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  • So when I was in Morocco,

    不久之前

  • in Casablanca, not so long ago,

    我在摩洛哥的卡薩布蘭卡 (Casablanca)

  • I met a young unmarried mother called Faiza.

    遇到一位叫法伊札(Faiza)的未婚年經媽媽

  • Faiza showed me photos of her infant son

    她給我看她襁保中兒子的照片

  • and she told me the story of his conception, pregnancy, and delivery.

    跟我說她從受孕、懷胎到生產的經過

  • It was a remarkable tale,

    聼來挺精采的

  • but Faiza saved the best for last.

    但法伊札把最妙的部分留到最後

  • "You know, I am a virgin," she told me.

    她說「妳知道我還是處女嗎?」

  • "I have two medical certificates to prove it."

    「我有兩份診斷證明」

  • This is the modern Middle East,

    這發生在現代的中東地區

  • where two millennia after the coming of Christ,

    2千年後的耶穌誕生地

  • virgin births are still a fact of life.

    還是有處女產子的事

  • Faiza's story is just one of hundreds I've heard over the years, traveling across the Arab region

    我在阿拉伯地區巡講性事多年

  • talking to people about sex.

    她的故事只是我聽過的數百件之一

  • Now, I know this might sound like a dream job,

    這工作聽來或許好到不像真的

  • or possibly a highly dubious occupation,

    以職業來說也引人猜疑

  • but for me, it's something else altogether.

    但我做這行是有其他原因的

  • I'm half Egyptian, and I'm Muslim.

    我是回教徒,有一半埃及血統

  • But I grew up in Canada, far from my Arab roots.

    卻在離阿拉伯家鄉很遠的加拿大成長

  • Like so many who straddle East and West,

    就像許多兼具東西文化背景的人

  • I've been drawn, over the years, to try to better understand my origins.

    這些年我被自己的原生文化吸引,試圖深入了解

  • That I chose to look at sex comes from my background in HIV/AIDS,

    之所以研究性事,是因為

  • as a writer and a researcher and an activist.

    我在寫作、研究及社運中所觸及的愛滋病現況

  • Sex lies at the heart of an emerging epidemic in the Middle East and North Africa,

    全球仍在升溫的2個愛滋疫區中,中東和北非是其一

  • which is one of only two regions in the world where HIV/AIDS is still on the rise.

    而愛滋病正在這兩地蔓延

  • Now sexuality is an incredibly powerful lens

    性是很有效的檢視工具

  • with which to study any society,

    可用以研究任何社會

  • because what happens in our intimate lives

    因為性生活的經歷

  • is reflected by forces on a bigger stage:

    也反映在更龐大的勢力中,像是

  • in politics and economics, in religion and tradition, in gender and generations.

    政治和經濟,宗教和傳統,性別和世代

  • As I found, if you really want to know a people,

    我發現,如果你真要了解一個民族

  • you start by looking inside their bedrooms.

    就要從臥房內開始探究

  • Now to be sure, the Arab world is vast and varied.

    儘管阿拉伯世界龐大多樣

  • But running across it are three red lines --

    但有三條共同的底線

  • these are topics you are not supposed to challenge in word or deed.

    是不容人以言行挑戰的

  • The first of these is politics.

    第一個是政治

  • But the Arab Spring has changed all that,

    但 2011 年起在阿拉伯地區遍地開花的

  • in uprisings which have blossomed across the region since 2011.

    「阿拉伯之春」讓這事改觀了

  • Now while those in power, old and new,

    當新舊權貴階級

  • continue to cling to business as usual,

    盡力維持正常運作時

  • millions are still pushing back,

    上百萬人仍在抗爭

  • and pushing forward to what they hope will be a better life.

    企圖藉此改善生活

  • That second red line is religion.

    第二條底線是宗教

  • But now religion and politics are connected,

    但像穆斯林兄弟會這樣的組織崛起後

  • with the rise of such groups as the Muslim Brotherhood.

