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  • When we think about prejudice and bias,

    當我們想到偏見和偏好

  • we tend to think about stupid and evil people

    我們總會想到愚蠢和邪惡的人們

  • doing stupid and evil things.

    做愚蠢和邪惡的的事

  • And this idea is nicely summarized

    英國評論家威廉哈茲里特

  • by the British critic William Hazlitt,

    精闢地總結了這樣的想法

  • who wrote, "Prejudice is the child of ignorance."

    他寫道,「偏見源於無知。」

  • I want to try to convince you here

    在此我想說服你們

  • that this is mistaken.

    這是錯的

  • I want to try to convince you

    我想努力去說服你們

  • that prejudice and bias

    偏見和偏愛

  • are natural, they're often rational,

    是自然的,它們通常出於理性

  • and they're often even moral,

    它們通常甚至合乎道德

  • and I think that once we understand this,

    而我認為一旦我們理解這個道理

  • we're in a better position to make sense of them

    當它們出現問題時

  • when they go wrong,

    我們較易了解成因為何

  • when they have horrible consequences,

    當偏見造成嚴重的後果

  • and we're in a better position to know what to do

    在這一切發生的時候

  • when this happens.

    我們比較知道該如何處理

  • So, start with stereotypes. You look at me,

    因此,從「刻板印象」開始談起吧。你們看看我

  • you know my name, you know certain facts about me,

    你們知道我的名字,你們知道一些關於我的事

  • and you could make certain judgments.

    你們可以做出一定的判斷

  • You could make guesses about my ethnicity,

    你們可以猜測我的種族

  • my political affiliation, my religious beliefs.

    我的政治傾向,我的宗教信仰

  • And the thing is, these judgments tend to be accurate.

    重點是,這些判斷往往是準確的

  • We're very good at this sort of thing.

    我們對這些事很擅長

  • And we're very good at this sort of thing

    而我們之所以擅長這些事

  • because our ability to stereotype people

    是因為我們能先入為主地憑斷他人

  • is not some sort of arbitrary quirk of the mind,

    這並不是我們腦袋裡的恣意怪想

  • but rather it's a specific instance

    而是一種符合正常程序的

  • of a more general process,

    特定反應

  • which is that we have experience

    也就是說,我們把

  • with things and people in the world

    在這世上經歷的人與事

  • that fall into categories,

    分門別類

  • and we can use our experience to make generalizations

    而我們根據以往經驗

  • about novel instances of these categories.

    歸納這些類別裡的新事物

  • So everybody here has a lot of experience

    所以在此每個人都有很多

  • with chairs and apples and dogs,

    有關椅子、蘋果和狗的經驗

  • and based on this, you could see

    根據這些東西,你們可以看見

  • unfamiliar examples and you could guess,

    不熟悉的事物,你們可以猜測

  • you could sit on the chair,

    椅子是可以坐的

  • you could eat the apple, the dog will bark.

    蘋果是可以吃的,狗會吠叫

  • Now we might be wrong.

    此刻我們卻可能是錯的

  • The chair could collapse if you sit on it,

    若你坐在椅子上,椅子可能會倒

  • the apple might be poison, the dog might not bark,

    蘋果可能有毒,狗可能不會吠叫

  • and in fact, this is my dog Tessie, who doesn't bark.

    其實這是我的狗黛絲,牠不會吠叫

  • But for the most part, we're good at this.

    但在大多數情況下,我們的判斷很準確

  • For the most part, we make good guesses

    在大多數情況下,我們的猜測是合理的

  • both in the social domain and the non-social domain,

    不論在社會領域或其他領域

  • and if we weren't able to do so,

    如果我們不具有這樣的能力

  • if we weren't able to make guesses about new instances that we encounter,

    如果我們無法對新的事物做出猜測

  • we wouldn't survive.

    我們將無法生存

  • And in fact, Hazlitt later on in his wonderful essay

    事實上,哈茲里特後來在他一篇精彩的文章中

  • concedes this.

    承認了這一點

  • He writes, "Without the aid of prejudice and custom,

    他寫道,「沒有偏見和習慣的幫助,

  • I should not be able to find my way my across the room;

    我將找不到穿越房間的路;

  • nor know how to conduct myself in any circumstances,

    也不知道自己在不同情況下該如何反應,

  • nor what to feel in any relation of life."

    也無法感受生命中任何一段情感。」

  • Or take bias.

