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  • Life on Earth.

    地球上的生命。

  • Scientists have been studying it for centuries, creating a timeline from when the first single-cell

    科學家們已經研究了幾個世紀,創建了一條從第一個單細胞開始的時間線。

  • beings emerged in primordial waters to today when billions of humans populate the surface.

    從原始水體中出現的生物,到今天數十億人在水面上居住。

  • But there’s one question theyve never been able to answer with 100% certainty - how

    但有一個問題他們一直無法100%確定地回答--如何

  • exactly did it begin?

    它到底是怎麼開始的?

  • Most scientists think it started from a complex chemical reaction in the water of the early

    大多數科學家認為,它是由早期水裡的複雜化學反應開始的。

  • Earth.

    地球。

  • Some argue for a more intelligent hand guiding the process.

    一些人認為需要一隻更聰明的手來指導這個過程。

  • The only thing that’s sure is that no one’s sure - and everyone has an opinion.

    唯一確定的是,沒有人確定--每個人都有自己的看法。

  • But what if the origin of life on Earth didn’t actually come from Earth?

    但是,如果地球上的生命起源實際上並不來自地球呢?

  • Could life on earth be the product of extraterrestrials?

    地球上的生命會不會是外星人的產物?

  • So far, we don’t have any conclusive proof for or against life outside of Earth.

    到目前為止,我們還沒有任何結論性的證據來證明或反對地球以外的生命。

  • No contact has been made, and no DNA or fossils from other lifeforms has been discovered.

    沒有進行過接觸,也沒有發現其他生命體的DNA或化石。

  • But weve only explored a tiny fragment of the universe out there - almost none of

    但是我們只探索了宇宙中的一小部分--幾乎沒有

  • it in person - and the odds that countless planets surrounding countless stars would

    它本人--以及圍繞著無數恆星的無數行星的機率會

  • have no other planets capable of supporting life since the Big Bang is pretty slim.

    自宇宙大爆炸以來,沒有其他能夠支持生命的行星是相當渺茫的。

  • And after billions of years of this universe existing, many of those worlds may not exist

    而在這個宇宙存在了幾十億年後,許多世界可能不存在了

  • anymore.

    不再是了。

  • Asteroids, comets, and other interstellar phenomena can immediately bring a crushing

    小行星、彗星和其他星際現象可以立即帶來粉碎性的

  • end to any world’s lifeforms - as the dinosaurs found out the hard way.

    任何世界上的生命體的終結--正如恐龍艱難地發現的那樣。

  • But what if the life from those worlds...didn’t stay on those worlds?

    但如果這些世界的生命......沒有留在這些世界上呢?

  • The hypothesis is panspermia, which claims that not only does life exist throughout the

    這個假說是泛生論,它聲稱不僅整個生命存在於

  • universe, but that it gets carried from world to world by traveling objects like asteroids

    但是,它被小行星等旅行物體從一個世界帶到另一個世界。

  • and comets.

    和彗星。

  • The space dust that gets attached to anything traveling through space - even the spaceships

    附著在任何在太空中旅行的東西上的空間塵埃--甚至是宇宙飛船

  • that humans send to explore the moon and nearby planets - may have microscopic forms of life

    人類派去探索月球和附近行星的 "星際飛船"--可能有微小的生命形式。

  • in them that travel to other worlds and seed them when they land, creating the building

    在它們中,有的人前往其他世界,並在降落時向它們播種,創造出建築。

  • blocks of future life on those worlds.

    這些世界上的未來生命的組成部分。

  • But could anything survive in the cold vacuum of space?

    但有什麼東西能在寒冷的太空真空中生存嗎?

  • Well, we couldn’t, and neither could most animals on Earth.

    嗯,我們不能,地球上的大多數動物也不能。

  • But when you look at smaller animals, some survive climates that could kill humans in

    但是,當你看到較小的動物時,一些動物在可能殺死人類的氣候中生存下來。

  • seconds.

    秒。

  • The Pompeii Worm lives deep in hydrothermal vents that can reach up to 175 degrees fahrenheit.

    龐貝蠕蟲生活在熱液噴口深處,溫度可高達175華氏度。

  • The Flat Bark Beetle, which lives in some of the coldest climates of North America,

    平皮甲蟲,生活在北美洲一些最寒冷的氣候中。

  • produces natural antifreeze chemicals that help it survive the winter and enter into

    產生天然的防凍劑,幫助它度過冬天並進入

  • a sort of stasis - smoothly surviving the coldest parts of the winter while were

    一種停滯狀態--順利度過冬天最冷的部分,而我們卻在

  • fighting over the thermostat.

