Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • How's this for a strange idea: a day off from work in honor of work itself?

    這是一個多麼奇怪的想法:為了慶祝工作而放假一天?

  • Actually, that is what Labor Day, celebrated in the United States and Canada on the first Monday of every September, is all about.

    事實上這就是勞動節,美國和加拿大在每年九月的第一個星期一慶祝的這個節日。

  • The first American Labor Day was celebrated in New York City on September 5th, 1882, as thousands of workers and their families came to Union Square for a day in the park.

    1882 年 9 月 5 日,美國在紐約市慶祝第一個勞動節,數以千計的勞工與家人在聯合廣場的公園裡度過這一天。

  • It was not a national holiday, but had been organized by a union to honor workers and their hard efforts with a rare day of rest, halfway between July 4th and Thanksgiving.

    勞動節在當時那並非國定假日,而是工會在美國獨立日與感恩節之間籌劃的休假日,目的是為了表揚勞工和他們辛苦的勞力。

  • There were picnics and parade, but there were also protests.

    勞動節時,有野餐和遊行,但也有一些抗議行動。

  • The workers had gathered, not just to rest and celebrate, but to demand fair wages, the end of child labor, and the right to organize into unions.

    勞工們聚集在一起,不光是休息和慶祝,也會要求更合理的薪資、要求終結童工以及組織工會的權利。

  • During the period known as The Industrial Revolution, many jobs were difficult, dirty and dangerous.

    在工業革命時期,有許多工作相當困難、骯髒且危險的工作。

  • People worked for twelve hours, six days a week, without fringe benefits, such as vacations, health care and pensions.

    人們一週工作六天,一天 12 小時,且沒有放假、健康照護以及退休金等附加福利。

  • And if you were young, chances are you were doing manual labor instead of your ABCs and fractions.

    如果你是年輕人,那麼你很可能從事勞力工作,而不是學習語言或數學。

  • Children as young as ten worked in some of the most hazardous places, like coal mines or factories filled with boiling vats or dangerous machines.

    即使是 10 歲大的小孩,也必須在極為危險的地方工作,如煤礦場、充滿滾燙水桶或危險機械的廠房。

  • Trying to win better pay, shorter hours, and safer conditions, workers had begun to form labor unions in America and Canada.

    為了爭取更好的薪水、較短的工時和安全的環境,勞工們開始在美國和加拿大組織工會。

  • But the companies they worked for often fought hard to keep unions out and to suppress strikes.

    然而這些勞工們所效力的公司,卻時常極力阻撓工會、抑制罷工行動。

  • At times, this led to violent battles between workers and business owners with the owners often backed up by the police, or even the military.

    有時這就演變成勞工與雇主之間的暴力鬥爭,而雇主往往有警方甚至是軍方的支持。

  • In the following years, the idea of Labor Day caught on in America, with official celebrations reaching 30 states.

    往後幾年,勞動節開始在美國盛行,高達 30 個州由官方舉行慶祝活動。

  • But then came the violent Haymarket Square Riot of 1886, which led to the deaths of several policemen and workers in Chicago and the execution of four union leaders.

    然而隨之而來的卻是暴力的 1886 年 Haymarket Sqaure 暴亂,造成芝加哥多位警察和勞工死亡,同時有四名工會的領導人被處決。

  • After that, many labor and political groups around the world had begun to mark Haymarket Square on May 1st, which became known as International Workers' Day.

    在那之後,許多來自世界各地的勞工和政治團體,開始在 5/1 日紀念 Haymarket Sqaure 事件,而後演變成現在所知的國際勞動節。

  • In 1894, President Grover Cleveland signed the law making Labor Day a federal holiday in America, only days after he had sent 12,000 soldiers to end a violent railroad strike that resulted in the death of several people.

    1894 年時,Grover Cleveland 總統簽署了法案,將勞動節訂定為聯邦法定假日,就在法案簽署的幾天前,他才剛下令一萬兩千名士兵,平息一場導致數人死亡的鐵路罷工暴力事件。

  • The original September date was kept, partly to avoid the more radical associations of May 1st.

    勞動節保留在原先的九月,部分原因是為了避免人們聯想到五月一日,而引發更多激烈衝突。

  • Canada also created its Labor Day in 1894.

    加拿大也在 1894 年訂定了勞動節。

  • But, in spite of this new holiday, it would be a long time before the changes that workers wanted became a reality.

    然而,儘管有了這個新的節日,勞工們所期盼的改變仍然需要很長一段時間才能實現。

  • In 1938, during the Great Depression that left millions without jobs, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a law calling for an eight-hour work day, a five-day work week, and an end to child labor, some of the first federal protections for American workers.

    1938 年,數百萬人在經濟大蕭條時期失業,羅斯福總統簽署了一項法案,將工時訂定為每天八小時、每週五天,並終止雇用童工,成為聯邦保護美國勞工的首例法案。

  • As America and Canada celebrate Labor Day, most of the two countries' children enjoy a day off from school.

    而隨著美國與加拿大開始慶祝勞動節,兩國大部分的孩童可以享有一天的假日。

  • But it is important to remember that there was a time that everyday was a labor day for children in America and Canada, and unfortunately, the same fact remains true for millions of children around the world today.

    但請記得,對美國和加拿大的孩童而言,曾經有一段時間每天都要工作,不幸的是,這個事實在今日仍然存在於世界各地無數的孩童身上。

How's this for a strange idea: a day off from work in honor of work itself?

這是一個多麼奇怪的想法:為了慶祝工作而放假一天?

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 勞工 慶祝 工會 加拿大 法案

為什麼美國人和加拿大人慶祝勞動節? (Why Do Americans and Canadians Celebrate Labor Day?)

  • 7604 423
    Kevin Tan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 16 日
影片單字