    現在來討論偏好

  • Now sometimes, we break the world up into

    有時,我們將世界劃分為

  • us versus them, into in-group versus out-group,

    我們和他們,群體內和群體外

  • and sometimes when we do this,

    有時當我們這麼做的時候

  • we know we're doing something wrong,

    我們知道我們正在犯錯

  • and we're kind of ashamed of it.

    我們對此有些慚愧

  • But other times we're proud of it.

    但其他時候我們對此很自豪

  • We openly acknowledge it.

    我們公開承認

  • And my favorite example of this

    我最喜歡的例子

  • is a question that came from the audience

    是在上次選舉前共和黨的辯論中

  • in a Republican debate prior to the last election.

    一個來自觀眾的問題

  • (Video) Anderson Cooper: Gets to your question,

    〈影片〉安德森庫柏:問答時間

  • the question in the hall, on foreign aid? Yes, ma'am.

    觀眾提問,有關對外援助?有請這位女士

  • Woman: The American people are suffering

    女士:美國人在我們的國家裡

  • in our country right now.

    正在遭受苦難

  • Why do we continue to send foreign aid

    為什麼我們要對其他國家

  • to other countries

    提供外援呢?

  • when we need all the help we can get for ourselves?

    此時我們需要這些援助用在我們本國人身上

  • AC: Governor Perry, what about that?

    安德森庫柏:州長佩里,您如何看待此事呢?

  • (Applause)

    〈鼓掌〉

  • Rick Perry: Absolutely, I think it's—

    里克·佩里:是的,我認為—

  • Paul Bloom: Each of the people onstage

    保羅·布魯姆:台上的每個人

  • agreed with the premise of her question,

    同意她問題的前提

  • which is as Americans, we should care more

    這個前提是身為美國人,我們應該更關照

  • about Americans than about other people.

    本國人民,而非其他人民

  • And in fact, in general, people are often swayed

    事實上,一般來說,人們時常會受到影響

  • by feelings of solidarity, loyalty, pride, patriotism,

    這些影響來自對他們的國家或種族

  • towards their country or towards their ethnic group.

    有著團結、忠誠、自豪以及愛國主義

  • Regardless of your politics, many people feel proud to be American,

    不談政治傾向,很多人對自己身為美國人而感到自豪

  • and they favor Americans over other countries.

    他們對美國人的偏愛更勝於其他國家

  • Residents of other countries feel the same about their nation,

    其他國家的人民對自己國家也抱有相同態度

  • and we feel the same about our ethnicities.

    我們對自己的種族也是如此

  • Now some of you may reject this.

    一些人可能會反對這種說法

  • Some of you may be so cosmopolitan

    你們當中某些人可能是世界主義者

  • that you think that ethnicity and nationality

    你們認為種族和國籍

  • should hold no moral sway.

    不應該影響道德觀

  • But even you sophisticates accept

    但即便世故如你們也承認

  • that there should be some pull

    這當中有一股不可抗力

  • towards the in-group in the domain of friends and family,

    是從朋友和家人當中來劃分群體

  • of people you're close to,

    那些與你更親近的人們

  • and so even you make a distinction

    所以連你自己也會劃定界限

  • between us versus them.

    區別我們和他們

  • Now, this distinction is natural enough

    這些區別是自然而然的

  • and often moral enough, but it can go awry,

    通常也不違背道德,但有時可能會出錯

  • and this was part of the research

    這是偉大的社會心理學家亨利•泰吉弗爾

  • of the great social psychologist Henri Tajfel.

    研究的一部份

  • Tajfel was born in Poland in 1919.

    泰吉弗爾於1919年生於波蘭

  • He left to go to university in France,

    他離家到法國唸大學

  • because as a Jew, he couldn't go to university in Poland,

    因為身為猶太人,他不能在波蘭唸大學

  • and then he enlisted in the French military

    隨後在第二次世界大戰

  • in World War II.

    他應募入伍加入法軍

  • He was captured and ended up

    被捕了隨後被送到

  • in a prisoner of war camp,

    戰俘營

  • and it was a terrifying time for him,

    對他來說這是非常恐怖的經歷

  • because if it was discovered that he was a Jew,

    因為如果他一旦被發現是猶太人

  • he could have been moved to a concentration camp,

    他便會被移送到集中營

  • where he most likely would not have survived.

    很難活下來

  • And in fact, when the war ended and he was released,

    事實上,當戰爭結束的時候, 他被釋放了,

  • most of his friends and family were dead.

    他的親友絕大多數都死亡了

  • He got involved in different pursuits.

    他參與不同的活動

  • He helped out the war orphans.