    爭奪恆溫器。

  • Neither of them could survive space - but that’s not the case for one microscopic

    他們都不能在太空中生存--但對於一個微觀的人來說,情況並非如此

  • creature.

    生物。

  • The nameWater Bearprobably creates cute images of an ursine mammal enjoying a

    水熊 "這個名字可能會讓人聯想到一種可愛的動物形象,那就是享受水的哺乳類動物。

  • bath in the river.

    在河裡洗澡。

  • But the real thing is much less cuddly - and also less likely to eat you.

    但是真正的東西沒有那麼可愛--也不可能吃掉你。

  • Also called a Tardigrade, this tiny organism is the only form of life that seems to be

    這種微小的生物體也被稱為Tardigrade,是唯一的生命形式,似乎是

  • able to live anywhere, even in the most extreme conditions.

    能夠生活在任何地方,甚至在最極端的條件下。

  • Theyve been found everywhere from deserts to hot springs, and they may even potentially

    從沙漠到溫泉,到處都有它們的身影,它們甚至有可能被發現。

  • exist in space - thanks to a crash of a sample from a spaceship on the moon.

    存在於太空中--這要歸功於月球上一艘宇宙飛船的樣本墜毀。

  • These tiny multi-legged creatures can dry up and fall into a state that resembles death,

    這些微小的多足生物可以乾涸並陷入類似死亡的狀態。

  • but when exposed to water even decades later, they spring back to life.

    但當暴露在水中時,甚至在幾十年後,它們又恢復了活力。

  • So if life originated from outside Earth, how exactly did it get here?

    那麼,如果生命起源於地球之外,它究竟是如何來到這裡的?

  • There are a couple of theories of exactly how those building blocks of life arrived

    關於這些生命的組成部分究竟是如何到來的,有幾種理論。

  • on our ancient planet, most of them based around interstellar physics.

    在我們這個古老的星球上,大部分都是圍繞著星際物理學。

  • One theory from a Swedish scientist in 1903 theorizes that the radiation pressure from

    一位瑞典科學家在1903年提出的一個理論認為,來自

  • stars can send particles through space, but this would only work for the smallest particles

    恆星可以通過空間發送粒子,但這隻對最小的粒子有效

  • and many if not all would be killed off by the radiation.

    如果不是全部,也有很多人會被輻射殺死。

  • But it’s possible that alien bacteria or viruses could survive if shielded from UV

    但如果屏蔽了紫外線,外來細菌或病毒有可能存活下來。

  • radiation.

    輻射。

  • The other main theory is that the particles that led to the creation of life were hitchhikers

    另一個主要理論是,導致生命產生的粒子是搭便車的人

  • on rocks, coming into contact with Earth when the rocks crash-landed here.

    岩石上,當岩石墜落在這裡時,與地球接觸。

  • While we know how asteroids, comets, and meteors travel through the galaxy, this is under far

    雖然我們知道小行星、彗星和流星是如何在銀河系中旅行的,但這還遠遠不夠。

  • more extreme conditions than any lifeform has been known to survive - surviving in the

    比任何已知的生命體都更極端的條件下生存--生存在

  • vacuum of space for years on end before crash-landing.

    在墜落之前,在太空的真空中持續數年。

  • But there is another theory - that the alien lifeforms didn’t come here accidentally.

    但還有另一種理論--外星生命體並不是偶然來到這裡的。

  • What if the alien life out there was intelligent and advanced enough that they could have sent

    如果外面的外星生命有足夠的智慧和先進性,他們可以把

  • the building blocks of life towards Earth deliberately?

    故意將生命的組成部分推向地球?

  • The first possibility of this is accidental transport.

    這種情況的第一種可能性是意外的運輸。

  • On Earth, there have been countless cases of people throwing trash into the water and

    在地球上,人們將垃圾扔進水裡的情況數不勝數,而

  • having it be swept somewhere completely different - often endangering animal life in the process.

    讓它被掃到完全不同的地方--在這個過程中往往會危及動物的生命。

  • It’s possible that an alien civilization would have been advanced enough to send waste

    有可能外星文明已經先進到可以發送廢物了

  • products into space and dump them on an uninhabited world - that thanks to the trace DNA on the

    將產品送入太空並將其傾倒在一個無人居住的世界上--這要歸功於在太空中的微量DNA。

  • waste, evolved into the Earth we know today.

    廢物,演變成我們今天所知的地球。

  • But other theories say that the seeding of Earth may be much more deliberate.

