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  • So I've been thinking about the difference between

    我之前一直在思考

  • thesumé virtues and the eulogy virtues.

    寫在簡歷的美德跟寫在悼詞中的美德的區別

  • Thesumé virtues are the ones you put on yoursumé,

    顯而易見,放在簡歷中的優點

  • which are the skills you bring to the marketplace.

    是你向公眾展示你的技能

  • The eulogy virtues are the ones

    然而,悼詞中出現的德行

  • that get mentioned in the eulogy,

    那些人們在喪禮中提到的特質

  • which are deeper: who are you, in your depth,

    你更深層的本質,

  • what is the nature of your relationships,

    人際關係的模式,

  • are you bold, loving, dependable, consistency?

    你是否勇敢、有愛心、值得信賴、持之以恆?

  • And most of us, including me, would say

    大部分人中,包括我在內,會覺得

  • that the eulogy virtues are the more important of the virtues.

    悼詞中的美德比其他形式的美德更重要。

  • But at least in my case, are they the ones that

    但是依我看來,它們是我最常想到的嗎?

  • I think about the most? And the answer is no.

    其實不是

  • So I've been thinking about that problem,

    所以我一直在思考這個問題,

  • and a thinker who has helped me think about it

    而一名思想家幫助了我

  • is a guy named Joseph Soloveitchik, who was a rabbi

    他的名字是約瑟夫 .斯洛維奇克,一名猶太神學家

  • who wrote a book called "The Lonely Man Of Faith" in 1965.

    他在1965年寫了一本書,名字叫《孤獨的信仰之人》

  • Soloveitchik said there are two sides of our natures,

    斯洛維奇克講述說每個人都有兩個特性

  • which he called Adam I and Adam II.

    一個是亞當第一,另外一個是亞當第二

  • Adam I is the worldly, ambitious,

    亞當第一是追逐名利,有野心的

  • external side of our nature.

    代表我們表露的特性

  • He wants to build, create, create companies,

    亞當第一想建立事業,

  • create innovation.

    開創創新。

  • Adam II is the humble side of our nature.

    亞當第二代表著人性中謙遜的一面

  • Adam II wants not only to do good but to be good,

    他不僅僅想做好事,而是想做好人,

  • to live in a way internally

    這是一種内在的生活方式--

  • that honors God, creation and our possibilities.

    敬重神明,這大千世界跟我們的無限可能。

  • Adam I wants to conquer the world.

    亞當第一想要征服這個世界

  • Adam II wants to hear a calling and obey the world.

    亞當第二想要傾聽並服從內心的召喚。

  • Adam I savors accomplishment.

    亞當第一傾心於成就,

  • Adam II savors inner consistency and strength.

    亞當第二欣賞內在的堅持與力量。

  • Adam I asks how things work.

    亞當第一會關心事情如何運作,

  • Adam II asks why we're here.

    亞當第二會問”我們為何在這裡"。

  • Adam I's motto is "success."

    亞當第一的座右銘是“成功”

  • Adam II's motto is "love, redemption and return."

    亞當第二的座右銘是“愛,救贖與給予”

  • And Soloveitchik argued that these two sides

    斯洛維奇克認為,

  • of our nature are at war with each other.

    人性的兩面會發生衝突。

  • We live in perpetual self-confrontation

    我們生活在永久的自我對峙中:

  • between the external success and the internal value.

    外在的成功跟內在的價值是衝突的。

  • And the tricky thing, I'd say, about these

    而對我而言最難以捉摸的事情,

  • two sides of our nature is they work

    人性的兩面

  • by different logics.

    是靠不同的邏輯方式運轉的。

  • The external logic is an economic logic:

    外在的邏輯是顧全經濟效益的邏輯:

  • input leads to output, risk leads to reward.

    輸入帶來輸出,冒險引導出獎勵。

  • The internal side of our nature

    我們的內在一面

  • is a moral logic and often an inverse logic.

    是一種道德的邏輯,常常不合乎常理。

  • You have to give to receive.

    要施捨才能獲得。

  • You have to surrender to something outside yourself

    你必須要放棄外在東西,

  • to gain strength within yourself.

    才能讓自己的內在更強大。

  • You have to conquer the desire to get what you want.

    你要征服自私的欲望。

  • In order to fulfill yourself, you have to forget yourself.

    為了滿足你自己,你要去忘掉你自己

  • In order to find yourself, you have to lose yourself.

    為了找到你自己,你要先去迷失你自己

  • We happen to live in a society that favors Adam I,

    我們當今生活在一個對亞當第一有利的社會中,

  • and often neglects Adam II.