    政教目前是相互關聯的

  • And some people, at least, are starting to ask questions

    而且有些人開始質疑

  • about the role of Islam in public and private life.

    伊斯蘭教在公共與私生活中的定位

  • You know, as for that third red line, that off-limits subject,

    至於第三條底線嘛! 是個避諱的主題

  • what do you think it might be?

    你們認為是什麼?

  • Audience: Sex.

    (聽眾) 性

  • Shereen El Feki: Louder, I can't hear you.

    大聲點,我聽不到

  • Audience: Sex.

    (聽眾) 性

  • SEF: Again, please don't be shy.

    再說一次,不要害臊

  • Audience: Sex.

    [聽眾] 性

  • SEF: Absolutely, that's right, it's sex. (Laughter)

    沒錯,完全正確! 就是「性」!(笑聲)

  • Across the Arab region, the only accepted context for sex is marriage --

    阿拉伯地區只容許婚姻中的性生活

  • approved by your parents, sanctioned by religion

    指的是雙親同意,宗教許可

  • and registered by the state.

    且向政府登記的婚姻

  • Marriage is your ticket to adulthood.

    婚姻是邁入成年的象徵

  • If you don't tie the knot, you can't move out of your parents' place,

    不婚者不能搬出家裡

  • and you're not supposed to be having sex,

    也不能有性行為

  • and you're definitely not supposed to be having children.

    當然不該有小孩

  • It's a social citadel; it's an impregnable fortress

    這種社會體制就像一座牢不可破的堡壘

  • which resists any assault, any alternative.

    抗拒譴責和替代選項

  • And around the fortress is this vast field of taboo

    除此外還有諸多禁忌

  • against premarital sex, against condoms,

    反對婚前性行為,反對保險套

  • against abortion, against homosexuality,

    反對墮胎,反對同性戀

  • you name it.

    可說不勝枚舉!

  • Faiza was living proof of this.

    法伊札就是活生生的例證

  • Her virginity statement was not a piece of wishful thinking.

    她宣稱保有童真可不是一廂情願

  • Although the major religions of the region extoll premarital chastity,

    雖然該地區各大宗教都推崇婚前守貞

  • in a patriarchy, boys will be boys.

    不過在父權社會,狗改不了吃屎

  • Men have sex before marriage,

    男人婚前有性行為

  • and people more or less turn a blind eye.

    人們多少都視而不見

  • Not so for women,

    但女人可不能這樣

  • who are expected to be virgins on their wedding night --

    她們在新婚夜前都該是處女

  • that is, to turn up with your hymen intact.

    換句話說,此前要保有處女膜「完璧」

  • This is not a question of individual concern,

    這不單是個人問題

  • this is a matter of family honor, and in particular, men's honor.

    還關係著家族聲譽,尤其是男人的

  • And so women and their relatives

    所以女人和她們的親戚

  • will go to great lengths to preserve this tiny piece of anatomy --

    會不惜一切維護這一小片生理構造

  • from female genital mutilation,

    從女性割禮到處女鑑定

  • to virginity testing, to hymen repair surgery.

    或處女膜重建術都有人用

  • Faiza chose a different route:

    不過法伊札採取其他方式

  • non-vaginal sex.

    非陰道性行為

  • Only she became pregnant all the same.

    只是最後她還是懷孕了

  • But Faiza didn't actually realize this,

    但法伊札本來不知道這點

  • because there's so little sexuality education in schools,

    因為學校幾乎沒有性教育

  • and so little communication in the family.

    家裡也很少談這個

  • When her condition became hard to hide,

    事跡敗露後

  • Faiza's mother helped her flee her father and brothers.

    法伊札的母親幫她逃脫父兄

  • This is because honor killings are a real threat

    這是因為在阿拉伯地區,「名譽殺人」

  • for untold numbers of women in the Arab region.

    是數不清的女性面臨的真實威脅

  • And so when Faiza eventually fetched up at a hospital in Casablanca,

    當法伊札因臨盆被送進卡薩布蘭卡的醫院時

  • the man who offered to help her,

    那位幫她的男子

  • instead tried to rape her.