    但是其他理論說,地球的播種可能是更深思熟慮的。

  • Directed panspermia is the idea that an alien species created life on Earth via transport

    定向泛生論是指一個外星物種通過運輸在地球上創造了生命。

  • of organisms from their world.

    的生物體來自他們的世界。

  • The idea of a deliberate seeding of the planet sidesteps a lot of the issues with other theories

    故意在地球上播種的想法迴避了其他理論的很多問題

  • - because the aliens would have been able to shield the samples for their trip, eliminating

    - 因為外星人將能夠為他們的旅行屏蔽樣本,消除了

  • the threat that the journey through space or the cosmic radiation would kill off the

    在太空中的旅行或宇宙輻射會殺死這些人的威脅。

  • organisms before they ever reached their target.

    在它們到達目標之前,生物體就會被殺死。

  • The alien species, if advanced enough to send samples into space, would be able to send

    外星物種如果足夠先進,可以將樣本送入太空,就能將

  • them at high speeds that would allow them to reach their destination in a more feasible

    他們以高速行駛,使他們能以更可行的方式到達目的地。

  • time.

    時間。

  • So why would aliens want to seed our planet?

    那麼,為什麼外星人要在我們的星球上播種?

  • The first possible theory is that the aliens were looking to secure and protect life in

    第一種可能的理論是,外星人是為了確保和保護生命在

  • space by spreading it among a larger area.

    通過在更大的區域內分散空間。

  • Even the strongest civilization can be felled by a natural disaster or stray comet, and

    即使是最強大的文明也可能被自然災害或流星所摧毀,而

  • when life exists on more than one world, it’s insured against the whims of the cosmos.

    當生命存在於一個以上的世界時,它就會受到宇宙變化的影響。

  • Of course, that was 3.5 billion years ago, and the odds are good that any alien civilization

    當然,那是35億年前的事了,任何外星文明的可能性都很大

  • that seeded Earth at the dawn of our world would be long gone themselves by now.

    在我們世界的黎明時分給地球播下種子的人,現在自己早就不在了。

  • But what if they weren’t?

    但如果他們不是呢?

  • There are many theories about aliens making contact with Earth, but thus far no conclusive

    有許多關於外星人與地球接觸的理論,但到目前為止,還沒有結論性的

  • proof has been found - regardless of how many people say they were abducted by a flying

    無論有多少人說他們被飛行器綁架,都已經找到了證據。

  • saucer.

    碟子。

  • But if aliens are out there - and may even have ties to the creation of life on Earth

    但是,如果外星人真的存在--甚至可能與地球上的生命創造有關係的話

  • - then why haven’t they made contact yet?

    - 那麼他們為什麼還沒有進行接觸呢?

  • One theory is that they simply don’t want to - theyre more than happy to just watch.

    一種理論是,他們根本不想這樣做--他們更樂意只是觀看。

  • This is called the Zoo Hypothesis, and it states that were all essentially living

    這被稱為 "動物園假說",它指出,我們在本質上都是活的。

  • in a giant terrarium.

    在一個巨大的水族箱中。

  • Whatever these aliens are, they have technology far beyond ours and theyre perfectly happy

    不管這些外星人是什麼,他們的技術遠遠超過我們,而且他們非常高興。

  • watching as our still-primitive planet slowly evolves.

    看著我們這個仍處於原始狀態的星球慢慢進化。

  • If we don’t know about their existence, it’s because they don’t want us to know

    如果我們不知道他們的存在,那是因為他們不想讓我們知道。

  • - yet.

    - 然而。

  • So are there any problems with this idea?

    那麼這個想法有什麼問題嗎?

  • Just one big one - have you ever tried to get a group of people to agree on anything?

    只有一個大的問題--你是否曾試圖讓一群人在任何事情上達成一致?

  • Trying to get ten people to agree on one place to eat is hard enough.

    試圖讓十個人同意在一個地方吃飯已經很困難了。

  • Imagine how difficult it would be to get an entire civilization to agree to keep a secret

    想象一下,要讓整個文明的人都同意保守一個祕密會有多難?

  • forever without any of them breaking the code of silence and broadcasting their existence

    他們中的任何一個人都沒有打破沉默的準則,沒有公佈他們的存在。

  • to ourhuman zoo”.

    到我們的 "人類動物園"。

  • It would have had to last millions of years of humans and their ancestors existing, and

    它必須持續數百萬年的人類和他們的祖先存在,並且

  • likely countless generations of the aliens not breaking their own protocol.