    並且經常疏忽亞當第二。

  • And the problem is, that turns you into a shrewd animal

    問題是,這讓人變成了精明的動物,

  • who treats life as a game,

    把生活當成了一場遊戲,

  • and you become a cold, calculating creature

    然後人們變成了一種冷酷,會算計的生物,

  • who slips into a sort of mediocrity

    不知不覺的就變成了一個平庸的人:

  • where you realize there's a difference

    你會發現你渴望的自己

  • between your desired self and your actual self.

    和現實中的自己不大相同。

  • You're not earning the sort of eulogy you want,

    你不在積攢你想要的悼詞,

  • you hope someone will give to you.

    你希望其他人會給你的那種。

  • You don't have the depth of conviction.

    你沒有堅定的信念,

  • You don't have an emotional sonorousness.

    沒有動人的情感。

  • You don't have commitment to tasks

    在那些需要花一輩子去經營的任務中,

  • that would take more than a lifetime to commit.

    你並沒有投身於其中。

  • I was reminded of a common response through history

    這讓我想起歷史中常見的,

  • of how you build a solid Adam II,

    建造一個扎實的亞當第二的方法。

  • how you build a depth of character.

    你怎麼去發掘亞當第二的深度

  • Through history, people have gone back

    回歸歷史

  • into their own pasts,

    人們回到自己的過去

  • sometimes to a precious time in their life,

    回到很珍貴的那段時期,童年

  • to their childhood,

    經常

  • and often, the mind gravitates in the past

    思緒會被牽引至過去的

  • to a moment of shame,

    曾經羞愧的那一刻,

  • some sin committed, some act of selfishness,

    回到你犯下錯誤的時候,

  • an act of omission, of shallowness,

    你自私自利的時候。

  • the sin of anger, the sin of self-pity,

    你忽略其他人的時候,淺薄的時候

  • trying to be a people-pleaser, a lack of courage.

    生氣的時候

  • Adam I is built by building on your strengths.

    自憐自哀的時候

  • Adam II is built by fighting your weaknesses.

    跟不停的取悅他人,

  • You go into yourself, you find the sin

    迷失自己的勇氣的時刻。

  • which you've committed over and again through your life,

    亞當第一

  • your signature sin

    是在我們的優勢上建立而成

  • out of which the others emerge,

    亞當第二

  • and you fight that sin and you wrestle with that sin,

    是在我們與我們的弱點戰鬥時建立而成

  • and out of that wrestling, that suffering,

    你要反省你自己,

  • then a depth of character is constructed.

    找到你根深蒂固的罪惡,

  • And we're often not taught to recognize

    那個最屬於你的,

  • the sin in ourselves,

    帶來其他罪惡的根源。

  • in that we're not taught in this culture

    然後你去與你的罪惡搏鬥

  • how to wrestle with it,

    除了搏鬥以外

  • how to confront it, and how to combat it.

    你要去忍受。

  • We live in a culture with an Adam I mentality

    最後,深刻的個性才開始成形

  • where we're inarticulate about Adam II.

    我們沒有被教導如何學習認知

  • Finally, Reinhold Niebuhr

    我們人性中的罪惡

  • summed up the confrontation, the fully lived

    我們在這個文化中也沒學習到

  • Adam I and Adam II life, this way:

    怎麼與我們的罪惡搏鬥

  • "Nothing that is worth doing can be achieved in our lifetime;

    怎麼去面對罪惡

  • therefore we must be saved by hope.

    跟怎麼戰勝我們的罪惡

  • Nothing which is true or beautiful or good makes

    我們生活在一個崇尚第一亞當的社會中

  • complete sense in any immediate context of history;

    也是對第二亞有者模糊概念的社會。

  • therefore we must be saved by faith.

    最後,雷茵霍爾德 尼布爾

  • Nothing we do, however virtuous, can be accomplished alone;

    對亞當第一和第二的對立

  • therefore we must be saved by love.

    給予了這樣的總結:

  • No virtuous act is quite as virtuous

    “沒有一件值得去做的事情,可以在你這一生中完成”

  • from the standpoint of our friend or foe as from our own standpoint.

    “因此我們必須心存希望。”

  • Therefore we must be saved by that final form of love,

    “沒有一件美麗,真實的東西,”

  • which is forgiveness.”

    “會馬上被人欣賞,”

  • Thanks.

    “‘因此我們要心存信念。”

  • (Applause)

    "我們不能獨自完成任何一件事情,就算是善意的,"

So I've been thinking about the difference between

我之前一直在思考

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 亞當 美德 內在 人性 邏輯

【TED】戴維德.布魯克斯: 你應該為哪個奮鬥——你的簡歷還是你的頌詞? (David Brooks: Should you live for your résumé ... or your eulogy?)

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    田兒 發佈於 2014 年 08 月 24 日
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