    竟企圖強暴她

  • Sadly, Faiza is not alone.

    可悲的是,這不是特例

  • In Egypt, where my research is focused,

    在埃及,也就是我主要研究的區域

  • I have seen plenty of trouble in and out of the citadel.

    我在醫院內外見過很多麻煩事

  • There are legions of young men

    很多年輕男性

  • who can't afford to get married,

    沒錢結婚

  • because marriage has become a very expensive proposition.

    因為婚姻已成為代價昂貴的事

  • They are expected to bear the burden of costs in married life,

    婚後他們要負擔家庭開銷

  • but they can't find jobs.

    但又找不到工作

  • This is one of the major drivers of the recent uprisings,

    這就是最近暴動的主因之一

  • and it is one of the reasons for the rising age of marriage

    也是造成大部分阿拉伯地區

  • in much of the Arab region.

    晚婚的原因之一

  • There are career women who want to get married,

    偏偏渴望婚姻的職業婦女

  • but can't find a husband,

    找不到對象

  • because they defy gender expectations,

    因為她們不符合典型的性別角色

  • or as one young female doctor in Tunisia put it to me,

    就像突尼西亞的一位年輕女醫生對我說的:

  • "The women, they are becoming more and more open.

    「女人變得更開放,

  • But the man, he is still at the prehistoric stage."

    但男人依然食古不化!」

  • And then there are men and women who cross the heterosexual line,

    還有人跨越異性戀的藩籬

  • who have sex with their own sex,

    進行同性間性行為

  • or who have a different gender identity.

    或者產生不同的性別認同

  • They are on the receiving end of laws which punish their activities,

    因為行為舉止,甚至外表

  • even their appearance.

    他們被迫承受法律制裁

  • And they face a daily struggle with social stigma,

    還得日復一日抗拒社會

  • with family despair,

    加諸其身的汙名及家人的絕望疏離

  • and with religious fire and brimstone.

    更還有來自信仰的譴責與煎熬

  • Now, it's not as if it's all rosy in the marital bed either.

    不過,婚後性生活也不全然美滿

  • Couples who are looking for greater happiness,

    希望婚姻生活更快樂

  • greater sexual happiness in their married lives,

    性生活更滿足的夫妻

  • but are at a loss of how to achieve it,

    往往不得要領

  • especially wives, who are afraid of being seen as bad women

    尤其是妻子,害怕在床上熱情如火

  • if they show some spark in the bedroom.

    會被當成壞女人

  • And then there are those whose marriages

    還有假結婚

  • are actually a veil for prostitution.

    真賣淫的

  • They have been sold by their families,

    常見女性被家人賣給

  • often to wealthy Arab tourists.

    富有的阿拉伯旅客

  • This is just one face of a booming sex trade across the Arab region.

    這只是冰山一角,事實上性交易在阿拉伯一帶日益猖獗

  • Now raise your hand if any of this is sounding familiar to you,

    若這些事在你們那裏也常聽過

  • from your part of the world.

    請你舉個手

  • Yeah. It's not as if the Arab world has a monopoly on sexual hangups.

    看來對性事傷腦筋的不只阿拉伯人

  • And although we don't yet have an Arab Kinsey Report

    儘管沒有阿拉伯版的《金賽報告》(Kinsey Reports)

  • to tell us exactly what's happening inside bedrooms across the Arab region,

    顯示阿拉伯地區性生活的概況

  • It's pretty clear that something is not right.

    但顯然有些不對勁!

  • Double standards for men and women,

    對男性和女性有雙重標準

  • sex as a source of shame,

    性事令人羞恥

  • family control limiting individual choices,

    家族限制個人選擇

  • and a vast gulf between appearance and reality:

    表象與事實間落差很大

  • what people are doing

    例如人們的所做所為

  • and what they're willing to admit to,

    和願意坦承的部分間即是如此

  • and a general reluctance to move beyond private whispers

    人們通常寧可竊竊私語

  • to a serious and sustained public discussion.

