saying that they preferred the automated version

    他們比較喜歡自動版本的表哥

  • of their cousin to their cousin.

    比起真實的表哥

  • At first it's very unintuitive, but when you actually

    一開始可能不太經過大腦 但當你真正

  • think about it from their point of view,

    從他們的觀點來思考這件事

  • it makes a ton of sense.

    就會覺得非常有道理

  • You have this situation where now they can pause and repeat

    他們現在有個可以隨時暫停、重複播放

  • their cousin without feeling like they're wasting my time.

    的表哥 不用擔心會浪費到我的時間

  • If they have to review something that they should have learned

    如果他們要複習一些以前因該學過的東西,

  • a couple of weeks ago, or maybe a couple of years ago,

    像是幾週或是幾年前學過的東西

  • they don't have to be embarrassed and ask

    他們不需要不好意思來問我

  • their cousin.

    這個表哥

  • They can just watch those videos.

    他們只要看影片就可以

  • If they're bored, they can go ahead.

    如果他們覺得無趣 可以加速影片

  • They can watch it at their own time, at their own pace.

    他們可以用自己的步調與時間看影片

  • And probably the least appreciated aspect of this

    學習中最不需要的東西

  • is the notion that the very first time, the very first time

    就是當你第一次

  • that you're trying to get your brain around a new concept,

    在學新知識的時候

  • the very last thing you need is another human being saying

    最不需要別人跑來問

  • do you understand this.

    你懂了嗎

  • And that's what was happening with the interaction

    這就是我之前與表弟們互動發生的事情

  • with my cousins before.

    這就是我之前與表弟們互動發生的事情

  • And now they could just do it in the intimacy of their own room.

    現在他們可以私下在自己的房間學

  • The other thing that happened is I put them on YouTube

    另一件事就是我把影片放上YouTube

  • just for the....I saw no reason to make it private.

    因為我覺得不需要設為隱私

  • So I let other people watch it.

    所以我讓其他人也能觀看

  • And then people started stumbling on it.

    接著開始有人點進來看影片

  • And I started getting some comments, and some letters,

    然後我就開始收到一些評論、信件

  • and all sorts of feedback from random people around the world.

    和來自全世界不固定人士的各種的回饋

  • And these are just a few.

    這裡擷取了一些

  • This is actually from one of the original calculus videos.

    這是微積分影片其中一支

  • And someone wrote on YouTube, it was a YouTube comment,

    實際收到YouTube留言,這是一則YouTube的評論

  • "First time I smiled doing a derivative."

    "我第一次在推導方程式的時候笑出來了"

  • Let's pause here.

    暫停一下

  • This person did a derivative, and then they smiled.

    這個人在推導方程式的時候笑出來了

  • And then in response to that same comment,

    接著針對這則評論

  • this is on the thread.

    有一些回覆

  • You could go on YouTube and look at these comments.

    你可以上YouTube看這些評論

  • Someone else wrote, "Same thing here.

    有人寫"我也是

  • I actually got a natural high and a good mood

    一整天心情超好

  • for the entire day, since I remember

    就在我發現

  • seeing all of this 'matrix text' in class.

    課堂上的'矩陣'我都看過之後

  • And here I'm all like, I know Kung Fu."

    突然覺得 我武功高強啊"

  • [LAUGHTER]

    [笑聲]

  • And we got a lot of feedback along those lines.

    我們這串回應裡還收到很多回覆

  • This clearly was helping people.

    這真的對大家有幫助

  • But then, as the viewership kept growing, and kept growing,

    之後 就在觀看人數越來越多 越來越多

  • I started getting letters from people.

    我開始收到一些信

  • And it was starting to become clear

    才開始明確的知道這些影片

  • that it was actually more than just a nice to have.

    不是不錯而已 而是真的很棒

  • This is just an excerpt from one of those letters.

    這是那些信中其中一封摘錄

  • "My 12-year-old son has autism, and has

    "我12歲的兒子有自閉症

  • had a terrible time with math.

    他的數學學習過程很艱辛

  • We have tried everything, viewed everything, bought everything.

    我們試過各種方式 看了很多東西 買了各種東西

  • We stumbled on your video on decimals, and it got through.

    我們看了你關於小數點的影片 然後他就懂了

  • Then we went on to the dreaded fractions.

    接著我們進入可怕的分數

  • Again, he got it.

    又一次 他懂了

  • We could not believe it.

    無法置信

  • He is so excited."

    他很興奮"

  • And so you can imagine, here I was,

    你可以想像 我

  • an analyst at a hedge fund.

    是一個避險基金分析師

  • It was very strange for me to do something of social value.

    能做出有社會價值的東西是很奇怪的

  • [LAUGHTER AND APPLAUSE]

    [笑聲與掌聲]

  • But I was excited.

    但是我很興奮

  • So I kept going.

