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  • One of my favorite parts

    我在蓋茲基金會的工作中

  • about my job at the Gates Foundation

    其中一個令我最喜歡的部分

  • is that I get to travel to the developing world,

    就是有機會到開發中國家去

  • and I do that quite regularly.

    而且我也常常這樣做

  • And when I meet the mothers

    當我在這麼多遙遠的地方中

  • in so many of these remote places,

    遇到一些媽媽們

  • I'm really struck by the things

    我對於我們之間所存在的共同點

  • that we have in common.

    感到十分感動

  • They want what we want for our children

    我們對於孩子們的期望是一樣的

  • and that is for their children to grow up successful,

    就是孩子們可以順利地長大成人

  • to be healthy, and to have a successful life.

    要健康,並且擁有一個成功的人生

  • But I also see lots of poverty,

    同時,我也看到很多貧窮的景象

  • and it's quite jarring,

    就貧窮的規模和範圍來說

  • both in the scale and the scope of it.

    都是十分令人不舒服的

  • My first trip in India, I was in a person's home

    我第一次去印度的時候,去到一個人的家裡

  • where they had dirt floors, no running water,

    地板沒有鋪磚, 沒有自來水

  • no electricity,

    也沒有電力可用

  • and that's really what I see all over the world.

    就跟我在全世界各地方看到的一樣

  • So in short, I'm startled by all the things

    簡短的說,我對於

  • that they don't have.

    他們所沒有的東西感到驚訝

  • But I am surprised by one thing that they do have:

    但是我也對於他們有一個東西感到驚訝

  • Coca-Cola.

    就是可口可樂

  • Coke is everywhere.

    到處都有可口可樂

  • In fact, when I travel to the developing world,

    事實上,當我去到開發中國家

  • Coke feels ubiquitous.

    就感覺到可口可樂是無所不在的

  • And so when I come back from these trips,

    所以當我這些旅程中回來的時候

  • and I'm thinking about development,

    我就在思考關於開發計畫的事情

  • and I'm flying home and I'm thinking,

    還在飛機上的時候, 就在思考

  • "We're trying to deliver condoms to people or vaccinations,"

    當我們忙著發送保險套,或要他們去接種疫苗的時候

  • you know, Coke's success kind of stops and makes you wonder:

    可口可樂的成功案例,會讓我們想停下來思考一下

  • how is it that they can get Coke

    他們是如何讓可口可樂

  • to these far-flung places?

    廣泛地分佈到這些地方?

  • If they can do that,

    如果他們可以做到

  • why can't governments and NGOs do the same thing?

    為什麼政府和非政府組織不能做到同樣的事情?

  • And I'm not the first person to ask this question.

    我並非第一個提出這個問題的人

  • But I think, as a community,

    但是我認為, 做為一個社會群體

  • we still have a lot to learn.

    我們還有許多要學習的地方

  • It's staggering, if you think about Coca-Cola.

    如果你思考一下可口可樂的案例, 它是很驚人的

  • They sell 1.5 billion servings

    他們每天賣出

  • every single day.

    15億瓶的可樂

  • That's like every man, woman and child on the planet

    那就像是地球上每一個男人,女人,小孩子

  • having a serving of Coke every week.

    在每個星期裡都喝一瓶可樂

  • So why does this matter?

    為什麼這件事情重要呢?

  • Well, if we're going to speed up the progress

    如果想要加快我們所設定的

  • and go even faster

    千禧年發展目標進度

  • on the set of Millennium Development Goals that we're set as a world,

    並且前進的比以前更快

  • we need to learn from the innovators,

    我們就必須從這些創新者身上學習

  • and those innovators

    也包括來自於

  • come from every single sector.

    每一個領域中的創新者

  • I feel that, if we can understand

    我覺得,如果我們可以了解

  • what makes something like Coca-Cola ubiquitous,

    讓可口可樂無所不在的原因

  • we can apply those lessons then for the public good.

    我們就可以接著把那些經驗應用在公眾利益上

  • Coke's success is relevant,

    可口可樂的成功具有重大的意義

  • because if we can analyze it, learn from it,

    因為如果我們可以分析,且從中學習

  • then we can save lives.

    我們就可以拯救生命

  • So that's why I took a bit of time to study Coke.

    這就是為什麼我花了些時間去研究可口可樂

  • And I think there are really three things

    我認為, 可口可樂有三件事情

  • we can take away from Coca-Cola.

    是我們可以學習的

  • They take real-time data

    第一: 他們採用即時性的資料

  • and immediately feed it back into the product.

    而且會立即地把資料回饋到產品上

  • They tap into local entrepreneurial talent,

    第二: 他們結合當地的創業人才

  • and they do incredible marketing.

    第三: 他們從事很棒的行銷

  • So let's start with the data.