    他幫助戰爭孤兒

  • But he had a long-lasting interest

    但他對於研究偏見

  • in the science of prejudice,

    有著極高的興趣

  • and so when a prestigious British scholarship

    因此當一個極富聲望的、 有關“刻板印象成見” 的英國獎學金機會

  • on stereotypes opened up, he applied for it,

    釋出的時候,他提出了申請

  • and he won it,

    並拿到了獎學金

  • and then he began this amazing career.

    這使他開啟了精彩的職業生涯

  • And what started his career is an insight

    他對偏見的研究始於一個觀點

  • that the way most people were thinking

    他認為多數人對於大屠殺的看法

  • about the Holocaust was wrong.

    是錯誤的

  • Many people, most people at the time,

    很多人,當時絕大多數人

  • viewed the Holocaust as sort of representing

    將大屠殺視為

  • some tragic flaw on the part of the Germans,

    某種德國人的悲劇錯誤

  • some genetic taint, some authoritarian personality.

    獨裁性格中的基因缺陷

  • And Tajfel rejected this.

    泰吉弗爾拒絕這樣解釋

  • Tajfel said what we see in the Holocaust

    他說道,大屠殺的種種

  • is just an exaggeration

    只不過是正常心理狀態的

  • of normal psychological processes

    過度擴張

  • that exist in every one of us.

    這樣的心理狀態存在於我們每個人之中

  • And to explore this, he did a series of classic studies

    為了追根究底,他做了一系列與英國青少年相關的

  • with British adolescents.

    經典研究

  • And in one of his studies, what he did was he asked

    在他的其中一項研究中,

  • the British adolescents all sorts of questions,

    他詢問英國青少年各種不同的問題

  • and then based on their answers, he said,

    根據他們的回答,他向受試者說

  • "I've looked at your answers, and based on the answers,

    「我看過你的答案, 根據你的回答,

  • I have determined that you are either" —

    我判定你是」—

  • he told half of them

    他告訴青少年中一半的人—

  • "a Kandinsky lover, you love the work of Kandinsky,

    「一位康定斯基迷, 你喜愛康定斯基的作品,

  • or a Klee lover, you love the work of Klee."

    你是克利迷, 你喜愛克利的畫作。」

  • It was entirely bogus.

    這完全是胡編的

  • Their answers had nothing to do with Kandinsky or Klee.

    青少年的答案和康定斯基或者克利一點關係也沒有

  • They probably hadn't heard of the artists.

    他們甚至還未聽說過這兩位藝術家的大名

  • He just arbitrarily divided them up.

    泰吉弗爾只是任意地把青少年們劃分開來

  • But what he found was, these categories mattered,

    但他發現,這樣的類別劃分是有作用的

  • so when he later gave the subjects money,

    隨後,他讓這些青少年分配錢

  • they would prefer to give the money

    他們更願意將金錢分給

  • to members of their own group

    與自己同組的人

  • than members of the other group.

    而不是另一組的人

  • Worse, they were actually most interested

    更糟的是,他們真的很樂於

  • in establishing a difference

    建立差異性

  • between their group and other groups,

    來區分自己的組和其他組

  • so they would give up money for their own group

    為了讓別組少拿到些錢

  • if by doing so they could give the other group even less.

    他們甚至願意放棄自己的錢

  • This bias seems to show up very early.

    這樣的偏愛很快就展現出來

  • So my colleague and wife, Karen Wynn, at Yale

    我的妻子也是我的同事,凱倫•威恩

  • has done a series of studies with babies

    在耶魯大學做了一系列有關嬰兒的研究

  • where she exposes babies to puppets,

    她將幼兒放在玩偶旁邊

  • and the puppets have certain food preferences.

    玩偶有它們各自喜愛的食物

  • So one of the puppets might like green beans.

    某個玩偶可能喜愛青豆

  • The other puppet might like graham crackers.

    另個玩偶更愛全麥餅乾

  • They test the babies own food preferences,

    研究人員測試了幼兒們自身的食物偏好

  • and babies typically prefer the graham crackers.

    幼兒們通常比較喜歡全麥餅乾

  • But the question is, does this matter to babies

    問題是,這樣的喜好差別

  • in how they treat the puppets? And it matters a lot.

    會影響到幼兒們對待玩偶的態度嗎? 確實有很大影響

  • They tend to prefer the puppet

    幼兒們更喜歡

  • who has the same food tastes that they have,

    和他們有相同口味偏好的玩偶

  • and worse, they actually prefer puppets

    更糟的是,其實讓幼兒們更喜歡的玩偶

  • who punish the puppet with the different food taste.

    是那些會去懲罰其他有不同食物品味的玩偶

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • We see this sort of in-group, out-group psychology all the time.