    於是我繼續做下去

  • And then a few other things started to dawn on me.

    接著有其他的事情開始降臨在我身上

  • That not only would it help my cousins right now,

    這不只可以幫助我的表弟們

  • or these people who were sending letters.

    或是那些寫信給我的人

  • But maybe that this content will never go old.

    也許這些內容永遠不會退流行

  • That it could help their kids or their grandkids.

    可以幫助他們的孩子、孫子

  • If Isaac Newton had done YouTube videos on calculus,

    如果艾薩克牛頓在YouTube放上微積分影片

  • I wouldn't have to, assuming he was good.

    如果他的影片不錯的話 我就不用放我的了

  • We don't know.

    誰知道呢

  • [LAUGHTER]

    [笑聲]

  • The other thing that happened, and even at this point, I said,

    就在這時 另一件事發生了 我想說

  • OK, maybe it's a good supplement.

    嗯 這是一個好的補充教材

  • It's good for motivated students.

    對積極的學生有幫助

  • It's good for maybe homeschoolers.

    也對在家學習的學生有幫助

  • But I didn't think it would be something that would somehow

    但我沒想到這居然會

  • penetrate the classroom.

    滲透進學校的課程

  • But then I started getting letters from teachers.

    我開始收到老師們寄來的信

  • And the teachers would write saying,

    老師們寫說

  • we've used your videos to flip the classroom.

    我們用你的影片執行翻轉教室

  • You've given the lectures.

    你有一份講義

  • So now what we do...and this could actually

    所以接下來我們要做的 這可能會

  • happen in every classroom in America tomorrow... what I do

    發生在未來的美國學校 我要做的

  • is I assign the lectures for homework.

    就是將講義指派為回家作業

  • And what used to be homework, I now

    而之前當作回家作業的 現在

  • have the students doing in the classroom.

    則讓學生在課堂上做

  • [APPLAUSE]

    [掌聲]

  • I want to pause here for a second

    在這邊要稍微暫停一下

  • because there's a couple of interesting things.

    因為有一些有趣的事

  • One, when those teachers are doing that,

    第一,當那些老師們這樣做的時候

  • there's the obvious benefit.

    有很明顯的好處

  • There's the benefit that now their students

    好處是當學生們這麼做的的時候

  • can enjoy the videos in the way that my cousins did.

    他們可以像我表弟們一樣自由看影片

  • They can pause, repeat at their own pace, at their own time.

    他們可以根據自己的步調與時間暫停、重複觀看影片

  • But the more interesting thing-- and this

    但更有趣的事是

  • is the unintuitive thing when you talk about technology

    聽起來也許不直覺 但當你在課堂上使用科技

  • in the classroom-- by removing the "one size fits all"

    移除掉給學生的"單一教材"

  • lecture from the classroom and letting students have

    讓學生們可以

  • a self-paced lecture at home, and then when

    在家使用自己的步調 接著

  • you go to the classroom, letting them do work,

    上課的時候讓他們做作業

  • having the teacher walk around, having the peers actually

    老師可以在旁邊觀察

  • be able to interact with each other,

    讓師生可以互動

  • these teachers have used technology

    這些老師就是運用科技

  • to humanize the classroom.

    進行人性化教學

  • They took a fundamentally dehumanizing experience,

    以前基本上是採用非人性化的教學

  • a bunch of 30 kids with their fingers on their lips,

    讓30個孩子安靜聽

  • not allowed to interact with each other.

    不讓他們彼此互動

  • A teacher, no matter how good, has

    一個老師 不論再怎麼厲害

  • to give this kind of "one size fits all"

    都要將"單一教材"

  • lecture to 30 students-- blank faces, slightly antagonistic.

    教給30個學生 面無表情 些許的對立著

  • And now it's a human experience.

    而現在則是人性化的體驗

  • Now they're actually interacting with each other.

    他們現在可以彼此互動

  • So once the Khan Academy-- I quit my job.

    所以當可汗學院 我辭掉工作

  • And we turned into a real organization,

    投入組織的實際運作

  • or a not-for-profit.

    或說是非營利組織

  • The question is, how do we take this to the next level?

    問題是 我們要如何進入下一階段

  • How do we take what those teachers were

    要如何將老師們之前

  • doing to their natural conclusion?

    所做的帶到結論?

  • And so what I'm showing over here,

    所以我接著要讓大家在這裡看到

  • these are actual exercises that I

    這是我實際上寫給

  • started writing for my cousins.

    表弟們的測驗題

  • The ones I started were much more primitive.

    一開始的很陽春

  • This is a more competent version of it.

    這是升級版本

  • But the paradigm here is we'll generate as many questions

    這個範例是為了讓你了解內容

  • as you need until you get that concept,

    所需要的所有問題

  • until you get 10 in a row.

    直到你在這一列中得到10分

  • And the Khan Academy videos are there.