    讓我們先從資料談起

  • Now Coke has a very clear bottom line --

    可口可樂有非常清楚的底線(利潤)

  • they report to a set of shareholders, they have to turn a profit.

    他們必須向股東們負責、賺取利潤

  • So they take the data,

    所以他們使用資料

  • and they use it to measure progress.

    並且運用資料來衡量進度

  • They have this very continuous feedback loop.

    他們有一個持續性的回饋機制

  • They learn something, they put it back into the product,

    把從資料中學到的,再回饋到產品上

  • they put it back into the market.

    然後回饋到市場上

  • They have a whole team called "Knowledge and Insight."

    他們有一個健全的團隊叫做"知識與洞悉"

  • It's a lot like other consumer companies.

    它很像其他消費品公司一樣

  • So if you're running Namibia for Coca-Cola,

    所以如果你為可口可樂經營納米比亞市場

  • and you have a 107 constituencies,

    你的通路遍及全國107個選區

  • you know where every can versus bottle

    你知道哪裡是罐裝和瓶裝的

  • of Sprite, Fanta or Coke was sold,

    雪碧,芬達或可樂的銷售地點

  • whether it was a corner store,

    不管是街頭的小店

  • a supermarket or a pushcart.

    超級市場或是推車小販

  • So if sales start to drop,

    如果銷售額開始往下掉

  • then the person can identify the problem

    人員就會確認出問題

  • and address the issue.

    並且反映這個問題

  • Let's contrast that for a minute to development.

    我們把它和開發計畫間,作個一分鐘的比較

  • In development, the evaluation comes

    在開發計畫中,評估會是在

  • at the very end of the project.

    整個專案結束後才開始的

  • I've sat in a lot of those meetings,

    我常常參與這樣子的會議

  • and by then,

    等到要評估時

  • it is way too late to use the data.

    才要運用所蒐集的資料就太慢了

  • I had somebody from an NGO

    有一個來自非政府組織的人

  • once describe it to me as bowling in the dark.

    曾經向我描述這像是在黑暗中打保齡球

  • They said, "You roll the ball, you hear some pins go down.

    他們說, "你把球滾出去, 你聽到某些瓶子倒下的聲音

  • It's dark, you can't see which one goes down until the lights come on,

    在黑暗中,你無法看到哪些瓶子倒了,除非有了燈光

  • and then you an see your impact."

    你才可以看到你所帶來的影響

  • Real-time data

    即時性的資料

  • turns on the lights.

    可以把燈光打開

  • So what's the second thing that Coke's good at?

    那可口可樂第二件擅長的事情是什麼?

  • They're good at tapping into

    他們擅長於結合

  • that local entrepreneurial talent.

    當地的創業人才

  • Coke's been in Africa since 1928,

    可口可樂從1928年起就已經在非洲出現了

  • but most of the time they couldn't reach the distant markets,

    但在大部分的時間裡他們無法觸及遙遠的市場

  • because they had a system that was a lot like in the developed world,

    因為他們原本的系統,跟已開發國家中的很相像

  • which was a large truck rolling down the street.

    是透過大卡車來過街道來進行配送

  • And in Africa, the remote places,

    然而在非洲, 這個遙遠的地方

  • it's hard to find a good road.

    很難找到一條狀況良好的道路

  • But Coke noticed something --

    但是可口可樂注意到一件事情

  • they noticed that local people were taking the product, buying it in bulk

    他們注意到當地的人們,都是先大量採購

  • and then reselling it in these hard-to-reach places.

    然後再去這些難以到達的地方做轉售

  • And so they took a bit of time to learn about that.

    所以他們花了一點時間來研究這件事情

  • And they decided in 1990

    在1990年時他們決定

  • that they wanted to start training the local entrepreneurs,

    要開始針對當地的創業人才進行訓練

  • giving them small loans.

    給予他們小額貸款

  • They set them up as what they called micro-distribution centers,

    他們把這些人設定為所謂的小型通路中心

  • and those local entrepreneurs then hire sales people,

    而這些當地創業人才會再去雇用銷售人員

  • who go out with bicycles and pushcarts and wheelbarrows

    其再騎腳踏車及手推車外出

  • to sell the product.

    進行商品的銷售

  • There are now some 3,000 of these centers

    現在有3000多家這種銷售中心

  • employing about 15,000 people in Africa.

    在非洲雇用大約15,000人

  • In Tanzania and Uganda,

    在坦尚尼亞及烏干達

  • they represent 90 percent

    他們佔可口可樂

  • of Coke's sales.

    銷售額的90%

  • Let's look at the development side.

    我們再來看看發展計畫這邊

  • What is it that governments and NGOs

    政府單位和非政府組織

  • can learn from Coke?

    可以從可口可樂這裡學到什麼呢?

