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  • Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.

  • Cancer killed nearly 10 million people in 2018; it’s one of the planet’s most prolific

  • killers.

  • That’s because cancerous cells go rogue - they divide quickly, messing with our own

  • cells and the body’s normal processes - what’s more, each of these cells can essentially

  • live forever.

  • There is a way to exploit cancer cellsrogue behavior - we can treat cancer by just

  • decimating cells that divide rapidly.

  • But some healthy body cells also divide quickly, and these treatments can’t tell the difference,

  • which is what causes nasty side effects like hair loss and nausea.

  • If only we could figure out how to specifically target just cancer cells for destruction...which

  • is exactly what some researchers made possible back in 1975 - by accident.

  • These scientists weren’t actually trying to treat cancer at all; they were investigating

  • natural disease-fighting molecules called antibodies, each of which fits - like a key

  • in a lock - with a recognizable part of a given intruder, flagging it for destruction

  • by other immune cells.

  • For their work, the researchers wanted a steady supply of certain antibodies, but the cells

  • that make antibodies only live for a few days before dying.

  • In the body, they simply get replenished by their parent cells, but in the lab, theyre

  • on their own, so the supply of antibodies gets totally cut off.

  • The researchers essentially needed some way for these cells to live forever and reproduce

  • endlessly - which sounds, well, EXACTLY like rogue cancer cells.

  • Eventually, they found that by fusing immune cells with cancer cells in the lab, they could

  • create hybrid cells with the antibody-producing power of the immune cell, and the longevity

  • of the cancer cell.

  • This basic research was really useful...for a handful of researchers studying specific

  • questions about the immune system.

  • But after a few years, other researchers stumbled on the discovery and realized that these part-immune,

  • part-cancer cells could also help solve that pesky collateral damage problem in cancer

  • treatments.

  • For instance, in the lab we can mass-produce TONS of just the right antibody, tailor-made

  • to bind to specific, troublesome cancer cells and flag them - and only them - for destruction.

  • And we can even engineer antibodies that carry tiny doses of chemotherapy or radioactive

  • particles, delivering these weapons directly to the cancer cells theyre designed to

  • recognize.

  • Today, these manufactured antibodies serve as the basis of dozens of cancer-fighting

  • drugs.

  • And also, since we can pump out antibodies specific to all sorts of stuff, they can fight

  • everything from autoimmune diseases to organ transplant rejection.

  • The uses of the technology continue to grow, with no end in sight...kind of like those

  • rogue cancer cells it relies on.

  • Thanks to the Swiss National Science Foundation for sponsoring this video.

  • The SNSF funds basic research projects in Switzerland.

  • The SNSF believes that researchers get the best results when they have the freedom and

  • funding to follow their own curiosity and that this leads to innovative applications

  • for society.

  • Weve worked with the SNSF to tell a few other stories about discoveries based on basic

  • research.

  • To watch them, check the links to the SNSF channel below or just click on this video.

Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.


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B2 中高級 美國腔

单克隆抗体(Monoclonal Antibodies | How to Turn Cancer Against Itself)

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    joey joey 發佈於 2021 年 04 月 30 日