    也不願長期公開嚴肅地討論

  • As one doctor in Cairo summed it up for me,

    有一位開羅醫生是這麼跟我說的:

  • "Here, sex is the opposite of sport.

    「在這裡,性跟運動相反

  • Football, everybody talks about it,

    大家都會討論足球

  • but hardly anyone plays.

    但幾乎沒人在踢

  • But sex, everybody is doing it,

    但儘管大家有性經驗

  • but nobody wants to talk about it." (Laughter)

    卻人人難以啟齒。」 (笑聲)

  • (Music) (In Arabic)

    (阿拉伯語旁白的音樂)

  • SEF: I want to give you a piece of advice,

    我想給大家一個忠告

  • which if you follow it, will make you happy in life.

    如果照著做,你們的生活就會變得快樂

  • When your husband reaches out to you,

    當先生對妳起了「性」趣

  • when he seizes a part of your body,

    撫摸妳身體某部位時

  • sigh deeply and look at him lustily.

    長吁一口氣,並渴望地看著他

  • When he penetrates you with his penis,

    當他的陰莖插入時

  • try to talk flirtatiously and move yourself in harmony with him.

    試著淫聲浪語一番,並用身體配合他

  • Hot stuff!

    很辛辣!

  • And it might sound that these handy hints

    這些實用的竅門聽來或許像是

  • come from "The Joy of Sex" or YouPorn.

    出自 (The Joy of Sex ) 或YouPorn網站

  • But in fact, they come from a 10th-century Arabic book

    但其實是10世紀的一本阿拉伯書

  • called "The Encyclopedia of Pleasure,"

    《歡愉百科》(The Encyclopedia of Pleasure)所提到的

  • which covers sex from aphrodisiacs to zoophilia,

    內容有催情劑和人獸交

  • and everything in between.

    和其它性事

  • The Encyclopedia is just one in a long line of Arabic erotica,

    這還只是阿拉伯冗長色情書單的一本而已

  • much of it written by religious scholars.

    其中大多是宗教學者編著的

  • Going right back to the Prophet Muhammad,

    回溯先知穆罕默德的時代

  • there is a rich tradition in Islam

    那時伊斯蘭信仰中早有

  • of talking frankly about sex:

    坦然議論性事的深厚傳統

  • not just its problems, but also its pleasures,

    不只談性疑惑,還有性快感

  • and not just for men, but also for women.

    且迎合兩性的觀點需求

  • A thousand years ago, we used to have whole dictionaries of sex in Arabic.

    1000年前,阿拉伯曾有多部性典

  • Words to cover every conceivable sexual feature,

    內容涵蓋各種與性相關的專題

  • position and preference, a body of language

    體位、性癖和其他眾多詞彙

  • that was rich enough to make up the body of the woman you see on this page.

    豐富的語言足以勾勒出這幅插圖中的女體

  • Today, this history is largely unknown in the Arab region.

    不過在阿拉伯地區這段來歷至今鮮為人知

  • Even by educated people, who often feel more comfortable talking about sex

    即便是受過良好教育者,也常覺得

  • in a foreign language than they do in their own tongue.

    用外語談性比母語自在

  • Today's sexual landscape looks a lot like Europe and America

    現代性生活的概況

  • on the brink of the sexual revolution.

    與早已歷經性革命的歐美十分相近

  • But while the West has opened on sex,

    儘管西方對性已開放

  • what we found is that Arab societies appear to have been moving in the opposite direction.

    我們發現,阿拉伯社會卻似乎反其道而行

  • In Egypt and many of its neighbors,

    以埃及和許多鄰國而言

  • this closing down is part of a wider closing

    性這方面的封閉源自更廣泛的

  • in political, social and cultural thought.