    可能無數代的外星人都沒有違反他們自己的協議。

  • That’s why many people say the Zoo hypothesis resembles creationism and religious theory

    這就是為什麼很多人說動物園假說類似於創造論和宗教理論的原因

  • more than panspermia.

    比泛生論更重要。

  • But have the aliens truly maintained a hands-off approach all this time?

    但是,在這段時間裡,外星人真的一直保持著不聞不問的態度嗎?

  • A popular idea - but maybe not so popular among scientists - is that Earth has been

    一個流行的想法--但也許在科學家中並不那麼流行--是地球已經被

  • visited repeatedly by advanced alien civilizations that may have interacted with humans before

    先進的外星文明反覆訪問,它們可能在之前就已經與人類進行了互動

  • recorded history.

    有記錄的歷史。

  • Called the Ancient Astronauts theory, it often has ties to various religions - after all,

    稱為古代太空人理論,它往往與各種宗教有聯繫--畢竟。

  • how many religious texts refer to powerful and mysterious beings descending from the

    有多少宗教文獻提到了強大而神祕的生命從天而降?

  • heavens and performing miracles?

    天堂和創造奇蹟?

  • But is there any evidence of these interstellar visits?

    但是有任何關於這些星際訪問的證據嗎?

  • If you watch a program called Ancient Aliens - a lot!

    如果你看了一個叫 "遠古外星人 "的節目--很多!那麼你就會發現。

  • This popular documentary-style series looks at evidence of alien interactions with humans,

    這部受歡迎的紀錄片式的系列片探討了外星人與人類互動的證據。

  • with a particular focus on early civilizations and the idea that certain technology and buildings

    特別關注早期文明以及某些技術和建築的想法。

  • couldn’t have been constructed by pre-industrial humans alone.

    不可能僅由工業化前的人類建造。

  • They look at mythology of giants and Gods, massive structures like the pyramids that

    他們看著神話中的巨人和神靈,像金字塔這樣的巨大建築。

  • show up across the world, and technology that seems too advanced for the time like the massive

    在世界範圍內出現,以及在當時看來過於先進的技術,如巨大的

  • clockwork Antikythera Mechanism of ancient Greece.

    古希臘的時鐘式安提凱希拉裝置。

  • With sixteen seasons and almost two hundred episodes, there are a lot of believers.

    十六季,近兩百集,有很多的信徒。

  • But just as many detractors.

    但同樣有很多詆譭者。

  • The Ancient Astronauts theory - and Ancient Aliens in particular - has been criticized

    古代太空人理論--尤其是古代外星人--受到了責備

  • for using selective evidence and disregarding the contributions of early Native cultures.

    因為他們使用了有選擇的證據並無視早期土著文化的貢獻。

  • The construction methods for megalithic structures like Stonehenge, the Great Pyramids of Egypt,

    巨石陣、埃及大金字塔等巨石結構的建造方法。

  • and the Mayan pyramids have been investigated and largely proven.

    和瑪雅金字塔已被調查並基本證實。

  • While there are still a lot of mysteries surrounding ancient architecture, like the giant stone

    雖然圍繞著古代建築仍有很多謎團,比如巨石

  • spheres of Costa Rica, few of them seem to point to aliens - but that hasn’t stopped

    在哥斯達黎加的各個領域中,似乎沒有什麼是指向外星人的--但這並沒有阻止他們的行動。

  • the speculation from growing.

    炒作的現象越來越多。

  • We don’t know for sure if aliens have visited Earth - but there’s a chance that their

    我們不確定外星人是否訪問過地球--但有可能他們的

  • DNA is still with us.

    DNA仍然與我們同在。

  • We might all be descended from aliens, if their organisms seeded our world eons ago.

    我們可能都是外星人的後代,如果他們的生物體在很久以前就在我們的世界上播種。

  • The most likely scenario, if we evolved from alien microorganisms, is that were so radically

    如果我們是由外星微生物進化而來,最可能的情況是,我們是如此徹底地

  • different from the original species by now that there would be no similarity anymore.

    現在已經與原始物種不同,不會再有任何相似之處。

  • If an alien species did seed Earth deliberately, then the odds are it didn’t seed Earth with

    如果一個外星物種確實故意在地球上播種,那麼它有可能沒有在地球上播種

  • the most advanced form of life on its planet but one of the smallest and easiest to transport.

    是其星球上最先進的生命形式,但也是最小和最容易運輸的生命形式之一。

  • The continuum of life on Earth indicates life likely started with microorganisms swimming

    地球上生命的連續性表明,生命很可能是從微生物開始游泳的。

  • in the water before turning into larger forms of life and eventually heading onto land - a

    在水中變成較大的生命形式並最終進入陸地--這是一種

  • far cry from the aliens who might have organized Earth’s seeding.