    請看可汗學院影片

  • You get hints, the actual steps for that problem,

    每個問題都有實際步驟與提示

  • if you don't know how to do it.

    如果不懂的話可以看

  • But the paradigm, it seems like a very simple thing.

    不過這個範例 很簡單

  • 10 in a row, you move on.

    得到10分 可以繼續下一題

  • But it's fundamentally different than what's

    但基本上和現在的上課是不一樣的

  • happening in classrooms right now.

    但基本上和現在的上課是不一樣的

  • In a traditional classroom, you have

    傳統的上課 你會有一些

  • a couple of-- homework, lecture, homework, lecture,

    作業、講義、作業、講義

  • and then you have a snapshot exam.

    接著會有考試

  • And that exam, whether you get a 70%, an 80%, a 90% or a 95%,

    不論你懂70%、80%、90%還是95%

  • the class moves on to the next topic.

    課程都會繼續下去

  • And even that 95% student, what was the 5% they didn't know?

    就算是懂95%的學生 剩下不懂的5%怎麼辦?

  • Maybe they didn't know what happens

    也許他們不懂

  • when you raise something to the 0-th power.

    什麼是0次方

  • And then you go build on that in the next concept.

    你用這個當基礎繼續下個教學

  • That's analogous to-- imagine learning to ride a bicycle.

    這就像是--想像你學騎腳踏車

  • And I give you a bicycle.

    我給你一台腳踏車

  • Maybe I give you a lecture ahead of time.

    也許我給你一個事前講課

  • And I give you that bicycle for two weeks.

    再給你一台腳踏車兩週

  • And then I come back after two weeks.

    兩週之後我再回來

  • And I say, well, let's see.

    然後說 我們來看結果

  • You're having trouble taking left turns.

    也許你左轉不太會

  • You can't quite stop.

    也許你不會煞車

  • You're an 80% bicyclist.

    你80%會騎了

  • So I put a big C stamp on your forehead.

    然後我就在你額頭印個成績C

  • And then I say here's a unicycle.

    接著就給你一台單輪車

  • But as ridiculous as that sounds,

    聽起來就是這麼荒謬

  • that's exactly what's happening in our classrooms right now.

    這是現在上課的實際狀況

  • And the idea is you fast forward.

    然後你快速的上著課

  • And good students start failing algebra all of a sudden,

    好學生開始突然就不懂代數

  • and start failing calculus all of a sudden,

    突然就不懂微積分

  • despite being smart, despite having good teachers.

    即使很聰明 即使有個好老師

  • And it's usually because they had these Swiss cheese

    通常是因為在他們的基本知識上

  • gaps that kept building throughout their foundations.

    一直累積一小片段一小片段的不了解

  • So our model is learn math the way you would learn anything.

    我們的宗旨是讓你學數學像是你學所有東西一樣

  • Like the way you would learn a bicycle.

    就像你學騎腳踏車一樣

  • Stay on that bicycle.

    學騎一台腳踏車

  • Fall off that bicycle.

    跌倒在同一台腳踏車

  • Do it as long as necessary until you have mastery.

    一直騎一直騎直到你精通

  • The traditional model, it penalizes you

    傳統的教學 就像在懲罰你的

  • for experimentation and failure.

    實驗與失敗

  • But it does not expect mastery.

    卻不期待你能精通

  • We encourage you to experiment.

    我們鼓勵你多實驗

  • We encourage you to failure.

    鼓勵你失敗

  • But we do expect mastery.

    但我們期待你能精通

  • This is just another one of the modules.

    這是另外一個教學模組

  • This is trigonometry.

    這是個三角形

  • This is shifting and reflecting functions.

    這是平移與鏡射

  • And they all fit together.

    這些教材結合在一起

  • We have about 90 of these right now.

    我們現在有90個這種教學

  • And you could go to the site right now.

    都可以在網站上看到

  • It's all free.

    全部免費

  • Not trying to sell anything.

    不會兜售任何東西

  • But the general idea is that they all

    但總體思路是這些全都

  • fit into this knowledge map.

    結合在知識地圖

  • That top node right there, that's

    上面那個點

  • literally single-digit addition.

    是個位數加法

  • It's like 1 plus 1 is equal to 2.

    就像1+1=2

  • And the paradigm is, once you get 10 in a row on that,

    這裡的範例是 一旦你得到10分

  • then it keeps forwarding you to more and more advanced modules.

    課程就會進入越來越進階的題目

  • So keep-- this is further down the knowledge map.

    所以--知識地圖就會越來越往下

  • We're getting into more advanced arithmetic.

    學到更進階的算術

  • Further down, you start getting into

    一直往下 就會開始學到

  • pre-algebra and early algebra.

    初級代數的相關知識

  • Further down, you start getting into algebra one, algebra two,

    再往下 就會開始學代數1、代數2