  • Governments and NGOs

    政府單位和非政府組織

  • need to tap into that local entrepreneurial talent as well,

    也必須結合當地的創業人才

  • because the locals know how to reach

    因為當地的人知道如何

  • the very hard-to-serve places, their neighbors,

    到達那些難以觸及的地方和他們的鄰居

  • and they know what motivates them to make change.

    他們也知道什麼東西可以激勵人們做出改變

  • I think a great example of this

    我認為以下是一個很好的例子

  • is Ethiopia's new health extension program.

    就是伊索比亞的擴大健康計畫

  • The government noticed in Ethiopia

    政府單位發現在伊索比亞

  • that many of the people were so far away from a health clinic,

    許多人距離診所非常遙遠

  • they were over a day's travel away from a health clinic.

    離診所超過一天旅程的距離

  • So if you're in an emergency situation -- or if you're a mom about to deliver a baby --

    所以如果你有緊急的狀況, 或者你是一位即將臨盆的媽媽

  • forget it, to get to the health care center.

    算了吧,根本別想要到健康中心去

  • They decided that wasn't good enough,

    他們覺得這樣不好

  • so they went to India and studied the Indian state of Kerala

    所以他們去印度, 去研究印度喀拉拉省

  • that also had a system like this,

    因為那邊也有一個類似的系統

  • and they adapted it for Ethiopia.

    然後他們針對伊索比亞而加以修改

  • And in 2003, the government of Ethiopia

    在2003年,伊索比亞政府

  • started this new system in their own country.

    在他們自己的國家裡開始實行這個新系統

  • They trained 35,000 health extension workers

    他們為此訓練了35,000位工作人員

  • to deliver care directly to the people.

    以便可以直接地照護人們

  • In just five years,

    在僅僅5年內

  • their ratio went from one worker for every 30,000 people

    他們就把1位工作人員對3萬人的比例

  • to one worker for every 2,500 people.

    降低到1位工作人員照顧2,500人

  • Now, think about

    現在,請思考

  • how this can change people's lives.

    這將會如何地改變人們的生活

  • Health extension workers can help with so many things,

    擴大健康的工作人員可以協助處理很多事情

  • whether it's family planning, prenatal care,

    不論是家庭計畫,產前照護

  • immunizations for the children,

    小孩子的免疫工作

  • or advising the woman to get to the facility on time

    或者是建議婦女按時去就診

  • for an on-time delivery.

    以求順利生產

  • That is having real impact

    在伊索比亞

  • in a country like Ethiopia,

    這產生很大的影響

  • and it's why you see their child mortality numbers

    這就是為什麼你看到孩童死亡率數字

  • coming down 25 percent

    從2000年到2008年之間

  • from 2000 to 2008.

    可以降低25%的原因

  • In Ethiopia, there are hundreds of thousands of children living

    在伊索比亞, 有數十萬的孩童

  • because of this health extension worker program.

    因為這個擴大健康工作者計畫而存活下來

  • So what's the next step for Ethiopia?

    那伊索比亞的下一步該怎麼走呢?

  • Well, they're already starting talk about this.

    他們已經開始在討論這個議題了

  • They're starting to talk about, "How do you have the health community workers

    他們談論著"該怎麼讓健康社群的工作者

  • generate their own ideas?

    可以有他們自己的意見

  • How do you incent them based on the impact that they're getting

    該怎麼以他們在偏遠村落裡

  • out in those remote villages?"

    所得到的影響為基礎來激勵他們?"

  • That's how you tap into local entrepreneurial talent

    那些就是如何結合當地創業人才

  • and you unlock people's potential.

    以及開啟他們的潛力的方式

  • The third component of Coke's success

    可口可樂第三個成功的元素

  • is marketing.

    就是行銷

  • Ultimately, Coke's success

    最終來說,可口可樂的成功

  • depends on one crucial fact

    取決於一個關鍵的因素

  • and that is that people want

    那就是人們

  • a Coca-Cola.

    想要可口可樂

  • Now the reason these micro-entrepreneurs

    而這些小型創業者

  • can sell or make a profit

    可以販售或賺取利潤的原因

  • is they have to sell every single bottle in their pushcart or their wheelbarrow.

    就是他們必須賣掉在他們手推車裡的每一瓶飲料

  • So, they rely on Coca-Cola

    所以,就行銷層面而言,

  • in terms of its marketing,

    他們依賴著可口可樂

  • and what's the secret to their marketing?

    而什麼是他們行銷的秘密呢?

  • Well, it's aspirational.

    它具有高度的渴望性

  • It is associated that product

    它將產品與人們所企盼的

  • with a kind of life that people want to live.

    生活方式做出結合

  • So even though it's a global company,

    所以即便它是一家全球性的公司

  • they take a very local approach.