    與可能組織地球播種的外星人相差甚遠。

  • But could humanity’s ties to alien DNA be a lot more recent?

    但是,人類與外星DNA的聯繫會不會是最近才有的呢?

  • Many proponents of the Ancient Astronauts theory suggest that the aliens may have continued

    古代太空人理論的許多支持者認為,外星人可能已經繼續

  • to visit Earth up until the early days of humanity, and may have actually bred with

    直到人類的早期,他們一直訪問地球,並可能實際上與人類交配。

  • humans - leaving traces of their DNA in ours.

    人類--在我們這裡留下了他們的DNA痕跡。

  • While the idea of aliens on a pleasure cruise looking for some exotic party times may be

    雖然外國人在遊輪上尋找一些異國的聚會時間的想法可能是

  • relatable - especially if they have common DNA with those party kids who hit Cancun every

    特別是如果他們與那些每年都去坎昆的派對兒童有共同的DNA的話。

  • Spring Break - there are a lot of holes in the theory.

    春假--理論上有很多漏洞。

  • The aliens would have to still be around and in a similar shape billions of years after

    外星人必須在數十億年後仍然存在,而且形狀相似。

  • Earth was first seeded, and they would have to be genetically compatible with humans despite

    地球上最早的種子,他們必須與人類在基因上兼容,儘管

  • those billions of years of evolution.

    這幾十億年的進化過程。

  • So, no, it’s not very likely that your great-great-great-great-great grandpa was an alien.

    所以,不,你的曾曾曾曾曾祖父不太可能是外星人。

  • But that doesn’t mean this kind of interbreeding between humans and their distant relatives

    但這並不意味著這種人類和他們的遠親之間的雜交行為

  • isn’t possible.

    是不可能的。

  • Recent studies indicate that human fossils have traces of DNA from ancient humans that

    最近的研究表明,人類化石中有來自遠古人類的DNA痕跡,這些痕跡

  • preceded Homo Sapiens.

    先於智人。

  • The more famous Neanderthals are in there, but so are an extinct species of archaic humans

    更著名的尼安德特人在其中,但一個已滅絕的古人類物種也在其中。

  • we know relatively little about - the Denisovans.

    我們對丹尼索瓦人的瞭解相對較少。

  • Only identified in 2010 in Siberia, theyve been identified from a few bones and teeth

    2010年才在西伯利亞被發現,他們已經從一些骨頭和牙齒中被識別出來了

  • that are distinct from other species.

    有別於其他物種。

  • When ancient genomes were sequenced for the first time, scientists found fragments of

    當古代基因組首次被測序時,科學家發現了一些片段

  • genetic code that didn’t match up with Homo Sapiens.

    與智人不匹配的遺傳密碼。

  • Neanderthals were quickly identified - in fact, it’s estimated that most humans besides

    尼安德特人很快就被識別出來了--事實上,據估計,大多數人類除了

  • Africans have up to four percent of trace Neanderthal DNA in their genome.

    非洲人的基因組中有高達4%的微量尼安德特人DNA。

  • No one knows exactly what populations of ancient humans may be lurking in the recesses of the

    沒有人知道到底有哪些古人類的種群可能潛伏在古人類的凹地裡。

  • human genome, both ancient and modern.

    人類基因組,無論是古代還是現代。

  • What we do know is that modern humans are a complex mix of influences that made us what

    我們所知道的是,現代人類是一個複雜的混合影響,使我們成為了

  • we are.

    我們是。

  • Could one of those influences be from beyond our solar system?

    其中一個影響因素會不會來自我們的太陽系之外?

  • We don’t have proof of that yet - but the human genome is a mystery, and we don’t

    我們還沒有這方面的證據--但人類基因組是一個謎,我們不

  • have proof that it’s impossible either.

    也有證據表明這是不可能的。

  • For more on alien visitors, check outThis Will Happen When the Govt Confirms Aliens

    關於外星訪客的更多資訊,請查看 "當政府證實有外星人時,這將會發生。

  • Exist”, or watchHow Did the Dinosaurs Diefor more on the chaos objects from

    存在",或觀看 "恐龍是如何死亡的",以瞭解更多關於混亂物體的資訊。

  • space can cause.

    空間可能導致。

Life on Earth.

地球上的生命。

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為什麼一些科學家說我們實際上是外星人? (Why Some Scientists Are Saying We Are Actually Aliens)

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    Summer 發佈於 2021 年 05 月 04 日
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