    這樣區分內外群體的現象比比皆是

  • We see it in political clashes

    政治衝突中也會展現

  • within groups with different ideologies.

    在意識形態不同的群體當中

  • We see it in its extreme in cases of war,

    戰爭是最極端的例子

  • where the out-group isn't merely given less,

    外群體不是被輕視

  • but dehumanized,

    而是不被當作人類對待

  • as in the Nazi perspective of Jews

    如同納粹視猶太人

  • as vermin or lice,

    為害蟲或是蝨子

  • or the American perspective of Japanese as rats.

    美國人視日本人為鼠輩

  • Stereotypes can also go awry.

    刻板印象是會歪曲現實的

  • So often they're rational and useful,

    通常這些刻板印象是理性的且有幫助的

  • but sometimes they're irrational,

    但有時候也毫無道理

  • they give the wrong answers,

    會給出錯誤的答案

  • and other times

    也有時候

  • they lead to plainly immoral consequences.

    這些刻板印象會導致不道德的後果

  • And the case that's been most studied

    最常被研究的案例

  • is the case of race.

    是種族

  • There was a fascinating study

    在2008年美國大選前

  • prior to the 2008 election

    有個極好的研究

  • where social psychologists looked at the extent

    社會心理學家研究觀察

  • to which the candidates were associated with America,

    哪位總統候選人會讓人聯想到美國

  • as in an unconscious association with the American flag.

    就像不知不覺聯想到美國國旗一樣

  • And in one of their studies they compared

    在其中一項研究中,他們比較了

  • Obama and McCain, and they found McCain

    歐巴馬和麥凱恩,他們發現麥凱恩

  • is thought of as more American than Obama,

    比奧巴馬更加「美國人」

  • and to some extent, people aren't that surprised by hearing that.

    某種程度上,人們甚至並未對此感到驚訝

  • McCain is a celebrated war hero,

    麥凱恩是一位著名的戰爭英雄

  • and many people would explicitly say

    很多人都明確表示

  • he has more of an American story than Obama.

    比起歐巴馬,麥凱恩與美國的淵源更深

  • But they also compared Obama

    研究人員也以歐巴馬

  • to British Prime Minister Tony Blair,

    和英國首相布萊爾做比較

  • and they found that Blair was also thought of

    他們發現布萊爾也被認為

  • as more American than Obama,

    比歐巴馬更加「美國人」

  • even though subjects explicitly understood

    即使他們完全知道

  • that he's not American at all.

    布萊爾根本不是美國人

  • But they were responding, of course,

    但,想當然爾,人們是針對

  • to the color of his skin.

    膚色作出回應的

  • These stereotypes and biases

    這樣的成見和偏好

  • have real-world consequences,

    在現實生活中造成影響

  • both subtle and very important.

    有些影響輕微,有些影響深遠

  • In one recent study, researchers

    在最近的一個研究中,研究人員

  • put ads on eBay for the sale of baseball cards.

    在eBay上刊登廣告銷售籃球卡

  • Some of them were held by white hands,

    有些是白人的手握著籃球卡

  • others by black hands.

    有些則是黑人的手握著

  • They were the same baseball cards.

    他們都賣一樣的籃球卡

  • The ones held by black hands

    黑人的手握著的籃球卡

  • got substantially smaller bids

    得到的買家出價

  • than the ones held by white hands.

    價位大幅低於白人的手握著的籃球卡

  • In research done at Stanford,

    在史丹佛大學的一項研究當中

  • psychologists explored the case of people

    心理學家研究了

  • sentenced for the murder of a white person.

    因謀殺白人而被判刑的罪犯

  • It turns out, holding everything else constant,

    結果顯示,在不考慮其他因素的前提下

  • you are considerably more likely to be executed

    若你長得像右圖的人

  • if you look like the man on the right

    則你被判處死刑的機率

  • than the man on the left,

    遠高於左圖的人

  • and this is in large part because

    這主要歸因於

  • the man on the right looks more prototypically black,

    右圖的人看起來比較像是典型的黑人

  • more prototypically African-American,

    較為典型的非裔美國人

  • and this apparently influences people's decisions

    這顯然影響到了人們

  • over what to do about him.

    對他所做出的決定

  • So now that we know about this,

    現在我們知道了成見和偏愛的存在

  • how do we combat it?

    我們要如何對抗這樣的想法呢?

  • And there are different avenues.

    有很多不同的方法

  • One avenue is to appeal

    一個方法是訴諸於

  • to people's emotional responses,

    人們的情感反應

  • to appeal