    他們還是採取非常當地化的作法

  • Coke's global campaign slogan

    可口可樂全球活動的口號

  • is "Open Happiness."

    是"打開快樂"

  • But they localize it.

    但是他們把它在地化

  • And they don't just guess what makes people happy;

    而非僅去猜測什麼東西讓人們快樂

  • they go to places like Latin America

    他們去到像是拉丁美洲這樣的地方

  • and they realize that happiness there

    他們了解到那裡的快樂

  • is associated with family life.

    是和家庭生活結合在一起的

  • And in South Africa,

    而在南非

  • they associate happiness

    他們將快樂

  • with serenity or community respect.

    與和平和社會群體的尊重結合

  • Now, that played itself out in the World Cup campaign.

    現階段, 他們在世足賽裡玩得不亦樂乎

  • Let's listen to this song that Coke created for it,

    現在我們來聽聽可口可樂為世足賽創作的歌曲

  • "Wavin' Flag" by a Somali hip hop artist.

    來自索馬利的嘻哈歌手所唱的 "揮動旗幟"

  • (Video) K'Naan: ♫ Oh oh oh oh oh o-oh

    影片 K'Naan: ♫ 喔~ ♫

  • Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh

    ♫ 喔~ ♫

  • Oh oh oh oh oh o-oh

    ♫ 喔~ ♫

  • Oh oh oh oh oh oh oh oh o-oh

    ♫ 喔~ ♫

  • Give you freedom, give you fire

    ♫給你自由, 給你火花♫

  • Give you reason, take you higher

    ♫給你理由, 讓你更興奮♫

  • See the champions take the field now

    ♫看看冠軍們現在正在球場上♫

  • You define us, make us feel proud

    ♫是你讓我們明確, 讓我們感到驕傲♫

  • In the streets our heads are lifted

    ♫在街道上我們抬起頭來♫

  • As we lose our inhibition

    ♫就像我們丟掉壓抑一般♫

  • Celebration, it's around us

    ♫歡慶正環繞這我們♫

  • Every nation, all around us

    ♫每一個國家都環繞著我們♪

  • Melinda French Gates: It feels pretty good, right?

    Melinda French Gates: 感覺很棒, 對嗎?

  • Well, they didn't stop there --

    他們並未停止過

  • they localized it into 18 different languages.

    他們將它在地化,翻譯成18種不同的語言

  • And it went number one on the pop chart

    它在17個國家的流行樂榜上

  • in 17 countries.

    排名第一名

  • It reminds me of a song that I remember from my childhood,

    它讓我想起我自孩提時代起就記得的一首歌

  • "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing,"

    "我想要教這個世界唱歌"

  • that also went number one on the pop charts.

    那也是一首排行榜第一名的歌曲

  • Both songs have something in common:

    這兩首歌之間有一樣的地方

  • that same appeal

    就是對於慶祝和團結

  • of celebration and unity.

    有著相同的訴求

  • So how does health and development market?

    而健康和開發的市場狀況呢?

  • Well, it's based on avoidance,

    它是以避免為基礎

  • not aspirations.

    沒有渴望性

  • I'm sure you've heard some of these messages.

    我確信你一定聽過一些這樣的訊息

  • "Use a condom, don't get AIDS."

    "使用保險套,就不會的愛滋病"

  • "Wash you hands, you might not get diarrhea."

    "要洗手,不然有可能會腹瀉"

  • It doesn't sound anything like "Wavin' Flag" to me.

    對我而言,聽起來一點都不像"揮動旗幟"

  • And I think we make a fundamental mistake --

    而且我認為我們犯了一個本質上的錯誤

  • we make an assumption,

    我們作了一個假設

  • that we think that, if people need something,

    就是我們認為如果人們需要某種東西的話

  • we don't have to make them want that.

    那我們並不需要去讓他們想要那個東西

  • And I think that's a mistake.

    我認為這是一個錯誤

  • And there's some indications around the world that this is starting to change.

    不過世界上有一些跡象顯示這個情況正在改變

  • One example is sanitation.

    衛生設備就是一個例子

  • We know that a million and a half children

    我們知道每一年

  • die a year from diarrhea

    有150萬個孩童死於痢疾

  • and a lot of it is because of open defecation.

    而且很多是因為隨地大小便

  • But there's a solution: you build a toilet.

    但是有一個解決方式: 建造廁所

  • But what we're finding around the world, over and over again,

    但是我們在全世界一再地發現

  • is, if you build a toilet and you leave it there,

    如果你建造一個廁所然後把它放在那裡

  • it doesn't get used.

    沒有人會去使用它

  • People reuse it for a slab for their home.

    人們會把它重新使用當作自己家裡的木板

  • They sometimes store grain in it.

    有時候他們會在裡面儲藏穀物