    政治、社會和文化上的閉鎖思想

  • And it is the product of a complex historical process,

    是複雜的歷史演進所造成的

  • one which has gained ground with the rise of Islamic conservatism

    70年代晚期,伊斯蘭保守勢力崛起後

  • since the late 1970s.

    這樣的趨勢逐漸占上風

  • "Just say no" is what conservatives around the world

    任何對既有性文化的挑戰

  • say to any challenge to the sexual status quo.

    全世界保守勢力的反應是「拒絕就對了!」

  • In the Arab region, they brand these attempts as a Western conspiracy

    在阿拉伯地區,相關企圖被醜化為西方世界的陰謀

  • to undermine traditional Arab and Islamic values.

    目的是破壞傳統的阿拉伯和伊斯蘭價值

  • But what's really at stake here

    但問題關鍵在於

  • is one of their most powerful tools of control:

    以宗教包裝性議題

  • sex wrapped up in religion.

    是保守勢力最有力的掌控方式

  • But history shows us that even as recently

    但歷史告訴我們,即便

  • as our fathers' and grandfathers' day,

    我們父親或祖父輩那樣的近代

  • there have been times of greater pragmatism,

    也曾有過更務實的觀點

  • and tolerance, and a willingness to consider other interpretations:

    更多包容且願接納不同詮釋

  • be it abortion, or masturbation, or even the incendiary topic of homosexuality.

    舉凡墮胎,自慰,甚至備受爭議的同性戀議題

  • It is not black and white, as conservatives would have us believe.

    事情並非保守派要我們相信的那樣絕對

  • In these, as in so many other matters,

    就像其他事一樣,伊斯蘭信仰

  • Islam offers us at least 50 shades of gray.

    在性方面至少還有《葛雷的50道陰影》

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)譯註:《葛雷的50道陰影》(Fifty Shades of Grey)是情色小說

  • Over my travels,

    在阿拉伯一帶旅行時

  • I've met men and women across the Arab region

    我遇過以各種途徑

  • who've been exploring that spectrum --

    探討性事的男女

  • sexologists who are trying to help couples

    有試圖協助夫妻

  • find greater happiness in their marriages,

    達成美滿婚姻的性學家

  • innovators who are managing to get sexuality education into schools,

    正力圖促成學校性教育的創新人士

  • small groups of men and women,

    形形色色的男女

  • lesbian, gay, transgendered, transsexual,

    女同志、男同志、不認同生理性別者和變性者

  • who are reaching out to their peers

    藉由網路倡議和實際支援

  • with online initiatives and real-world support.

    凝聚志同道合的人

  • Women, and increasingly men, who are starting to speak out

    很多女性和越來越多男性

  • and push back against sexual violence

    開始公然抗拒

  • on the streets and in the home.

    家庭與公共場所的性暴力

  • Groups that are trying to help sex workers protect themselves against HIV

    也有協助性工作者

  • and other occupational hazards,

    預防愛滋病等職災的團體

  • and NGOs that are helping unwed mothers like Faiza

    還有幫助法伊札這樣的未婚媽媽立足社會

  • find a place in society, and critically, stay with their kids.

    讓她們可跟小孩待在一塊的非政府組織

  • Now these efforts are small, they're often underfunded,

    目前這些行動規模不大,也缺乏資助

  • and they face formidable opposition.

    所面臨的反對勢力也很難應付

  • But I am optimistic that, in the long run,

    但我相信假以時日

  • times are changing, and they and their ideas

    隨著時代改變,這些人和他們的想法

  • will gain ground.

    終會得到認同

  • Social change doesn't happen in the Arab region through dramatic confrontation,

    針鋒相對無法帶動阿拉伯地區的社會變遷

  • beating or indeed baring of breasts,

    義憤填膺或袒胸裸露也於事無補

  • but rather through negotiation.

    協商反而可靠

  • What we're talking here is not about a sexual revolution,

    我們此刻談的不是性革命

  • but a sexual evolution, learning from other parts of the world,

    而是仿效其他地區的性進化

  • adapting to local conditions,

    因地制宜後